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Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 123-128, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879733


Collagen α3 (IV) chains are one of the major constituent components of the basement membrane in the mammalian testis. Studies have shown that biologically active fragments, such as noncollagenase domain (NC1)-peptide, can be released from the C-terminal region of collagen α3 (IV) chains, possibly through the proteolytic action of metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). NC1-peptide was shown to promote blood-testis barrier (BTB) remodeling and fully developed spermatid (e.g., sperm) release from the seminiferous epithelium because this bioactive peptide was capable of perturbing the organization of both actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons at the Sertoli cell-cell and also Sertoli-spermatid interface, the ultrastructure known as the basal ectoplasmic specialization (ES) and apical ES, respectively. More importantly, recent studies have shown that this NC1-peptide-induced effects on cytoskeletal organization in the testis are mediated through an activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1/ribosomal protein S6/transforming retrovirus Akt1/2 protein (mTORC1/rpS6/Akt1/2) signaling cascade, involving an activation of cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42) GTPase, but not Ras homolog family member A GTPase (RhoA), and the participation of end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a microtubule plus (+) end tracking protein (+TIP), downstream. Herein, we critically evaluate these findings, providing a critical discussion by which the basement membrane modulates spermatogenesis through one of its locally generated regulatory peptides in the testis.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267159


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of curcumin on pain threshold and the expressions of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κ B) and CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the rats with sciatic nerve chronic constrictive injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and twenty male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 220-250 g, were randomly divided into 4 groups. Sham surgery (sham) group: the sciatic nerves of rats were only made apart but not ligated; chronic constrictive injury (CCI) group: the sciatic nerves of rats were only ligated without any drug treatment; curcumin treated injury (Cur) model group: the rats were administrated with curcumin 100 mg/(kg·d) by intraperitoneal injection for 14 days after CCI; solvent control (SC) group: the rats were administrated with the solvent at the same dose for 14 days after CCI. Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) of rats were respectively measured on pre-operative day 2 and postoperative day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14. The lumbar segment L4-5 of the spinal cord and the L4, L5 DRG was removed at post-operative day 3, 7 and 14. The change of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κ B) p65 expression was detected by Western blotting while the expression of CX3CR1 was determined by immunohistochemical staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the sham group, the TWL and MWT of rats in the CCI group were significantly decreased on each post-operative day (P<0.01), which reached a nadir on the 3rd day after CCI, and the expressions of NF-κ B p65 and CX3CR1 were markedly increased in spinal cord dorsal horn and DRG. In the Cur group, the TWL of rats were significantly increased than those in the CCI group on post-operative day 7, 10 and 14 (P<0.05) and MWT increased than those in the CCI group on post-operative day 10 and 14 (P<0.05). In addition, the administration of curcumin significantly decreased the positive expressions of NF-κ B p65 and CX3CR1 in spinal cord and DRG (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study suggests that curcumin could ameliorate the CCI-induced neuropathic pain, probably through inhibiting CX3CR1 expression by the activation of NF-κ B p65 in spinal cord and DRG.</p>

Animals , Blotting, Western , CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1 , Curcumin , Pharmacology , Ganglia, Spinal , Metabolism , Lumbar Vertebrae , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Pain Threshold , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Cytokine , Metabolism , Receptors, HIV , Metabolism , Sciatic Nerve , Wounds and Injuries , Metabolism , Spinal Cord , Metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336779


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To construct a directional differentiation model from mouse embryonic stem cells into leydig-like cells in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mouse ES-D3 cells were transfected with plasmid containing steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene, then treated with RA and 8Br-cAMP, while the cells transfected with empty plasmid were used as the negative controls. The morphology of leydig-like cells differentiated from ES-D3 cells was observed with light microscopy. The expression levels of StAR, P450scc and 3β-HSD were detected by RT-PCR, Western Blot and fluorescence microscopy analysis in leydig-like cells derived from the ES cells.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>ES-D3 cells were transfected with plasmid containing SF-1 gene successfully, and SF-1 was expressed 24 h after transfection. The SF-1-transfected ES-D3 cells were induced by RA and 8Br-cAMP to differentiate into leydig-like cells. The differentiated cells showed spindle shape with tentacles, which expressed the specific protein marker for leydig cells 3β-HSD1 and P450scc. Meanwhile, in these leydig-like cells, the expression of StAR increased compared with control group. 3β-HSD1, P450scc and StAR were not detected in negative control group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>When the ES-D3 cells are transfected with SF-1 plasmid and then treated with RA and 8Br-cAMP, the cells are able to differentiate into leydig-like cells, indicating that the model of directional differentiation of ES cells into leydig-like cells has been constructed successfully.</p>

Animals , Cell Differentiation , Genetics , Cell Line , Embryonic Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Leydig Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Steroidogenic Factor 1 , Genetics , Transfection
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 195-200, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297756


Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic dysfunction, which are collectively referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS may be attributed to the dysfunction of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during their differentiation after exposure to phthalates in utero. Fox example, Leydig cell functions are significantly affected by phthalates, leading to the decrease of two Leydig cell products--insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone, which are critical factors for testis descent. The disorientation of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells in the adult testis may be the cause of spermatogenic dysfunction.

Adult , Cryptorchidism , Epidemiology , Female , Fetus , Gonadal Dysgenesis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infertility, Male , Epidemiology , Leydig Cells , Male , Maternal Exposure , Phthalic Acids , Toxicity , Pregnancy , Syndrome , Testicular Diseases , Epidemiology , Testis , Cell Biology