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2.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 341-347, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340575

ABSTRACT

Abstract The diseases that affect the thalamus are heterogeneous in their etiologies, including infectious, inflammatory, vascular, toxic-metabolic, and neoplastic causes. It is often difficult to make the clinical differentiation between different entities. Within this context, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have come to be of fundamental importance for defining the etiology and planning the treatment. In this pictorial essay, we will illustrate the main causes of diseases affecting the thalamus, discussing the possible differential diagnoses, as well as the most relevant imaging aspects.


Resumo As doenças que envolvem os tálamos incluem um grupo heterogêneo, englobando causas infecciosas, inflamatórias, vasculares, tóxico-metabólicas e neoplásicas. Muitas vezes a diferenciação clínica entre as diversas entidades é difícil, e dentro desse contexto, a tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética assumiram fundamental importância na busca da definição etiológica e para guiar a conduta terapêutica. Neste ensaio iconográfico ilustraremos as principais causas de acometimento talâmico, discutindo seus possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais, bem como seus aspectos de imagem mais relevantes.

4.
Radiol. bras ; 54(1): 49-55, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155224

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intracranial cystic lesions are common findings on neuroimaging examinations, arachnoid cysts being the most common type of such lesions. However, various lesions of congenital, infectious, or vascular origin can present with cysts. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the main causes of non-neoplastic intracranial cystic lesions, discussing their possible differential diagnoses as well as their most relevant imaging aspects.


Resumo Lesões císticas intracranianas são achados comuns nos exames de neuroimagem, sendo os cistos aracnoides os mais comuns. Porém, muitas outras lesões, de origem congênita, infecciosa e vascular, podem se apresentar com cistos. Neste ensaio ilustramos as principais causas de lesões císticas intracranianas não neoplásicas, discutindo seus possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais, bem como seus aspectos de imagem mais relevantes.

8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190557, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143865

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Congenital infection by the Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for severe abnormalities in the development of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the ability of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) to detect patterns of involvement of the central nervous system in congenital ZIKV syndrome. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT and MR images from 34 patients with congenital ZIKV syndrome and evaluated the differences between the two methods in detecting alterations. RESULTS: The predominant radiographic finding was a simplified gyral pattern, present in 97% of cases. The second most common finding was the presence of calcifications (94.1%), followed by ventriculomegaly (85.3%), dysgenesis of the corpus callosum (85.3%), craniofacial disproportion and redundant scalp (79.4%), complete opercular opening (79.4%), occipital prominence (44.1%), cerebellar hypoplasia (14.7%), and pontine hypoplasia (11.8%). The gyral pattern was extensively simplified in most cases, and calcifications were located predominantly at the cortical-subcortical junction. CT was able to better identify calcifications (94.1% × 88.2%), while MRI presented better spatial resolution for the characterization of gyral pattern (97% × 94.1%) and corpus callosum dysgenesis (85.3% × 79.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital ZIKV syndrome does not present pathognomonic neuroimaging findings, some aspects, such as calcifications at the cortical-subcortical junction, especially when associated with compatible clinical and laboratory findings, are suggestive of intrauterine ZIKV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/diagnostic imaging , Microcephaly/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Neuroimaging
11.
Radiol. bras ; 52(2): 117-122, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002996

ABSTRACT

Abstract The introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in the 1980s brought about a drastic change in the treatment of patients with rhinosinusitis, improving quality of life through the removal of pathological processes or anatomical variations that obstruct the drainage pathways of the paranasal sinuses. However, despite the routine use of computed tomography in the anatomical evaluation of the paranasal sinuses, most radiological reports still do not provide sufficient information to guide the surgical planning. The objective of this pictorial essay was to demonstrate, through computed tomography, the main anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses, the recognition of which is fundamental for preoperative planning, in order to avoid treatment failure and iatrogenic complications.


Resumo A introdução da cirurgia endoscópica sinusal funcional na década de 80 proporcionou uma mudança drástica no tratamento de pacientes com rinossinusite, melhorando a qualidade de vida mediante a retirada de processos patológicos ou variações anatômicas que provocam obstrução nas vias de drenagem dos seios paranasais. Porém, apesar do uso rotineiro da tomografia computadorizada na avaliação anatômica dos seios paranasais, a maioria dos laudos radiológicos ainda carece de informações que orientem o planejamento cirúrgico. O objetivo deste ensaio iconográfico é demonstrar, por meio de tomografia computadorizada, as principais variações anatômicas dos seios paranasais, cujo reconhecimento é fundamental para o planejamento pré-operatório, a fim de evitar falhas terapêuticas e iatrogenias.

15.
Radiol. bras ; 52(1): 54-59, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-984946

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hearing disorders are usually unilateral and are more common in women. They can be congenital or acquired, and hearing loss is categorized as sensorineural, conductive, or mixed. The onset of hearing loss can be progressive or sudden, and it is a common reason for seeking medical attention. In this context, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have assumed critical roles in the search for an etiological diagnosis and in guiding the therapeutic approach. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the common causes of hearing loss, discussing the possible differential diagnoses and highlighting the most relevant imaging findings.


Resumo Distúrbios da audição são comumente unilaterais e mais comuns em mulheres, podendo ser de origem congênita ou adquirida, consequentes a distúrbios neurossensoriais, condutivos ou mistos, com evolução progressiva ou súbita, sendo uma motivação frequente de idas ao consultório médico. Dentro desse contexto, a tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética assumiram fundamental importância na busca da definição etiológica e para guiar a conduta terapêutica. Neste ensaio iconográfico ilustraremos causas frequentes de déficit auditivo, demonstrando possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais e ressaltando os aspectos de imagem mais relevantes.

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