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1.
Indian J Cancer ; 2018 Oct; 56(4): 335-340
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-190271

ABSTRACT

Background: Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a common uterine mesenchymal malignancy. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) 2014 classification, ESSs are further subdivided into low-grade ESS (LGESS) and high-grade ESS (HGESS). HGESS is defined by the presence of YWHAE gene rearrangement and has a poorer prognosis compared to LGESS. METHODS: Twenty-four cases comprising of 16 endometrial stromal sarcoma and 8 lesions mimicking ESS were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology and subjected to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for YWHAE gene rearrangement. Immunohistochemistry for CD10, ER, PR, Cyclin D1, SMA, H-Caldesmon, Desmin, Ki-67, and Pan Cytokeratin was performed. RESULTS: Two cases with histological features similar to HGESS were positive for YWHAE gene rearrangement while 1 was indeterminate. No cases of LGESS and histological mimics of ESS were positive for this rearrangement. CONCLUSIONS: HGESSs are defined by the presence of YWHAE rearrangement. These tumors present at higher stage and have poorer prognosis. They may not respond to hormonal therapy and may be treated with chemotherapy. Cyclin D1 though not specific remains a sensitive tool to triage endometrial stromal sarcomas for this FISH study.

2.
Indian J Cancer ; 2018 Jan; 55(1): 50-54
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-190405

ABSTRACT

Background: Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Indian women. Majority of these are epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs), most of which present in advanced stage. Women with poor performance status and/or those unlikely to achieve optimal debulking at upfront surgery, benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval cytoreduction, with lesser surgical morbidity and equal survival rates as compared to primary cytoreduction. Methodology: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, treated with NACT followed by interval debulking surgery at Tata Memorial Hospital from January 2014 to December 2014. Results: Epithelial cancers constituted 84.4% (n = 406) of all cases of ovarian malignancies. Of these, overwhelming majority (84.3%, n = 342) were in the advanced stage. Sixty percent of all EOC patients received NACT. The mean baseline serum CA-125 level in women treated with NACT was 4294.7 U/ml (range, 11–151,200 U/ml). The median number of NACT cycles (paclitaxel + carboplatin) was 3. Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 81.5% cases. The rates of Grade 3 or 4 intraoperative and postoperative complications were 4% each. The median postoperative stay was 5 days and the median time between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy was 20 days. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 15.15 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.95–17.34), and the median overall survival (OS) was 34.73 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that optimal cytoreduction (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.04 [95% CI: 1.15–3.62]; P = 0.015) and number of NACT cycles (3 vs. >3; HR = 1.51 [95% CI: 1.06–2.16]; P = 0.022) were significantly associated with PFS, and optimal cytoreduction (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.53–6.73]; P = 0.002) and ECOG status (0–1 vs. ≥2; HR = 2.64 [95% CI: 1.25–5.55]; P = 0.011) with OS. Conclusions: High rates of optimal cytoreduction were achieved at interval cytoreductive surgery after NACT, with acceptable surgical morbidity, early start of adjuvant chemotherapy, and survival outcomes comparable to international standards.

3.
Indian J Cancer ; 2018 Jan; 55(1): 45-49
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-190394

ABSTRACT

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Indian women. This present retrospective study was conducted to report patient outcomes with locally advanced cervical cancer treated in the year 2010. Materials and Methods: Case records of cervical cancer patients registered from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010 were retrieved. A total of 1200 patients were registered, of which 583 received either definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Of these, 345 patients who received complete treatment at our hospital were included for outcome analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient- and treatment-related variables, and Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed for survival analysis. Results: The median age was 56 years (range: 33–90). Squamous carcinoma was the most common histology (91.4%) and the majority were FIGO Stage III (45.4%). Median follow-up of the cohort was 44 months (1–85 months). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) across stages was 50%. Most important predictor of DFS was FIGO staging (Stage II vs. Stage III: 62% vs. 45%) and use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) l (RT vs. CTRT: 32% vs. 57%, respectively). Patients aged >70 years had a significantly poor DFS at 5 years; however, did not have any effect on survival. Grade 3 or more late toxicity was seen in only 5% of the patients. Conclusion: Five-year DFS of 62% and 45% of Stage II and III patients treated under routine care represents comparable stage-matched results to the rest of the world, respectively.

