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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(3): 164-177, sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353177

ABSTRACT

Diversos estudios epidemiológicos y de intervención apuntan a una asociación fuerte y consistente entre la ingesta excesiva de azúcares y el riesgo de desarrollar caries dentales y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. El objetivo fue describir los 10 principales alimentos que contribuyen a la ingesta de azúcares añadidos en muestras representativas de poblaciones urbanas de ocho países latinoamericanos, y considerar diferencias por país, sexo, nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y grupo de edad. Se realizó una encuesta transversal multinacional en hogares de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela (N=9218; 15­65 años). La contribución porcentual a la ingesta total del nutriente sirvió para identificar los alimentos aportadores. Los datos se estratificaron por país, sexo, NSE y grupo de edad y se compararon los gramos por día. Excepto en Perú y en el grupo de 50 a 65 años, los refrescos figuraron como el principal contribuyente a la ingesta de azúcares añadidos. Las bebidas caseras y las industrializadas también destacaron. Argentina fue el país con mayor ingesta de azúcares añadidos aportados por bebidas industrializadas, y Chile el país con menor frecuencia de bebidas como fuentes. Entre los 10 contribuyentes, la ingesta de azúcares añadidos fue mayor en el sexo masculino, excepto para sacarosa y pasteles dulces. Mayores ingestas de azúcares provenientes del jugo de fruta natural y sacarosa fueron observadas en el NSE más bajo. Las mayores y menores ingestas en los grupos de edad cambian de acuerdo con la fuente alimentaria. En conclusión, las bebidas azucaradas fueron los principales contribuyentes a la ingesta de azúcares añadidos, y la ingesta varió según la ubicación geográfica y los factores sociodemográficos(AU)


This study aimed to describe the top 10 foods that contribute to added sugars intake in representative samples of urban populations in eight Latin American countries, and consider differences by country, sex, socioeconomic level (SEL), and age group. A household-based, multinational, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela (N=9218; 15­65 years). Contributors to added sugars were identified and listed based on the percentage of contribution to total intake of this nutrient. Data were stratified by country, sex, SEL, and age group, and the grams per day compared. Except in Peru and in the 50 to 65 years age group, soft drinks were the leading contributor to added sugar intake. Homemade beverages together industrialized beverages have been a prominent position on ranking. In general, the highest intake of added sugars by industrialized beverages was from Argentina, and the lowest frequency of beverages as sources of added sugars was observed in Chile. Among the top 10 contributors, male sex had highest added sugar intake, except for sucrose and sweet cakes. Higher intakes of sugars from natural fruit juice and sucrose were observed in the lower SEL. The highest and lowest intakes in the age groups change according to the food source. In conclusion, sugar-sweetened beverages were main contributors to added sugar intake, and the intake vary with geographical location and sociodemographic factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chronic Disease , Dental Caries/etiology , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Obesity/etiology , Exercise , Epidemiologic Studies , Family Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Eating , Sugars/adverse effects , Nutritional Sciences
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(6)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389535

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Medical students experience high levels of psychological stress during clinical training. However, most medical curricula do not teach self-care skills. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted medical education causing increased distress among students. Aim: To report the implementation and impact of an eight-week multifaceted mindfulness-based self-care program on medical students' distress and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: One hundred twenty-three fourth-year medical students attended the program as part of a mandatory course from April to May 2020, during the rising phase of COVID-19 in Chile. They were evaluated using validated tests before and immediately after the program. The measures included burnout, dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, traumatic stress reactions, general well-being, resilience, and stress coping strategies. Results: Burnout prevalence decreased from 48% to 24%, whereas students with high dispositional mindfulness increased from 25% to 44%. Burnout reduction was mostly due to decreased emotional exhaustion. Additionally, students reported lower levels of stress, self-blaming, and traumatic stress reactions alongside an increased use of active coping strategies and resilience levels after the program. Conclusions: A formal educational intervention, teaching self-awareness and self-regulation skills can help reduce medical students' distress and promote their well-being even amidst a pandemic.


