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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(5): 916-924, maio 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374365

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento vários estudos avaliam alterações ecocardiográficas como preditores de risco cardiovascular; entretanto, nenhum associa risco cardiovascular global com alterações ecocardiográficas em brasileiros. Objetivo Este estudo avalia a associação entre risco cardiovascular global (ASCVD) e achados ecocardiográficos como hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE), disfunção diastólica (DDVE) e aumento do volume do átrio esquerdo (AE). Métodos A população foi composta por participantes do ELSA-Brasil que realizaram ecocardiografia entre 2008 e 2010 (n = 2.973). Eram assintomáticos e não tinham história de doença cardiovascular (DCV). O escore ASCVD foi calculado em dois períodos: 2008-2010 e 2012-2014. Razões de prevalência (RP) foram estimadas com intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95%. Resultados Evidenciou-se associação entre alterações ecocardiográficas e alto risco cardiovascular global (escore ASCVD ≥ 7,5) nos dois períodos do estudo, separadamente. O risco global combinado (baixo risco no primeiro período e alto risco no segundo período) teve associação significativa apenas com DDVE (RP = 3,68; IC 95%: 2,63-5,15) e HVE (RP = 2,20; IC 95%: 1,62-3,00). Conclusão Alterações ecocardiográficas (DDVE, HVE e aumento do volume do AE) são preditores independentes de risco cardiovascular em adultos brasileiros sem DCV prévias.


Abstract Background Several studies have evaluated echocardiographic abnormalities as predictors of cardiovascular risk; however, none have associated the global cardiovascular risk with echocardiographic abnormalities in the Brazilian population. Objective This study evaluates the association between the global cardiovascular risk (ASCVD score) and three echocardiographic abnormalities: left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), and increased left atrium (LA) volume. Methods The study population was composed of participants from ELSA-Brasil who underwent echocardiography between 2008 and 2010 (n = 2973). They were asymptomatic and had no history of cardiovascular disease. The ASCVD score was calculated in two periods: 2008-2010 and 2012-2014. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results There is an association between echocardiographic abnormalities and high global cardiovascular risk (ASCVD score ≥ 7.5) in both study periods, separately. The combined global risk (low risk in the first period and high risk in the second period) was significantly associated only with LVDD (PR = 3.68, CI 95% 2.63-5.15) and LVH (PR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.62-3.00). Conclusion Echocardiographic abnormalities (LVDD, LVH, and increased LA volume) are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk in Brazilian adults.

2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 614-622, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364355

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Aparentemente, a pior resposta a algumas classes de anti-hipertensivos, especialmente inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina, pela população negra, explicaria, pelo menos parcialmente, o pior controle da hipertensão entre esses indivíduos. Entretanto, a maioria das evidências vêm de estudos norte-americanos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de investigar a associação entre raça/cor da pele autorrelatadas e controle de PA em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) utilizando várias classes de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia. Métodos O estudo envolveu uma análise transversal, realizada com participantes da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil. O controle de pressão arterial foi a variável de resposta, participantes com valores de PA ≥140/90 mmHg foram considerados descontrolados em relação aos níveis de pressão arterial. A raça/cor da pele foi autorrelatada (branco, pardo, negro). Todos os participantes tiveram que responder perguntas sobre uso contínuo de medicamentos. A associação entre o controle de PA e raça/cor da pele foi estimada por regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado nesse estudo foi de 5%. Resultados Do total de 1.795 usuários de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia na linha de base, 55,5% se declararam brancos, 27,9%, pardos e 16,7%, negros. Mesmo depois de padronizar em relação a variáveis de confusão, negros em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA), bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina (BRA), diuréticos tiazídicos (DIU tiazídicos) e betabloqueadores (BB) in monoterapia tinham controle de pressão arterial pior em comparação a brancos. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, nesta amostra de brasileiros adultos utilizando anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia, as diferenças de controle de pressão arterial entre os vários grupos raciais não são explicadas pela possível eficácia mais baixa dos IECA e BRA em indivíduos negros.