4.
Indian J Cancer ; 2018 Jan; 55(1): 37-44
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-190383

ABSTRACT

ntroduction: Primary bone and soft tissue sarcomas are rare, but diagnostically and therapeutically challenging group of tumors, requiring multidisciplinary management. There are limited documented studies from multidisciplinary teams , in the form of comprehensive analysis of these tumors, from our country. This study is an analysis of cases of osteosarcomas, Ewing sarcomas (ESs), chondrosarcomas (CSs), and soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs), registered at our institution during 2012. Methods: Clinical details, including outcomes of cases of bone and STSs, during the year 2012, were retrieved from the medical records of our institution and were further analyzed. Results: Ninety-five high-grade, extremity-based, treatment-naïve cases of osteosarcomas were treated with a novel, dose-dense, nonhigh-dose methotrexate-based OGS-12 protocol. Good histopathologic response (necrosis ≥90%) was achieved in 59% nonmetastatic and 56% metastatic patients. At a median follow-up of 48 months, the estimated 5-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 67% and 78%, respectively. In the metastatic cohort at a median follow-up of 51 months, the 5-year estimated progression-free survival was 24% and OS was 26%. Among 87 (73.2%) nonmetastatic and 32 (26.8%) metastatic, analyzable cases of ES, at a median follow-up of 40 months, the disease-free survival (DFS) and OS in the nonmetastatic group were 62% and 83%; in the metastatic group, they were 37.5% and 65.6%, respectively. Among 40 cases of CSs (33 nonmetastatic and 7 metastatic), 21 had limb salvage surgery while 5 had amputation. Microscopically, 90.4% were Grade II CSs. Five-year OS and DFS were 84.6% and 71%, respectively. Among 189 high-grade, extremity-based STSs (89% nonmetastatic), synovial sarcoma was the most common subtype (31%). Eighty-five percent had limb preservation surgery; a majority were offered adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 51 (1–63) months, 3-year local control, DFS, and OS were 81%, 48%, and 64%, respectively. Conclusions: The novel OGS 12 and Ewing Family of Tumors 2001 protocols have shown comparable outcomes to international standards in cases of osteosarcoma and ES, respectively, and merit wider applications, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Outcomes in STS and CSs were also comparable and underscore the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for the management of sarcomas in LMICS.

5.
Indian J Cancer ; 2018 Jan; 55(1): 33-36
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-190372

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Salivary gland neoplasms are relatively uncommon. They have a wide variety of histopathological types with diverse biological behavior. It involves all the major and minor salivary glands in the head and neck. This article focuses on the various types of major salivary gland tumors treated at a tertiary cancer center along with their surgical morbidities and outcomes. Materials and Methods: Data of all the salivary gland neoplasms operated in the head and neck services between January 2012 and December 2013 were retrieved from a prospectively collected database. The clinical, demographic data and types of surgeries along with the morbidities were collated from the database and the details regarding the follow-up were collected from the electronic medical record. Results: Out of 235. cases registered, 107. patients were treated at our institute. The parotid gland was most commonly involved; majority were malignant lesions. Sixty-two patients were treatment naive at presentation. Majority presented with advanced disease. Superficial parotidectomy was the most common surgery performed and neck dissection was done in 27. patients. Facial nerve palsy was the most common complication following surgery. (16%). Sixty patients received adjuvant treatment. All patients on follow-up were alive at their last visit, with 10. patients having recurrence. Factors influencing the disease-free survival were extracapsular spread, tumor grade, and perineural invasion. Conclusion: The postoperative morbidities and outcomes for major salivary gland neoplasms in our series were acceptable and comparable to the results available in the literature. Appropriate treatment of the salivary gland neoplasm will yield good outcomes with acceptable morbidity.

7.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2016 July-Sept 59(3): 382-385
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-179590

ABSTRACT

Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma (PHE) is an uncommon, but distinctive soft tissue tumor, characterized by multifocality. A 17‑year‑old male referred to us with progressively increasing multiple subcutaneous nodular lesions over his left leg and foot, reported elsewhere as a spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. On review, microscopy showed a cellular tumor comprising plump spindle cells arranged in loose fascicles with interspersed inflammatory cells. Tumor cells exhibited mild nuclear variation. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells expressed AE1/AE3, CD31, Fli‑1, and smooth muscle actin (SMA), confirming diagnosis of PHE. Whole‑body positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET‑CT) scan revealed multiple, metabolically active, subcutaneous nodular lesions over the left lower leg and in the distal tibia. Subsequently, resection specimens from the various lesions and bone curettage also revealed features of PHE. Three months later, the patient developed multiple lesions over his fourth toe and left foot, for which he underwent tumor resections. At present, he is disease‑free. PHE is a locally aggressive soft tissue tumor characterized by multifocality, rarely bony involvement and can be misdiagnosed as a high‑grade sarcoma.

8.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2016 Apr-June 59(2): 148-152
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-179450

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is an unusual soft tissue tumor (STT), characterized by recurrences, but rarely metastasis. Later, certain molecular signatures have been identified underlying this tumor, which at times, is either underdiagnosed as a benign vascular tumor, or over diagnosed as a high‑grade pleomorphic sarcoma, including a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Materials and Methods: Over a 14‑year‑period, five diagnosed cases of AFH were analyzed. Results: Five tumors occurred in three males and two females, over a wide age‑range (median = 21, mean = 30 years); mostly in the extremities (4) (80%). Microscopically, most tumors were circumscribed, comprising large, blood‑filed spaces with surrounding histiocytic cells and a “cuff” of lymphoplasmacytic cells. Three tumors revealed solid growth pattern with polygonal to spindle cells, including myxoid matrix in one of these tumors. On molecular analysis, this tumor exhibited EWS‑CREB transcript. Immunohistochemically, various tumors were positive for CD68 (n = 2/2), epithelial membrane antigen (n = 3/4), CD99/MIC2 (n = 2/3), and desmin (n = 1/4). All tumors were surgically excised. On follow‑up (n = 2), a single patient, who underwent wide‑excision was free‑of‑disease (24 months), while another patient had a recurrence 4 months post tumor excision. Conclusions: This forms as the first documented series on clinicopathological features of AFH, a rare STT, from our country. Significant clinicopathological features include younger age, extremities as commonest site and histopathological appearance of blood‑filled spaces with surrounding “cuff” of histiocytic cells and lymphocytes. Tumors with unusual histopathological tumor patterns require molecular confirmation. Surgical resection remains the treatment mainstay.

9.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2015 Oct-Dec 58(4): 491-495
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-170506

ABSTRACT

Recently, certain endometrial carcinomas have been found to be associated with mismatch repair (MMR) protein defects/deficiency. A 39-year-old female presented with cough, decreased appetite and significant weight loss since 2 months. Earlier, she had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO) for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Imaging disclosed an 8 cm-sized adrenal mass that was surgically excised. Histopathology of the adrenal tumor, endocervical tumor, and endometrial biopsy revealed Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Grade II to III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, PAX8, MLH1 and PMS2 while negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A 34-year-old lady presented with vaginal bleeding since 9 months. She underwent TAH-BSO, reported as FIGO Grade III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were negative for ER, PR, MLH1, and PMS2 while positive for MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, she developed multiple nodal and pericardial metastases and succumbed to the disease within a year post-diagnosis. Certain high-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas occurring in younger women are MMR protein deficient and display an aggressive clinical course. Adrenal metastasis in endometrial carcinomas is rare.