Antecedentes: Los estudiantes de medicina experimentan altos niveles de estrés y burnout durante la formación clínica. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los planes de estudios médicos no enseñan habilidades de autocuidado. La pandemia de COVID-19 ha conmocionado la educación médica provocando mayor distrés entre los estudiantes. Objetivo: Informar sobre la implementación y el impacto de un programa multifacético de autocuidado -basado en mindfulness (atención consciente)-sobre el distrés y el bienestar de los estudiantes de medicina durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Ciento veintitrés estudiantes de medicina de cuarto año asistieron al programa como parte de un curso obligatorio de abril a mayo de 2020, durante la fase ascendente de COVID-19 en Chile. Fueron evaluados mediante pruebas validadas antes e inmediatamente después del programa. Las medidas incluyeron burnout, mindfulness disposicional, estrés percibido, reacciones de estrés traumático, bienestar general, resiliencia y estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés. Resultados: La prevalencia del burnout disminuyó del 48% al 24%, mientras que los estudiantes con alto mindfulness aumentaron del 25% al 44%. La reducción del burnout se debió principalmente a la disminución del agotamiento emocional. Además, los estudiantes informaron niveles más bajos de estrés, autoinculpación y reacciones de estrés traumático junto con un mayor uso de estrategias activas de afrontamiento y mayores niveles de resiliencia, después del programa de autocuidado. Conclusiones: Una intervención educativa formal que enseñe habilidades de autoconciencia y autorregulación puede ayudar a reducir el burnout de los estudiantes de medicina y promover su bienestar incluso en medio de una pandemia.

3.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 24-33, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los ratones SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h que son alimentados con una dieta rica en grasas saturadas, desarrollan enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica severa, complicaciones isquémicas e insuficiencia cardíaca, con alta mortalidad. Los estudios con este modelo se han enfocado fundamentalmente en la enfermedad coronaria y menos en el remodelado cardíaco. El OBJETIVO del trabajo ha sido caracterizar el remodelado miocárdico, evaluar la evolución temporal de la función ventricular izquierda y la sobrevida asociada a enfermedad cardíaca por ateromatosis. MÉTODO: Ratones homocigotos SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h fueron alimentados por 8 semanas con dieta aterogénica o dieta normal y se comparó la sobrevida en ambos grupos. A las 4 semanas se realizó un ecocardiograma bidimensional. En los ratones eutanasiados se evaluó en la pared cardíaca fibrosis miocárdica y tamaño de los cardiomiocitos por morfometría, apoptosis con técnica de TUNEL e infiltración por células inflamatorias mononucleares (ED1) por inmunohistoquímica. RESULTADOS: En el grupo que recibió dieta aterogénica la sobrevida se redujo en 46,7% (p < 0.001), debido a muerte súbita y a falla cardíaca progresiva. En este grupo, a las 4 semanas se observó dilatación de cavidades izquierdas y disminución de la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el grupo control (79,3 ± 1,3% vs 66 ± 3,7%, p<0,01). También se observó aumento de la masa cardíaca relativa de 2.1 veces (p<0,001) y del peso pulmonar relativo en 80% (p<0,001), sin cambios en las dimensiones de los cardiomiocitos. En el miocardio de los ratones que recibieron dieta aterogénica hubo un aumento de la fibrosis cardíaca de 7.9 veces (p < 0.01) y del número de cardiomiocitos apoptóticos en 55.9 veces (p < 0.01), junto a un aumento del número de células inflamatorias mononucleares ED1. CONCLUSIONES: En el modelo de falla cardíaca severa de etiología isquémica con alta mortalidad en el ratón homocigoto SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h sometido a una dieta aterogénica, con falla cardíaca izquierda por disfunción sistólica, el remodelado patológico del miocardio está dado fundamentalmente por apoptosis y fibrosis. También se observa un aumento discreto de macrófagos en la pared cardíaca. Es posible que el edema parietal también pueda ser un mecanismo de remodelado relevante en este modelo.


Abstract: SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h mice fed a high saturated fat diet develop severe coronary atheromatosis, and cardiac failure with a high mortality rate. Cardiac remodeling under these conditions has not been well studied. AIM: To evaluate the time course of left ventricular function, cardiac remodeling and survival associated to the administration of an atherogenic diet. METHOD: Homozygote SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h mice received an atherogenic diet for 8 weeks. Mice receiving a normal diet served as controls. Survival rate, myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte size, apoptosis and infiltration by inflammatory or mononuclear cells were compared between groups. A TUNEL technique was used to evaluate apoptosis. RESULTS: A 46.7% survival reduction compared to controls was observed in the experimental group (p<0.01), due to left ventricular and atrial dilatation associated to a decrease in ejection fraction (79,3 ± 1,3% vs 66 ± 3,7%, p<0,01, respectively). Also, an increased cardiac weight, 2.6 times greater was observed in the experimental group, compared to controls. Mice receiving the atherogenic diet showed an 80% increased lung weight. There was no evident change in cardiomyocytes, but there was more (7.9 times) cardiac fibrosis (p<0.01) and 55.9 times more apoptotic cells. (p<0.01), along with a greater number of inflammatory cells and ED1 mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: Mice receiving an atherogenic diet develop heart failure and reduced survival rate. This is associated with cardiac remodeling with underlying apoptosis an ventricular wall fibrosis. It is posible that wall edema might contribute to the observed cardiac remodeling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Ventricular Remodeling , Diet, Atherogenic , Heart Failure/etiology , Hyperlipidemias/pathology , Ischemia/etiology , Fibrosis , Survival Analysis , Ventricular Function, Left , Apoptosis , Mice, Knockout , Ventricular Dysfunction , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/pathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/mortality , Ischemia/pathology
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(11): 1365-1373, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094165

ABSTRACT

Background Despite aggressive treatment aimed at lowering LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statins, there is a high residual prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, which may depend on plasma cholesterol transported in other atherogenic lipoproteins. Aims To describe non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in the Chilean population and their association with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate compliance with non-HDL-C therapeutic goals -according to individual cardiovascular risk- at different levels of triglycerides, in comparison with LDL-C goal achievement. Material and Methods: We analyzed data from 2,792 Chilean subjects aged ≥ 15 years who were included in the 2009-2010 National Health Survey and had valid data for blood lipids, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Results Forty five percent of subjects had high non-HDL-C levels. The proportion of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with high non-HDL-C levels was 81 and 42%, respectively (p < 0.01). A significant discordance was observed in the achievement of therapeutic objectives when LDL-C or non-HDL-C levels were considered, particularly in presence of triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl. Namely, 8% of the population showed elevated levels of high non-HDL-C despite adequate LDL-C levels. Conclusions Evaluation and management of elevated non-HDL-C in patients with adequate levels of LDL-C seems worthwhile considering the discordance observed between these blood cholesterol fractions. This strategy may be effective to reduce the residual cardiovascular risk in the Chilean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(4): 510-517, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014253

ABSTRACT

Background: The burnout syndrome affects more than half of students and professionals involved in healthcare worldwide and is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a low perception of self-efficacy. Several studies indicate that when students are burnt-out, clinical work, professionalism and ethical behavior, as well as empathy, are negatively affected, while the risk of academic attrition, depression and suicidal ideation tend to increase. At a national level, recent information shows that one out of every two medical students suffer burnout at the beginning of the clinical cycle, a situation that does not improve after finishing undergraduate medical training. There is no consensus on which are the most appropriate strategies to face the problem of burnout in students and health-care professionals. Some studies indicate that the experience of medical and health educators may be key to the design of effective strategies to address this problem. Aim: To identify the burnout risk and protection factors of students at different medical schools. Material and Methods: In this study -in which 34 expert health educators from eight Chilean medical schools and other health-related schools participated- we used a qualitative methodology based on the appreciative inquiry to explore the key elements associated with the occurrence of burnout, identify protective and risk factors, as well as discuss possible effective interventions to prevent it. Results: There are personal, academic and contextual elements that act as protective or risk factors of burnout. In addition, the educators identified key elements to design organizational and curricular interventions to face the problem of burnout at a local level. Conclusions: Burnout is a serious problem in the formation of health care professionals. Teacher training aimed at promoting student'well-being must include the teaching of communication skills that consider both the generation gap and the profile of the professional medical schools intend to form.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Schools, Medical , Self Care , Chile , Risk Factors , Protective Factors
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(1): 85-95, ene. 2017. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845507

ABSTRACT

The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a healthy dietary pattern. It includes a great variety of foods, which are eaten in moderation and within a positive social environment. The generic term “Mediterranean diet” was born after the “Seven Countries Study” led by Ancel Keys around 1960. This dietary pattern is characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, white meats and olive oil. It also includes moderate consumption of fermented dairy products, low intake of red meat and drinking wine with moderation during meals. Nutritionally, this diet is low in saturated fats and animal protein, high in antioxidants, fiber and monounsaturated fats, and exhibits an adequate omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid balance. The main bioactive compounds, which explain the health benefits of this dietary pattern, are antioxidants, fiber, monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and probiotics. This diet is not exclusively confined to the Mediterranean Basin. Central Chile has a Mediterranean climate and our agriculture and culinary traditions are similar to those found in Mediterranean countries. Therefore, it is fundamental to increase awareness about the richness of our natural produce as well as our culinary culture, which may bring many health benefits and improve the quality of life in our population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet, Mediterranean , Diet Therapy/methods , Quality of Life , Chile , Food/classification
7.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(2): 136-143, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899579

