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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20312, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403691


Abstract Bjerkandera adusta, a globally distributed fungus, is commonly used in the nutritional practices of the East Asian population. In this study, we evaluated the nutritional composition of the lyophilized mycelium of B. adusta as well as the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its extracts. The mycelium exhibited moisture (7.97 %), ash (3.27 %), and fiber (5.31 %) content values similar to the established values reported in the available literature. In addition, a high protein (9.32 %) and carbohydrate (63.45 %) content was shown, with a low lipid (1.36 %) content. The energy value per 100 g sample of mycelium was 1445.85 kJ. The results obtained indicated a statistically significant variation (p < 0.05) in the phenolic composition (81.84-110.96 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g of extract), free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (IC50 29.05-340.46 µg·mL-1), phosphomolybdenum antioxidant content (34.89-55.64 %), reduction of ferricyanide ion (66.55-69.4 %), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values (44.66-133.03 %). These results are unprecedented for this species and emphasize its nutraceutical potential.

Functional Food/analysis , Fungi/metabolism , Antioxidants , Asian People , Food Analysis/instrumentation , Nutritive Value
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20149, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403746


Abstract The Brazilian native species Cestrum intermedium, known as mata-boi, induces hepatotoxicity and death when ingested by cattle. While most studies on this species focus on toxicological features, our study is the first to describe the anatomy and in vitro biological activities of Cestrum intermedium. We investigated adult leaves and stems by histochemistry, described their anatomy, performed physical-chemical analysis, determined in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and identified secondary metabolites. A few noteworthy anatomical features were the anomocytic stomata on the abaxial surface and the absence of trichomes, in addition to the circular shaped petiole with two projections on the adaxial surface. Histochemical analysis showed chemical markers such as alkaloids, usually reported as toxic, and terpenoids. Potassium nitrate (ATR-FTIR) and lupeol palmitate (NMR) were detected on the crude stem extract. Thermogravimetric and physical-chemical analysis provided fingerprint parameters for the species. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans were weakly inhibited by extract samples. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions presented high phenolic content, which resulted in in vitro antioxidant activity. These novel features expand the knowledge about this species, considering that previous studies mainly focused on its toxicity. Our study also provided characteristics that may help in avoiding misidentification between Cestrum members, especially when taxonomic keys cannot be employed, as in the absence of flowers and fruits.

In Vitro Techniques/methods , Solanaceae/anatomy & histology , Solanaceae/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Terpenes/adverse effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815


Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.

Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18158, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132035


Psychotria fractistipula L.B.Sm, R.M. Klein & Delprete (Rubiaceae) is found in the existing Atlantic Forest in the South of Brazil, in the Paraná and Santa Catarina States. The members of Rubiaceae are characterized chemically by the presence of alkaloids, some pharmacological properties of which include antifungal, antibacterial, analgesic, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiviral activities. In this study, we report the results of anatomical, morphological, and histochemical analyses of the leaves and stems of the Rubiaceae family member, P. fractistipula. The anatomical analysis involved of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Morpho-anatomical and histochemical characterization were made using standard methodology. The isolated compounds were identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic analysis. The following structures are highlighted as the distinctive features of the species: presence of petiolate leaves and a petiole base, leaf blade with smooth cuticle on both surfaces, paracytic stomata, and, dorsiventral mesophyll and presence of trichomes on the leaves and stems. Phytosteroids, identified as β-sitosterol and campesterol, were observed in the hexane fraction of the stem. Future studies should focus on the isolation of other fractions of interest and their characterization through specific biological and cytotoxicity assays.

Rubiaceae/classification , Psychotria/classification , Phytochemicals/adverse effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods , Research Report , Trichomes/anatomy & histology , Analgesics/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology