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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2755-2760, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904779

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To establish the fingerprint of Papaveris Pericarpium, and to determine the contents of 5 components,such as morphine ,codeine,thebaine,papaverine and narcotine. METHODS :HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on a Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column with mobile phase consisted methanol -sodium heptanesulfonate with gradient elution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength were set at 238 nm(papaverine) and 216 nm(morphine,codeine,narcotine,thebaine). The column temperature was 20 ℃,and sample size was 10 µL. HPLC fingerprints of 15 batches of Papaveris Pericarpium were established by using the Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatographic Fingerprints (2012 edition),and the common peaks were determined in combination with the spectra of mixed control. The contents of morphine ,codeine,thebaine,papaverine and narcotine were determined simultaneously by the same method. The cluster analysis was conducted by using SPSS 19.0 software. RESULTS :There were 13 common peaks in 15 batches of Papaveris Pericarpium ,and the similarity was greater than 0.99. Five chromatographic peaks were identified ,which were morphine,codeine,thebaine,papaverine and narcotin. The results of cluster analysis showed that 15 batches of Papaveris Pericarpium could be clustered into two categories ,S1-S7 and S 8-S15,belonging to two cities. The linear ranges of five components were 10.21-102.10,10.43-104.30,1.54-30.70,2.36-47.28,2.32-57.90 μg/mL,respectively(all r>0.998). RSDs of precision,stability(24 h)and repeatability tests were all less than 2%. The average recoveries were 99.46%(RSD=1.08%,n= 6),97.84%(RSD=1.55%,n=6),91.10%(RSD=1.74%,n=6),96.43%(RSD=1.25%,n=6)、94.82%(RSD=1.20%,n=6), respectively. The contents of 5 components were 2.342 9-4.082 2,0.430 4-0.889 7,0.055 2-0.090 4,0.299 3-0.558 8,0.343 2- 0.656 2 mg/g. CONCLUSIONS :The established HPLC fingerprint and content determination method is simple ,feasible,sensitive and accurate. It combined with the cluster analysis could reflect characteristics and int ernal quality of chemical components in Papaveris Pericarpium . Papaveris Pericarpium in different cities possess regionalization characteristics ,but its quality isbasically stable.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 468-472, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To establish the method for content determination of 17 kinds of amino acids in Sargassum and its adulterants,and to carry out cluster analysis ,so as to provide reference for quality control of Sargassum. METHODS :Totally of 18 batches of sample (S1-S6 as certified product ,S7-S18 as adulterants )were collected. After acid hydrolysis ,amino acids contents were detected by using automatic amino acid analyzer. The separation was performed on LCAK 06/Na sulfonic acid cation exchange resin column with mobile phase consisted of buffer-regeneration system (gradient elution )at the flow rate of 0.45 mL/min (elution pump )and 0.25 mL/min(derivative pump ). The detection wavelengths were set at 440 nm(proline)and 570 nm(other amino acids ),and the sample size volume was 50 μL. PASW Statistics 18.0 software was used ,and cluster analysis was conducted by using group connection method of cluster analysis with “square Euclidean distance ”as the measurement standard. RESULTS :17 kinds of amino acids were well separated without interference from blank sample. The linear relationship between mass concentration and peak area was good (all r were over 0.998),and the upper and lower limits of the linear range were 48.06 μg/L (cystine)and 1.501 μg/L(glycine),respectively;RSDs of precision ,reproducibility and stability tests were lower than 2%. The average recoveries were between 90.60%-101.56%(RSDs were 0.88%-2.15%,n=6). 17 kinds of amino acids were detected in Sargassum and its adulterants ,among which the contents of glutamic acid ,aspartic acid ,leucine,alanine,glycine and valine were relatively high . Results of cluster analysis showed that 18 batches of sample were clustered into 4 categories,i.e. S 1-S6 into one category;S7-S9 into one category ;S10-S12,S16-S18 into one category ;S13-S15 into one category ;which was consistent with the identification result of Sargassum and its adulterants . CONCLUSIONS :The method is simple , rapid, accurate and reproducible,and can be used for the quantitative analysis and identification of amino acids in Sargassum and adulterants.