ABSTRACT

Los niveles, la composición lipídica y proteica y las propiedades funcionales de las li-poproteínas de alta densidad (HDL) determinan las funciones biológicas de esta fracción lipoproteica y su papel protector contra el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular. Estos parámetros de las HDL pueden ser modulados por intervenciones farmacológicas y no farmacológicas. En las dos últimas décadas, se ha establecido que el consumo de una dieta mediterránea, especialmente cuando se suplementa con aceite de oliva extra virgen, mejora diferentes parámetros cuantitativos (niveles de colesterol y número de partículas, en particular de mayor tamaño) y cualitativo-funcionales (capacidad de eflujo celular y esterificadora de colesterol libre, así como las actividades antioxidantes, de relajación endotelial y antiinflamatoria) de las partículas de HDL en humanos. Estos efectos probablemente contribuyen a la acción protectora ampliamente demostrada para la dieta mediterránea frente a diferentes enfermedades crónicas.


Levels, lipid and protein composition, and functional properties of high density lipoproteins (HDL) determine the biological functions of this lipoprotein fraction and its protective role in cardiovascular disease. These HDL-related parameters can be modulated by pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. In the last two decades, it has been established that consumption of Mediterranean diet, especially when supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, improves different quantitative parameters (cholesterol levels and number of particles, as well as particle size) and functional properties (cell cholesterol efflux, cholesterol esterification as well as antioxidant, endothelial relaxation, and anti-inflammatory activities) of HDL in humans. Most likely, these effects contribute to the widely demonstrated benefits of Mediterranean diet intake against different chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet, Mediterranean , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism
8.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e111, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961686

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report examines the challenges of conducting a multicenter, cross-sectional study of countries with diverse cultures, and shares the lessons learned. The Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) was used as a feasibility study involving the most populous cities of eight countries in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela) in 2014-2015, about 40% of the population of the Americas. The target sample included 9 000 individuals, 15-65 years of age, and was stratified by geographic location (only urban areas), gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Six principal challenges were identified: team structuring and site selections; developing a single protocol; obtaining ethic approvals; completing simultaneous fieldwork; ensuring data quality; and extracting data and maintaining consistency across databases. Lessons learned show that harmonization, pilot study, uniformity of procedures, high data quality control, and communication and collaboration across sites are imperative. Barriers included organizational complexity, recruitment of collaborators and research staff, institutional cooperation, development of infrastructure, and identification of resources. Consensus on uniform measures and outcomes and data collection methodology, as well as a plan for data management and analysis, communication, publication, and dissemination of study results should be in place prior to beginning fieldwork. While challenging, such studies offer great potential for building a scientific base for studies on nutrition, physical activity, and other health topics, while facilitating comparisons among countries.


RESUMEN En este informe se examinan los retos de llevar a cabo un estudio transversal multicéntrico en países con culturas diversas y se transmiten las enseñanzas extraídas. Se usó el Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS) como un estudio de factibilidad realizado en el período 2014-2015, que incluyó las ciudades más populosas de ocho países de América Latina (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela) y abarcó a cerca de 40% de la población de la Región de las Américas. La muestra establecida incluyó a 9 000 personas de 15 a 65 años de edad, y fue estratificada según la ubicación geográfica (solo zonas urbanas) y por sexo, edad y situación socioeconómica. Se encontraron seis retos principales: estructurar los equipos y seleccionar los sitios; preparar un protocolo único; obtener las aprobaciones éticas; terminar simultáneamente el trabajo sobre el terreno; velar por la calidad de los datos y extraer datos y mantener la uniformidad en todas las bases de datos. Las enseñanzas extraídas muestran que la armonización, los estudios piloto, la uniformidad de los procedimientos, el riguroso control de la calidad de los datos y la comunicación y colaboración entre todos los sitios son imperativos. Los obstáculos incluyeron la complejidad de la organización, el reclutamiento de colaboradores y personal de investigación, la cooperación institucional, el desarrollo de infraestructura y la definición de los recursos. Antes de comenzar el trabajo sobre el terreno, se debe llegar a un consenso acerca de mediciones y resultados uniformes y la metodología de recopilación de datos, así como un plan para la gestión y el análisis de los datos y la comunicación, publicación y difusión de los resultados del estudio. A pesar de que estos estudios constituyen un desafío, hacen posible establecer una base científica para los estudios sobre la nutrición, la actividad física y otros temas de salud, al facilitar las comparaciones entre los países de América Latina.