Abstract Background It seems that the worst response to some classes of antihypertensive drugs, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, on the part of the Black population, would at least partially explain the worse control of hypertension among these individuals. However, most of the evidence comes from American studies. Objectives This study aims to investigate the association between self-reported race/skin color and BP control in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), using different classes of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional analysis, carried out with participants from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil. Blood pressure control was the response variable, participants with BP values ≥140/90 mmHg were considered out of control in relation to blood pressure levels. Race/skin color was self-reported (White, Brown, Black). All participants were asked about the continuous use of medication. Association between BP control and race/skin color was estimated through logistic regression. The level of significance adopted in this study was of 5%. Results Of the total of 1,795 users of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy at baseline, 55.5% declared themselves White, 27.9% Brown, and 16.7% Black. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, Blacks using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), thiazide diuretics (thiazide DIU), and beta-blockers (BB) in monotherapy had worse blood pressure control compared to Whites. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this sample of Brazilian adults using antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy, the differences in blood pressure control between different racial groups are not explained by the possible lower effectiveness of ACEIs and ARBs in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , United States , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Race Factors
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 565-575, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364343

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com anemia falciforme (AF) têm risco aumentado de complicações cardiovasculares. O teste ergométrico é usado como marcador de prognóstico em uma série de doenças cardiovasculares. Entretanto, há uma escassez de evidências sobre exercícios em pacientes com AF, especialmente em relação à sua segurança, viabilidade e possível função prognóstica. Objetivos Usamos o teste em esteira máximo para determinar a segurança e a viabilidade do teste ergométrico em pacientes com AF. Além disso, os fatores associados à duração do exercício, bem como o impacto das alterações causadas pelo exercício em resultados clínicos, também foram avaliados. Métodos 113 pacientes com AF que passaram pelo teste ergométrico e por uma avaliação cardiovascular abrangente incluindo um ecocardiograma e os níveis do peptídeo natriurético do tipo B (BNP). O desfecho de longo prazo foi uma combinação de eventos incluindo morte, crises álgicas graves, síndrome torácica aguda ou internações hospitalares por outras complicações associadas â doença falciforme. A análise de regressão de Cox foi realizada para identificar as variáveis associadas ao resultado. Um p valor <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados A média de idade foi de 36 ± 12 anos (intervalo, 18-65 anos), e 62 pacientes eram do sexo feminino (52%). A presença de alterações isquêmicas ao esforço e resposta pressórica anormal ao exercício foram detectadas em 17% e 9 % da´população estudada respectivamente. Dois pacientes apresentaram crise álgica com necessidade de internação hospitalar no período de 48 horas da realização do exame. Fatores associados à duração do exercício foram idade, sexo, velocidade máxima de regurgitação tricúspide (RT), e relação E/e', após a padronização quanto aos marcadores da gravidade da doença. Durante o período médio de acompanhamento de 10,1 meses (variando de 1,2 a 26), 27 pacientes (23%) apresentaram desfechos clínicos adversos. Preditores independentes de eventos adversos foram a concentração de hemoglobina, velocidade do fluxo transmitral tardio (onda A), e a resposta da PA ao exercício. Conclusões A realização de testes ergométricos em pacientes com AF, clinicamente estáveis, é viável. A duração do exercício estava associada à função diastólica e a pressão arterial pulmonar. A resposta anormal da PA foi um preditor independente de eventos adversos.


Abstract Background Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Exercise testing is used as a prognostic marker in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is a lack of evidence on exercise in SCD patients, particularly regarding its safety, feasibility, and possible prognostic role. Objectives We used the maximal treadmill test to determine safety and feasibility of the exercise testing in SCD patients. Additionally, the factors associated with exercise duration, as well as the impact of exercise-induced changes on clinical outcome, were also assessed. Methods One-hundred thirteen patients with SCD, who underwent exercise testing, were prospectively enrolled. A comprehensive cardiovascular evaluation, including echocardiography and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, were obtained. The long-term outcome was a composite endpoint of death, severe acute painful episodes, acute chest syndrome, or hospitalization for other SCD-related complications. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with the outcome. A p-value<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The mean age was 36 ± 12 years (range, 18-65 years), and 62 patients were women (52%). Ischemic electrocardiogram and abnormal blood pressure (BP) response to exercise were detected in 17% and 9%, respectively. Two patients experienced pain crises within 48 hours that required hospitalization. Factors associated with exercise duration were age, sex, tricuspid regurgitation (TR) maximal velocity, and E/e' ratio, after adjustment for markers of disease severity. During the mean follow-up of 10.1 months (ranging from 1.2 to 26), the endpoint was reached in 27 patients (23%). Independent predictors of adverse events were hemoglobin concentration, late transmitral flow velocity (A wave), and BP response to exercise. Conclusions Exercise testing in SCD patients who were clinically stable is feasible. Exercise duration was associated with diastolic function and pulmonary artery pressure. Abnormal BP response was an independent predictor of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Exercise Test , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Prognosis , Echocardiography , Feasibility Studies , Middle Aged
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 202-213, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364977