10.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2015 Jul-Sept 58(3): 341-344
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-170459

ABSTRACT

Primary vulvar Ewing sarcoma (ES)/PNET is an uncommonly documented tumor, especially with molecular results. A 10-year-old girl presented with left vulvar swelling, a year ago. Her abdominopelvic ultrasound revealed a 12 cm × 8 cm sized, mixed echogenic blood-fi lled lesion in the left vulva; radiologically considered as a hematoma. Vulvectomy revealed a multinodular grey-brown tumor, microscopically comprising malignant round cells. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells diffusely expressed MIC2/ CD99 and Fli1 and subsequently displayed EWSR1 rearrangement, confi rming diagnosis of ES/PNET. Subsequently, PET-CT scan revealed residual local lesion with lung metastases. The patient was induced on EFT 2001 chemotherapy protocol. Three months after chemotherapy completion, there was no metabolically active disease on PET scan. Four months later, MRI disclosed recurrent primary and metastatic pulmonary lesions. She was planned for scar excision and adjuvant radiotherapy, but unfortunately defaulted further treatment. This forms the eighth case of primary vulvar ES/PNET confi rmed with molecular cytogenetic result, underscoring therapeutic value of objective diagnosis in such cases.

13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2014 Oct-Dec 57 (4): 606-608
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156136

ABSTRACT

Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) has a wide histopathological spectrum with CD10 as its diagnostic marker. Recently, few non-conventional ESSs have been identifi ed that lack diffuse CD10 expression. A 46-year-old, perimenopausal lady referred to us with history of vaginal bleeding. On clinical examination and radiological imaging, a polypoid endometrial tumor was identifi ed. Hysterectomy revealed a multinodular tumor in the myometrium. Microscopically, the tumor composed of rather banal oval to spindle-shaped cells in a fi bromyxoid stroma. Focal areas displayed compact cellular arrangement, unassociated with signifi cant mitoses and necrosis. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were focally positive for CD10, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p16INK4 and were diffusely positive for cyclinD1. Diagnosis of cyclinD1 and p16INK4 positive ESS was offered. This case highlights the value of additional IHC markers, especially cyclinD1 and p16INK4 in order to identify certain ESSs that lack diffuse CD10 immunoexpression; are invariably misdiagnosed as undifferentiated sarcomas, but actually form a relatively more aggressive subset of ESSs.

15.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2014 Apr-Jun 57 (2): 269-271
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156027

ABSTRACT

Primary musculoskeletal myoepithelial tumors (METs) are distinctly rare tumors and are being increasingly recognized as a result of improved diagnostic criteria and objective confirmation with immunohistochemical markers, including epithelial markers. Recent studies have unraveled distinct molecular mechanisms underlying these tumors. Herein, we present our second diagnosed case of an intraosseous MET that occurred in the tibia of a 37-year-old lady. The case is discussed with regards to current clinicopathological perspectives on these rather uncommon tumors, including our personal experience.

16.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2013 Oct-Dec 56 (4): 365-371
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-155917

ABSTRACT

Aims and Objectives: To study the clinico-pathological characteristics of primary ovarian malignant mixed mullerian tumor (OMMMT) and assess the prognostic factors associated with treatment outcome and survival. Materials and methods: The pathology database was searched for primary ovarian carcinosarcoma diagnosed and/or managed at our institute from period of January 2004 to July 2010. The histological sections were reviewed, with emphasis on type and grade of epithelial and sarcomatous components. The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for clinical details and follow up. Results: A total of 27 cases of primary ovarian carcinosarcoma were identifi ed. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years. Fourteen patients had advanced stage (stage III and IV) at presentation. Cytoreductive surgery was done in 18 cases, and 7 had received upfront chemotherapy. Histologically, 10 cases had epithelial predominance (> 50% epithelial component) and 11 had sarcoma predominance. The most frequent epithelial component was endometroid type, and most common sarcoma component was rhabdomyosarcomatous. Hyaline droplets within sarcomatous stroma were seen prominently in 15 cases. Three cases showed germ cell / yolk sac-like areas. Eighteen cases had follow up with a median of 15 months (4-40 months). The recurrence-free survival in advanced stage and sarcoma predominant was 10.5 months in comparison to 13 months in early stage and epithelial predominant OMMMT. Conclusion: Primary ovarian carcinosarcoma is a rare biphasic malignancy with variable proportions of epithelial and spindle elements. Presence of hyaline droplets within spindle sarcoma in a biopsy from ovarian mass should alert the pathologists regarding MMMT. Advanced stage, suboptimal cytoreduction, and sarcoma predominant tumors are likely to have a worse outcome in ovarian MMMT.