3.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1380-1385, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for simultaneous determination of 27 kinds of heavy metals and trace elements in Halloysitum album from different origins. METHODS: The sample was dissolved by wet digestion. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), carrier gas was argon and collision gas was helium; plasma gas flow rate was 15.0 L/min;   flow rate of carrier gas was 1.17 L/min and collision gas flow rate was 5.0 mL/min; atomizer was Barbinton, and sampling depth was 8.0 mm; atomizing chamber temperature was 2 ℃; radio frequency power was 1.3 kW; peristaltic pump revolutions was 30 r/min. In full quantitative analysis model, the number of test points was 3, the analysis time was 0.1 s, the repetition was 3 times, clustering analysis was conducted by using PASW Statistics 18.0 software. RESULTS: The linear range of 27 kinds of heavy metals and trace elements were 0-200 μg/L(r≥0.996 5); the quantitative limit was 0.003 41-75.485 μg/L and the detection limit was      0.001 1-24.350 0 μg/L. RSDs of precision, stability and repeatability tests were all less than 7%; average recovery was 72.3%- 129.1% (RSD was 0.9%-9.4%, n=6). The content of Al was 0.01-123 220.20 mg/kg, and Al was the element with the highest content. Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Ba and U were the principal components of trace elements and could be used as characteristic elements; 26 batches of Halloysitum Album samples could be grouped into 4 categories. CONCLUSIONS: The established method is simple, fast and highly sensitive, can improve the precision and accuracy of test results, and it is suitable for the determination of heavy metals and trace elements in Halloysitum album.

4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1535-1540, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for promoting large-scale, standardized and high-quality planting of Chinese medicinal materials. METHODS: Through the communication by phone with the agriculture bureau of each district and county, the contact with the relevant township government and the field visit investigation during Jun. 2013-Dec. 2018 by Lanzhou institute for food and drug control, variety, area, yield and output value, cultivation techniques and processing methods of Chinese medicinal materials in the planting area of Lanzhou were investigated and statistically analyzed. The advantages and problems were analyzed, and reasonable suggestions for planting Chinese medicinal materials were put forward. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: In 2018, artificial planting of Chinese medicinal materials in lanzhou has a certain scale, with 21 artificial planting varieties, a total planting area of about 510 000 mu, an annual output of 170 000 tons, an annual production value of over 1.7 billion yuan. Cultivation techniques mainly include seedling transplanting, mulching or direct seeding, while drying is the main processing method. Artificial planting of Chinese medicinal materials in Lanzhou has a certain scale and prominent characteristic varieties; authenticity is guaranteed, and the combination of Chinese medicinal materials planting and tourism drives economic development. However, there are still some problems, such as a certain distance from the development of industrialization, variety degradation, backward basic research, serious natural disasters. It is suggested to strengthen its propaganda and expand its advantages, at the same time, enhance government support, develop and construct planting bases of Chinese medicinal materials, strengthen the awareness of good agricultural practice (GAP), strengthen scientific research strengeh, explore breeding techniques of fine varieties of Chinese medicinal materials, develop insurance of Chinese medicinal materials, and guarantee the development of planting industry so as to promote large-scale, standardized and high-quality planting of Chinese medicinal materials.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753858

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacterial isolates in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 2017. Methods A total of 9 515 non-duplicate clinical isolates were collected from January 1 to December 31, 2017. Disc diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer method) and E-test method were employed to determine antimicrobial susceptibility. Results Gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci accounted for 68.2% and 31.8%, respectively among the 9 515 clinical isolates. Methicillin-resistant strains in S. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) accounted for 25.6% and 73.3%, respectively. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) -producing strains accounted for 47.6% (877/1 842), 27.6% (335/1 213) and 33.0% (59/179) in E. coli, Klebsiella spp (K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca) and P. mirabilis, respectively. Enterbacteriaceae strains were still highly susceptible to carbapenems, with an overall resistance rate of ≤ 3.8%. The resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to imipenem and meropenem were 8.5% and 8.2%, respectively. About 72.7% and 70.4% of A. baumannii isolateswere resistant to imipenem and meropenem. The resistance rate of P. aeruginosa to imipenem and meropenem was 14.8% and 10.0%, respectively. The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant strains in A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae was 31.7% (239/753), 1.0% (10/1 035), and 3.0% (33/1 117), respectively. Conclusions The common bacterialisolates show various level of resistance to antimicrobial agents. Laboratory staff should improve communication with clinicians to prevent the spread of resistant strains.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493485