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Short message service (SMS) to promote healthcare improves the control of cardiovascular risk factors, but there is a lack of evidence in low and middle-income countries, particularly after acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Objective This study aims to evaluate whether the use of SMS increases risk factor control after hospital discharge for ACS. Methods IMPACS is a 2-arm randomized trial with 180 patients hospitalized due to ACS at a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Eligible patients were randomized (1:1) to an SMS intervention (G1) or standard care (G2) upon hospital discharge. The primary endpoint was set to achieve 4 or 5 points in a risk factor control score, consisting of a cluster of 5 modifiable risk factors: LDL-C <70mg/dL, blood pressure (BP) <140/90mmHg, regular exercise (≥5 days/week, 30 minutes/session), nonsmoker status, and body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2] at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were components of the primary outcome plus rehospitalization, cardiovascular death, and death from any cause. Results are designated as significant if p<0.05. Results From randomized patients, 147 were included in the final analysis. Mean age was 58 (51-64) years, 74% males. The primary outcome was achieved by 12 (16.2%) patients in G1 and 15 (20.8%) in G2 (OR=0.73, 95%CI 0.32-1.70, p=0.47). Secondary outcomes were also similar: LDL-C<70 mg/dl (p=0.33), BP<140/90 mmHg (p=0.32), non-smoker (p=0.74), regular exercise (p=0.97), BMI (p=0.71), and rehospitalization (p=0.06). Death from any cause occurred in three participants (2%), including one cardiovascular death in each group. Conclusion SMS intervention did not significantly improve cardiovascular risk factor control when compared to standard care in patients discharged after ACS in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Acute Coronary Syndrome/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention/methods , Text Messaging/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/rehabilitation , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0252, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356782

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the burden of stroke mortality due to low levels of physical activity (PA) in Brazil from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: Data from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study for Brazil and Brazilian states were used. We used the number of deaths, age-standardized mortality rates, summary exposure value, and fraction of population risk attributable to low levels of PA. To standardize all estimates, data from the population aged 25 years or older were considered. RESULTS: The risk of exposure to low PA, SEV values, for the Brazilian male population was 11.8% (95%UI: 6.7; 19.9) and for the Brazilian female population was 13.2% (95%UI: 8.6; 19.2) in 2019. For males, it was estimated that there were, respectively, 2,025 (95%UI: 271; 4,839) and 3,595 (95%UI: 658; 7,302) deaths in 1990 and 2019 due to stroke attributable to low PA. For females, there were 2,518 (95%UI: 498; 5,006) and 4,735 (95%UI: 1,286; 8,495) deaths in 1990 and 2019 due to stroke attributable to low PA, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, reductions of 44.0% for males (95%UI: −0.54; -0.05) and 52.0% for females (95%UI: −0.60; -0.30) in age-standardized mortality rates due to stroke attributed to low PA were observed. Approximately 6.1% (for males) and 7.3% (for females) of deaths in 2019 due to stroke could be avoided if the Brazilian population were physically active. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the promotion of PA in all Brazilian states for preventing early mortality due to stroke.

8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0263, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356784

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in the main cause of death in Brazil, we sought to analyze the burden of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) attributable to specific RFs in Brazil from 1990 to 2019, using the estimates from the GBD 2019 study. METHODS: To estimate RF exposure, the Summary Exposure Value (SEV) was used, whereas for disease burden attributed to RF, mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) due to CVD were used. For comparisons over time and between states, we compared age-standardized rates. The sociodemographic index (SDI) was used as a marker of socioeconomic conditions. RESULTS: In 2019, 83% of CVD mortality in Brazil was attributable to RF. For SEV, there was a reduction in smoking and environmental RF, but an increase in metabolic RF. High systolic blood pressure and dietary risks continue to be the main RF for CVD mortality and DALY. While there was a decline in age-standardized mortality rates attributable to the evaluated RF, there was also a stability or increase in crude mortality rates, with the exception of smoking. It is important to highlight the increase in the risk of death attributable to a high body mass index. Regarding the analysis per state, SEVs and mortality attributable to RF were higher in those states with lower SDIs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the reduction in CVD mortality and DALY rates attributable to RF, the stability or increase in crude rates attributable to metabolic RFs is worrisome, requiring investments and a renewal of health policies.