18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145360

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Logistic and financial constraints limit application of several available immunohistochemical (IHC) markers and molecular analysis in every case of synovial sarcoma, diagnosed in our settings. Recently, TLE1 has been recognized as a robust IHC marker for diagnosing a synovial sarcoma. Here, we present IHC features of synovial sarcomas, including TLE1 expression in these cases and in some other tumours. Methods: Conventional sections from 42 synovial sarcomas (30 retrospective & 12 prospectively diagnosed) were subjected to TLE1 IHC staining, including 21 tumours confirmed with molecular testing. TLE1 immunostaining was graded from 0, 1+, 2+, 3+, with 2+ or 3+ grades interpreted as positive staining. Results: Of the 42 tumours, 26 (61.9%) were of monophasic spindle cell type, 13 biphasic type (30.9%), two (4.7%) calcifying type and remaining one (2.3%) was a poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma. On immunohistochemistry (IHC), tumours were positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (26/34, 76.4%), cytokeratin (CK)7 (6/10, 60%), CK/MNF116 (6/21, 28.6%), B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) (36/37, 97.3%), cluster of differentiation molecule 99 (MIC2) (23/31, 74.1%) and transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) (40/42, 95.2%), while negative for CD34 in all 21 tumours, wherever performed. TLE1 was also positive in tumour controls, including schwannomas (5/5, 100%), neurofibromas (2/2, 100%), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (2/12, 17%) and Ewing sarcomas (4/10, 40%). TLE1 sensitivity for diagnosis of synovial sarcomas was 95.2 per cent. Its overall specificity was 63.7 per cent, whereas with regards to tumors forming its closest differential diagnoses, its specificity was 72 per cent. Interpretation & conclusions: Although molecular confirmation is the diagnostic gold standard for synovial sarcoma, TLE1, in view of its high sensitivity may be a useful marker within the optimal IHC panel comprising EMA, BCL2, MIC2, CD34 and CK7, especially on small biopsy samples, for substantiating a diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. Awareness of TLE1 expression in other tumours and its correct interpretation are necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Keratins/analysis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mucin-1/analysis , Neoplasms/immunology , Repressor Proteins/analysis , Repressor Proteins/chemistry , Repressor Proteins/immunology , Sarcoma, Synovial/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Synovial/immunology , Biomarkers, Tumor/immunology
20.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Jul-Sept 55(3): 326-332
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142261

ABSTRACT

Background: Adenosarcomas of the female genital tract have been rarely documented as case series from our continent. Materials and Methods: Over a seven-year period, 19 adenosarcomas were critically reviewed. Results: Nineteen tumors occurred in the age range of 21-65 years (mean: 43), in the endometrium (8), endometrium and cervix (4), cervix (4), and ovary (3). Four cases displayed coexisting leiomyomas; two, adenomyosis; two on background endometriosis; and one in post-treated cervix carcinoma. Histopathologically, the tumors were low grade (10; 52.6%) and high grade (9; 47.3%), the latter with sarcomatous overgrowth (SO) (7/9 cases). Dedifferentiation (8, 42.1%) and conspicuous decidualization (2) were noted. Immunohistochemically, the tumors focally expressed CD10 (4/6), smooth muscle actin (SMA) (3/8), desmin (8/11); diffuse vimentin (7/7), and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) (2/4). Ki-67 (6 cases) varied 5-20%. Seventeen patients underwent surgery and four received adjuvant treatment (3/4 high-grade tumors). Five tumors recurred (4 high-grade tumors with SO) and one metastasized. Among 11 patients, five were alive with disease (AWD) (mean: 29.4 months) and six, free of disease (FOD) (mean: 15 months), the latter mostly with low-grade type tumors (83.3% cases). Conclusions: Diverse clinicopathological spectrum was noted within adenosarcomas. Low-grade tumors were less aggressive than high-grade ones, with SO. Immunohistochemically, lower CD10 and ER/PR positivity was noted in high-grade tumors. Surgery formed the mainstay of treatment. Adjuvant treatment was offered in high-grade subtypes, including in tumors with SO.


Subject(s)
Adenosarcoma/pathology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Neoplasm/analysis , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/pathology , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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