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance proifle in the clinical bacterial strains isolated from Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2014.Methods A total of 8 295 nonduplicate clinical isolates were collected. Disc diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer method) and automated systems were employed to study the antimicrobial susceptibility. The data were analyzed by using WHONET 5.6 software according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints.Results Of the 8 295 isolates, 67.4% were gram-negative, and 32.6% were gram-positive. The top 10 most frequently isolated bacteria were:E. coli(18.1%),P. aeruginosa (10.8%),K. pneumoniae (10.2%),S. aureus (9.8%), A. baumannii(9.2%),E. faecalis (6.3%),E. faecium (4.1%), coagulase-negativeStaphylococcus (4.1%),E. cloacae (3.1%) andS. maltophilia (2.9%). Methicillin resistant strains inS. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase negativeStaphylococcus (MRCNS) accounted for average of 28.4% and 66.5%, respectively. The resistance rates of MR strains to β-lactams and other antimicrobial agents were much higher than those MS strains. Overall, 81.3% of MRSA strains were still susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 81.1% of MRCNS strains were susceptible to rifampin. No staphylococcal strains were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. The resistance rate ofE. faecalis strains to most of the drugs tested (except chloramphenicol) was much lower than those ofE. faecium. Several strains of bothE. faecium andE. faecalis were found resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin, which were Van-A and Van-B types based on their phenotype. No linezolid resistant enterococcal strains were found. Data showed that 90.8% ofβ-hemolyticStreptococcus strains were susceptible to penicillin. ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 54.2%, 31.0% and 28.9% inE. coli,Klebsiella spp (K. pneumoniae andK. oxytoca) andP. mirabilis, respectively.Enterobacteriaceae isolates were still highly susceptible to carbapenems. Overall, no more than 3.3% of these strains were resistant to carbapenems. A few extensively drug-resistant strains ofK. pneumoniae (1.3%, 11/842) were identiifed. The resistance rates ofP. aeruginosa to imipenem and meropenem were 17.5% and 11.8%, respectively.P. aeruginosa isolates showed the lowest resistance rate (5.9%) to amikacin. And 69.0% and 67.4% ofA. baumanniiisolates were resistant to imipenem and meropenem.A. baumannii isolates showed the lowest resistance rates to cefoperazone-sulbactam and minocycline (47.8% and 28.7%), respectively. The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant strains was 32.3% inA. baumannii and 1.8% inP. aeruginosa. The prevalence of β-lactamase inH. inlfuenzae was 33.7%. More than 93.0% ofS. pneumoniae strains were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin.Conelusions Bacterial resistance is still increasing in this hospital, especially carbapenem resistantEnterobacteriaceae. It is necessary to take effective hospital infection control measures and use antibiotics rationally.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-448097

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the profile of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates from the patients in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2012.Methods A total of 6 662 nonduplicate clinical isolates were collected.Disc diffusion test or Kirby-Bauer method and automated systems were employed to study the antimicrobial resistance.The data were analyzed by WHONET 5.6 software according to CLSI 2012 breakpoints.Results Of the 6 662 bacterial strains included in this analysis, gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 66.7% (4 446/6 662)and 33.3% (2 216/6 662),respectively. The top 10 most frequently isolated microorganisms were E.coli (17%),P .aeruginosa (11.4%),A.baumannii (11.4%), S.aureus (11.2%),K.pneumoniae (9.2%),E.faecalis (8.4%),E.faecium (4.1%),coagulase negative Staphylococcus (3.3%),E.cloacae (3.1%)and S.maltophilia (3.1%).About 39.9% of the S.aureus strains and 73.4% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus were methicillin-resistant.No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin,teicoplanin or linezolid.A few of vancomycin-or teicoplanin-resistant strains were identified in both E.faecium and E.faecalis.No lin-ezolid resistant strains were found.ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 53.0%,25.7% and 27.0% in E.coli,Klebsiella spp.(K.pneumoniae and K.oxytoca)and P .mirabilis, respectively.The Enterobacteriaceae strains were still highly susceptible to carbapenems. Overall, less than 2.6% of these strains were resistant to carbapenems.A few pan-re-sistant strains of K.pneumoniae (0.7%,4/615)were iden-tified.About 20.3% and 13.6% of the P .aeruginosa isolates were resistant to imipenem and meropenem,respectively.P . aeruginosa isolates showed the lowest resistance rate (7.2%)to amikacin.And 72.8% and 75.2% of A.baumannii strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem.A.baumannii isolates showed relatively low resistance rate to cefoperazone-sulbac-tam (51.2%)and minocycline (30.2%).The prevalence of pan-resistant strains was 43.5% in A.baumannii and 1.4% in P . aeruginosa.Conclusions Bacterial resistance is still increasing,especially pan-resistant A.baumannii strains.It is mandatory to take effective measures to control hospital infections and improve rational antibiotic use.

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