10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0261, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356791

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil ranks 5th in the number of deaths due to road injuries. This study aimed to analyze mortality and disabilities resulting from road injuries in Brazil, and to assess the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target of reducing deaths due to road injuries by 50% by 2030. METHODS: This descriptive and exploratory study used the estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2019: indicators of mortality, premature deaths, and disabilities according to sex, age group, and type of transport for 1990, 2015, and 2019. Time trends in mortality rates from 1990 to 2019 were assessed, and a projection for 2030 was calculated, applying a linear regression model. RESULTS: Deaths due to road injuries were 44,236 in 1990, and 44,529 in 2019, representing a 43% reduction in mortality rates. The highest rates were in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions of Brazil, in males and young adults. A 77% reduction was observed in mortality rates for pedestrians and an increase of 53% for motorcyclists and of 54% for cyclists during the period. In terms of motorcycle road injuries, the mortality rate for men increased from 7.3/100,000 (1990) to 11.7/100,000 inhabitants (2019). The rates of premature deaths and disabilities were also higher for men when compared to women. Amputations, fractures, spinal cord injuries, and head trauma were the main types of road injuries. The projections for 2030 show that Brazil might not reach the SDG target. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the decline in mortality rates, the 2030 Agenda's target might not be achieved.

11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0262, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356796

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Monitoring trends in risk factors (RFs) and the burden of diseases attributable to exposure to RFs is an important measure to identify public health advances and current inadequate efforts. Objective: Analyze the global burden of disease attributable to exposure RFs in Brazil, and its changes from 1990 to 2019, according to the sex and age group. METHODS: This study used data from the Global Burden of Disease study. The Summary Exposure Value, which represents weighted prevalence by risk, was used to estimate exposure to RFs. The mortality and DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) measurements were used to estimate the burden of diseases. For comparisons by year and between Brazilian states, age-standardized rates were used. RESULTS: Arterial hypertension was the factor responsible for most deaths in both sexes. For DALYs, the most important RF was the high body mass index (BMI) for women and alcohol consumption for men. Smoking had a substantial reduction in the attributable burden of deaths in the period. An important reduction was identified in the exposure to RFs related to socioeconomic development, such as unsafe water, lack of sanitation, and child malnutrition. Metabolic RFs, such as high BMI, hypertension, and alcohol consumption showed an increase in the attributable burden. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to an increase in metabolic RFs, which are the main RFs for mortality and DALYs. These results can help to consolidate and strengthen public policies that promote healthy lifestyles, thus reducing disease and death.

12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0275, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356797

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) have become the main cause of disease burden in Brazil. Our objective was to describe trends (1990 to 2019) in prevalence and attributable burden of five modifiable risk factors and related metabolic risk factors in Brazil and its states. METHODS: In Global Burden of Disease 2019 analyses, we described trends in prevalence of modifiable risk factors and their metabolic mediators as percentage change in Summary Exposure Value (SEV). We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to the risk factors. RESULTS: Age-adjusted exposures to alcohol [41.0%, Uncertainty Interval (UI): 24.2 - 63.4], red meat (61.2%, UI: 42.4-92.3), low physical activity (3.9%, UI: -5-17.5) and ambient particulate matter pollution (3.3%, UI: -48.9-128.0) have worsened. Those for smoking (-51.4%, UI: -54.7- - 47.8), diet low in fruits (-28.1%, UI: -39.1- -18.7) and vegetables (-19.6%, UI: -32.7 - -8.7), and household air pollution (-85.3%, UI: -92.9- -74.3) have improved. All mediating metabolic risk factors, except high blood pressure (0.7%, UI: -6.9-8.3), have worsened: BMI (110.2%, UI: 78.6-161.7), hyperglycemia (15.1%, UI: 9.3-21.2), kidney dysfunction (12.0%, UI: 8.4-17.2), and high LDL-c (11.8%, UI: 6.9-17.2). CONCLUSIONS: A variable pattern of progress and failure in controlling modifiable risk factors has been accompanied by major worsening in most metabolic risk factors. The mixed success in public health measures to control modifiable risk factors for NCDs, when gauged by the related trends in metabolic risk factors, alert to the need for stronger actions to control NCDs in the future.

13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0279, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356801

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Maternal death continues to be one of the most challenging public health problems that needs to be addressed in low and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to describe the problem of maternal death in Brazil, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD). METHODS This study used data from the GBD 2019 to show the numbers of deaths and the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) - number of deaths/100,000 live births - in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units (FU), for ages 10 to 54 years, from 1990 to 2019. The annual variation of the MMR was estimated in 1990, 2010, and 2019. The MMR were shown for specific causes as well as for five-year age groups. The estimates were presented with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). RESULTS The number of maternal deaths, as well as the MMR showed a 49% reduction from 1990 to 2019. This reduction occurred heterogeneously throughout the country, and the profile of the MMR for specific causes changed between 1990 and 2019: from hypertensive gestation diseases, to indirect maternal deaths, followed by hypertensive gestation diseases. In the extreme age groups, the MMR is higher, with mortality increasing exponentially in direct proportion with age. CONCLUSIONS Maternal deaths in Brazil have decreased substantially since 1990; however, the numbers still fall short of what was established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Indirect causes are the greatest problem in more than 60% of the FU, especially for hypertensive pregnancy diseases.

14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(2): e20210307, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375718

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether abnormal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) readings (hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia) can predict the onset of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) and/or clinical impairment (decline in BMI and/or FEV1) in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study involving CF patients without diabetes at baseline. The mean follow-up period was 3.1 years. The patients underwent 3-day CGM, performed oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and had FEV1 and BMI determined at baseline. OGTT, FEV1, and BMI were reassessed at the end of the follow-up period. Results: Thirty-nine CF patients (10-19 years of age) had valid CGM readings at baseline, and 34 completed the follow-up period (mean = 3.1 ± 0.5 years). None of the study variables predicted progression to CFRD or were associated with hypoglycemic events. CGM could detect glucose abnormalities not revealed by OGTT. Patients with glucose levels ≥ 140 mg/dL, as compared with those with lower levels, on CGM showed lower BMI values and z-scores at baseline-17.30 ± 3.91 kg/m2 vs. 19.42 ± 2.07 kg/m2; p = 0.043; and −1.55 ± 1.68 vs. −0.17 ± 0.88; p = 0.02, respectively-and at the end of follow-up-17.88 ± 3.63 kg/m2 vs. 19.95 ± 2.56 kg/m2; p = 0.039; and −1.65 ± 1.55 vs. −0.42 ± 1.08; p = 0.039. When comparing patients with and without CFRD, the former were found to have worse FEV1 (in % of predicted)-22.67 ± 5.03 vs. 59.58 ± 28.92; p = 0.041-and a greater decline in FEV1 (−36.00 ± 23.52 vs. −8.13 ± 17.18; p = 0.041) at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: CGM was able to identify glucose abnormalities not detected by OGTT that were related to early-stage decreases in BMI. CGM was ineffective in predicting the onset of diabetes in this CF population. Different diagnostic criteria for diabetes may be required for individuals with CF.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar se leituras de continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, monitoramento contínuo da glicose) anormais (hipoglicemia/hiperglicemia) podem prever o aparecimento de diabetes relacionado à fibrose cística (DRFC) e/ou comprometimento clínico (declínio do IMC e/ou do VEF1) em pacientes pediátricos com fibrose cística (FC). Métodos: Estudo de coorte longitudinal prospectivo envolvendo pacientes com FC sem diabetes no início do estudo. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 3,1 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a CGM de três dias, teste oral de tolerância à glicose (TOTG) e medida de VEF1 e IMC no início do estudo. TOTG, VEF1 e IMC foram reavaliados ao final do acompanhamento. Resultados: Trinta e nove pacientes com FC (10-19 anos de idade) apresentaram leituras de CGM válidas no início do estudo, e 34 completaram o acompanhamento (média = 3,1 ± 0,5 anos). Nenhuma das variáveis estudadas previu evolução para DRFC ou apresentou associação com eventos hipoglicêmicos. O CGM conseguiu detectar anormalidades glicêmicas não reveladas pelo TOTG. Pacientes com níveis de glicose ≥ 140 mg/dL no CGM, comparados àqueles com níveis menores, apresentaram valores de IMC e escores z de IMC menores no início do estudo - 17,30 ± 3,91 kg/m2 vs. 19,42 ± 2,07 kg/m2; p = 0,043; e −1,55 ± 1,68 vs. −0,17 ± 0,88; p = 0,02, respectivamente - e no final do acompanhamento - 17,88 ± 3,63 kg/m2 vs. 19,95 ± 2,56 kg/m2; p = 0,039; e −1,65 ± 1,55 vs. −0,42 ± 1,08; p = 0,039. Na comparação dos pacientes com e sem DRFC, os primeiros apresentaram pior VEF1 (em % do previsto) - 22,67 ± 5,03 vs. 59,58 ± 28,92; p = 0,041 - e maior declínio do VEF1 (−36,00 ± 23,52 vs. −8,13 ± 17,18; p = 0,041) no final do acompanhamento. Conclusões: O CGM foi capaz de identificar anormalidades glicêmicas não detectadas pelo TOTG que se relacionaram com reduções precoces do IMC. O CGM foi ineficaz na previsão do aparecimento de diabetes nesta população com FC. Diferentes critérios diagnósticos para diabetes podem ser necessários para indivíduos com FC.

15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 426-434, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339193

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação ou flutter atrial (FFA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum. Existem poucos dados sobre a epidemiologia da FFA na América do Sul. Objetivo: O presente estudo procurou descrever a epidemiologia clínica da FFA e o uso de anticoagulantes na avaliação da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 13.260 participantes do ELSA-Brasil. A FFA foi definida pelo eletrocardiograma ou por autorrelato. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar fatores associados à FFA. Este estudo também analisou se idade e sexo estavam associados ao uso de anticoagulantes para evitar acidente vascular cerebral. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: A idade mediana foi de 51 anos, e 7.213 (54,4%) participantes eram mulheres. A FFA foi detectada em 333 (2,5%) participantes. O aumento da idade (razão de chances [RC]:1,05; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,04-1,07), hipertensão (RC:1,44; IC95%:1,14-1,81) coronariopatia (RC: 5,11; IC95%:3,85-6,79), insuficiência cardíaca (RC:7,37; IC95%:5,00-10,87) e febre reumática (RC:3,38; IC95%:2,28-5,02) foram associadas à FFA. Dos 185 participantes com FFA e pontuação no CHA2DS2-VASc≥2, apenas 20 (10,8%) usavam anticoagulantes (50,0% entre aqueles com FFA no eletrocardiograma de linha de base). O uso de anticoagulantes nesse grupo foi associado a maior idade (1,8% vs 17,7% naqueles com idade ≤ 54 e ≥ 65 anos, respectivamente; p=0,013). Observou-se uma tendência ao menor uso de anticoagulantes em mulheres (7,1% vs. 16,4% em mulheres e homens, respectivamente; p=0,055). Conclusões: No recrutamento do ELSA-Brasil, 2,5% dos participantes tinham FFA. O baixo uso de anticoagulantes era comum, o que representa um desafio para os cuidados de saúde nesse cenário.


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Limited data can be found on AFF epidemiology in South America. Objective: The present study sought to describe the clinical epidemiology of AFF and the use of stroke prevention medication in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods: This study analyzed data from 13,260 ELSA-Brasil participants. AFF was defined according to ECG recording or by self-report. Logistic regression models were built to analyze factors associated with AFF. This study also analyzed if age and sex were associated with anticoagulant use for stroke prevention. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: Median age was 51 years and 7,213 (54.4%) participants were women. AFF was present in 333 (2.5%) participants. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.05; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.04-1.07), hypertension (OR:1.44; 95%CI: 1.14-1.81), coronary heart disease (OR: 5.11; 95%CI: 3.85-6.79), heart failure (OR:7.37; 95%CI: 5.00-10.87), and rheumatic fever (OR:3.38; 95%CI: 2.28-5.02) were associated with AFF. From 185 participants with AFF and a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, only 20 (10.8%) used anticoagulants (50.0% among those with AFF in the baseline ECG). Stroke prevention in this group was associated with a higher age (1.8% vs 17.7% in those aged ≤ 54 and ≥ 65 years, respectively; p=0.013). A trend towards a reduced anticoagulant use was observed in women (7.1% vs. 16.4% in women and men, respectively; p=0.055). Conclusions: At the ELSA-Brasil baseline, 2.5% of the participants had AFF. The lack of stroke prevention was common, which is an especially challenging point for healthcare in this setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography , Self Report , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 245-252, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250102

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Stroke management require rapid identification, assessment, and transport of patients to qualified health care centers. However, there is little description in the literature on the multiple challenges associated with the pre-hospital transport of suspected stroke patients. Objective To characterize the pre-hospital care provided to suspected stroke patients by the Brazilian Emergency Medical Service (SAMU in Portuguese), by means of a descriptive case study. Methods This is a descriptive study of a series of cases. Data from the SAMU regarding the responses to emergency calls from suspected stroke patients were collected. Independent reviewers confirmed the diagnostic hypothesis and all discordances were assessed using kappa statistics. Clinical data and transport times were described as frequency and proportion or central tendency and dispersion measures. Normality of continuous variable distribution was assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of medians, with a 5% significance level. Results During the studied period, 556 suspected stroke patients were treated. The kappa index was 0.82 (95% CI 0.737 to 0.919) CI. In 74.7% of the cases, the symptom onset time was not recorded. The median time elapsed between the call for emergency services and the ambulance arrival was 18 minutes, and the median transport time was 38 minutes. A total of 34% of the patients were taken to referral hospitals for stroke. Conclusion This study revealed a low level of knowledge regarding the need to determine the exact time of symptom onset of suspected stroke patients. Also, the study showed the low rate of patients taken to referral hospitals. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1221-1231, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285914

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo visa comparar a proporção de indivíduos classificados como portadores de alto risco cardiovascular (RCV) na população adulta brasileira, segundo seis diferentes calculadoras de risco, visando analisar a concordância entre as medidas. Estudo transversal, no qual foram utilizados dados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). As prevalências do RCV em 10 anos para a população entre 45 e 64 anos foram: Escore de risco global (ERG) da Sociedade Geral de Cardiologia (SBC):38,1%, "American College of Cardiology" e "American Heart Association" ACC/AHA, 44,1%, "Framingham Heart Study"/ERG 19,4%, SCORE da "European Society of Cardiology", 14,6, Organização Mundial da Saúde/Sociedade Internacional de hipertensão (OMS/ISH) e Lim et al. As calculadoras de RCV apresentaram baixa concordância para identificar os indivíduos de alto risco e alta concordância dos de risco baixo/moderado, exceto pela ACC/AHA. O emprego de diferentes calculadoras resultou em diferentes populações elegíveis para iniciar a terapia farmacológica para prevenção cardiovascular, o que pode implicar em percepções de risco inadequadas, baixo custo efetividade desse tratamento e dificuldade de implementação de políticas públicas.


Abstract This study compares the proportion of the Brazilian adult population classified as being at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on six different CVD risk calculators in order to assess the agreement across different tools. A cross-sectional study was conducted using laboratory data from the National Health Survey (NHS). The prevalence rates of high 10-year risk of CVD among individuals aged between 45 and 64 years were as follows: Brazilian Society of Cardiology (BSC) global risk score (GRS) - 38.1%; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) score - 44.1%; Framingham Heart Study/GRS - 19.4%; European Society of Cardiology SCORE - 14.6%; World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) score - 3.1%; and Lim et al. - 2.5%. The CVD calculators showed poor agreement for the identification of high-risk individuals and a high level of agreement for the identification of low/moderate risk individuals, except for the ACC/AHA risk score. The findings show that the proportion of individuals classified as eligible for preventive drug therapy varies from tool to tool, which could lead to the misinterpretation of risk, poor cost-effectiveness of therapy and difficulty implementing public policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , United States , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 423-431, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248879

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morbimortalidade, altos custos com saúde e perdas econômicas importantes. O escore de Framingham tem sido amplamente utilizado para estratificar o risco dos indivíduos avaliados, identificando aqueles com risco maior para que sejam implementadas medidas de prevenção direcionadas para esse grupo. Objetivos: Estimar o risco cardiovascular em 10 anos da população brasileira adulta. Métodos: Estudo transversal, utilizando dados laboratoriais de uma subamostra da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Para calcular o risco cardiovascular, utilizou-se o escore de Framingham, estratificado por sexo. Resultados: A maioria das mulheres (58,4%) apresentou baixo risco cardiovascular, 32,9%, risco médio e 8,7%, risco elevado. Entre homens, 36,5% apresentaram risco cardiovascular baixo, 41,9%, risco médio e 21,6%, risco elevado. O risco aumentou com a idade e foi elevado na população com baixa escolaridade. A proporção dos componentes do modelo de Framingham, por grupos de risco e sexo, mostra que, no risco elevado entre mulheres, os indicadores que mais contribuíram para o risco cardiovascular foram: a pressão arterial sistólica, colesterol total, HDL, diabetes e tabagismo. Entre homens, pressão arterial sistólica, colesterol total, HDL, tabagismo e diabetes. Conclusões: Trata-se do primeiro estudo nacional com dados laboratoriais a estimar o risco de doença cardiovascular em dez anos. Os escores de risco são úteis para subsidiar as práticas de prevenção dessas doenças, considerando o contexto clínico e epidemiológico.


Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in high health costs and significant economic losses. The Framingham score has been widely used to stratify the cardiovascular risk of the individuals, identifying those at higher risk for the implementation of prevention measures directed to this group. Objective: To estimate cardiovascular risk at 10 years in the adult Brazilian population. Methods: Cross-sectional study using laboratory data from a subsample of the National Health Survey. To calculate cardiovascular risk, the Framingham score stratified by sex was used. Results: Most women (58.4%) had low cardiovascular risk, 32.9% had medium risk and 8.7% had high risk. Among men, 36.5% had low cardiovascular risk, 41.9% had medium risk and 21.6% had high risk. The risk increased with age and was high in the low-educated population. The proportion of the components of the Framingham model, by risk and sex, shows that, among women at high risk, the indicators that mostly contributed to cardiovascular risk were: systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, diabetes and tobacco. Among men, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, tobacco and diabetes. Conclusion: The study estimates, for the first time in Brazil, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in ten years. The risk score is useful to support the prevention practices of these diseases, considering the clinical and epidemiological context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Heart Disease Risk Factors
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 248-256, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153000

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento As características histopatológicas da doença de Chagas (DCC) são: presença de miocardite, destruição das fibras cardíacas e fibrose miocárdica. A Galectina-3 (Gal-3) é um biomarcador envolvido no mecanismo de fibrose e inflamação que pode ser útil para a estratificação de indivíduos com DCC por risco. Objetivos Nosso objetivo foi avaliar se níveis elevados de Gal-3 estão associados a formas graves de cardiomiopatia chagásica (CC) e são preditivos de mortalidade. Métodos Estudamos doadores de sangue (DS) positivos para anti-T. cruzi: não-CC-DS (187 DS sem CC com eletrocardiograma [ECG] e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo [FEVE] normais); CC-Não-Dis-DS (46 DS com CC e apresentando ECG anormal, mas FEVE normal); e 153 controles negativos correspondentes. Esta amostra foi composta por 97 pacientes com CC grave (CC-Dis). Usamos as correlações de Kruskall-Wallis e Spearman para testar a hipótese de associações, assumindo um p bicaudal <0,05 como significativo. Resultados O nível de Gal-3 foi de 12,3 ng/mL para não-CC-DS, 12,0 ng/mL para CC-Não-Dis-DS, 13,8 ng/mL para controles e 15,4 ng/mL para CC-Dis. FEVE <50 foi associada a níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (p=0,0001). Em nosso modelo de regressão linear ajustado, encontramos associação entre os níveis de Gal-3 e os parâmetros do ecocardiograma em indivíduos positivos para T. cruzi. Nos pacientes CC-Dis, encontramos uma associação significativa de níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (≥15,3 ng/mL) e morte ou transplante cardíaco em acompanhamento de cinco anos (Hazard ratio - HR 3,11; IC95% 1,21- 8,04; p=0,019). Conclusões Em pacientes com CC, níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 estiveram significativamente associados a formas graves da doença e maior taxa de mortalidade em longo prazo, o que significa que pode ser um meio efetivo para identificar pacientes de alto risco. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Abstract Background The histopathological characteristics of Chagas disease (ChD) are: presence of myocarditis, destruction of heart fibers, and myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker involved in the mechanism of fibrosis and inflammation that may be useful for risk stratification of individuals with ChD. Objectives We sought to evaluate whether high Gal-3 levels are associated with severe forms of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) and whether they are predictive of mortality. Methods We studied anti-T. cruzi positive blood donors (BD): Non-CC-BD (187 BD without CC with normal electrocardiogram [ECG] and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]); CC-Non-Dys-BD (46 BD with CC with abnormal ECG but normal LVEF); and 153 matched serum-negative controls. This cohort was composed of 97 patients with severe CC (CC-Dys). We used Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman's correlation to test hypothesis of associations, assuming a two-tailed p<0.05 as significant. Results The Gal-3 level was 12.3 ng/mL for Non-CC-BD, 12.0 ng/mL for CC-Non-Dys-BD, 13.8 ng/mL for controls, and 15.4 ng/mL for CC-Dys. LVEF<50 was associated with higher Gal-3 levels (p=0.0001). In our linear regression adjusted model, we found association between Gal-3 levels and echocardiogram parameters in T. cruzi-seropositive subjects. In CC-Dys patients, we found a significant association of higher Gal-3 levels (≥15.3 ng/mL) and subsequent death or heart transplantation in a 5-year follow-up (Hazard ratio - HR 3.11; 95%CI 1.21-8.04; p=0.019). Conclusions In ChD patients, higher Gal-3 levels were significantly associated with severe forms of the disease and more long-term mortality, which means it may be a useful means to identify high-risk patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Chagas Disease , Stroke Volume , Biomarkers , Ventricular Function, Left , Galectin 3
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0174, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288075

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the impact of the new coronavirus disease 2019 on coronary hospitalizations in the Brazilian private health system. METHODS: Data on coronary admissions in 2020 and a 2-year historical series were collected from the UNIMED-BH insurance system. RESULTS: Admission rates in 2020 reduced by 26% (95%CI, 22-30) in comparison with 2018/2019, markedly from March to May (37%) compared to the peak of the pandemic (June-September, 19%). Mortality was higher in 2020 (5.4%, 95%CI 4.5-6.4) than in 2018/2019 (3.6%, 95%CI 3.2-4.1). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in coronary admissions, with higher mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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