RESUMO Neste relato se examinam os desafios de realizar um estudo transversal multicêntrico em países com culturas diversas e os ensinamentos tirados. O Estudo Latino-americano de Nutrição e Saúde (ELANS) serviu de estudo de viabilidade, englobando as cidades mais populosas de oito países da América Latina (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Equador, Peru e Venezuela) em 2014-2015, representando cerca de 40% da população das Américas. A amostra pretendida compreendeu 9.000 indivíduos com 15 a 65 anos de idade e foi estratificada por localização geográfica (exclusivamente áreas urbanas), sexo, idade e nível socioeconômico. Os seis principais desafios identificados foram: estruturar as equipes e selecionar as sedes, elaborar um único protocolo, obter as aprovações dos comitês de ética, realizar trabalho de campo simultâneo, assegurar a qualidade dos dados e extrair os dados e manter a consistência em todas as bases de dados. Os ensinamentos tirados demonstram serem imprescindíveis harmonização, estudo-piloto, uniformidade dos procedimentos, ótimo controle da qualidade dos dados e comunicação e colaboração entre as sedes. Entre as barreiras estão a complexidade organizacional, recrutamento de colaboradores e pessoal de pesquisa, cooperação institucional, desenvolvimento de infraestrutura e identificação dos recursos. Antes do início do trabalho de campo, deve-se chegar a um consenso sobre medidas e resultados uniformes e metodologia de coleta de dados assim como um plano para o gerenciamento e análise dos dados, comunicação, publicação e disseminação dos resultados dos estudos. Apesar da sua complexidade, tais estudos têm um grande potencial de fundar uma base científica para estudos de nutrição, atividade física e outros tópicos relacionados à saúde, ao mesmo tempo que facilitam comparações entre os países da América Latina.


Subject(s)
Food and Nutritional Surveillance , Nutrition Surveys , Nutrition Surveys/supply & distribution , Multicenter Study , Latin America
9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 44(4): 393-399, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899845

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El huevo es un alimento altamente nutritivo con potenciales beneficios para la salud. Sin embargo, debido a su elevado contenido de colesterol, su consumo ha sido restringido en la población general. El objetivo de esta revisión es difundir en la comunidad científica la evidencia más reciente sobre los efectos del consumo de huevo específicamente en sujetos con diabetes mellitus. Estudios observacionales muestran que el consumo de hasta un huevo al día no se asocia a una mayor prevalencia de enfermedad cardiovascular en la población general, pero podría aumentar el riesgo entre los diabéticos. Asimismo, algunos de estos estudios han mostrado que un elevado consumo de huevo se asocia a un aumento en la incidencia de diabetes en la población general. Por otro lado, estudios de intervención a corto plazo en este subgrupo muestra que el consumo de huevo no afecta negativamente los factores de riesgo cardiovascular ni control glicémico en estos pacientes. Además, su consumo podría aumentar el impacto del uso de dietas hipocalóricas en la disminución de peso corporal, una importante herramienta en el manejo médico de la diabetes.


ABSTRACT Eggs are a highly nutritious food with potential health benefits. However, because of its high cholesterol content, physicians have recommended consumption restrictions in the general population. The aim of this review is to update the scientific community on the latest research about the impact of egg consumption in subjects with diabetes mellitus. Although several observational studies show that an intake of one egg a day does not increase cardiovascular risk in the general population, however risk may increase among diabetics. Additionally, some prospective cohorts have associated associated higher egg intake with an increased diabetes incidence in the general population. On the other hand, short-term intervention studies have not shown any adverse outcome in terms of cardiovascular risk or glycemic control with egg intake. Moreover, there are studies that suggest a beneficial effect of egg consumption in weight reduction, an important therapeutic tool in diabetes management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Eating , Diabetes Mellitus , Eggs
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(12): 1531-1543, dic. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845483

ABSTRACT

Background: Availability of brief dietary indexes that can effectively evaluate dietary patterns and their association with health is critical for prevention and management of several chronic disease conditions. Aim: To adapt a self-applicable Mediterranean Dietary Index in Chile (Chilean-MDI). Material and Methods: The Chilean-MDI was developed based on a previous Mediterranean eating score that was adapted to Chilean dietary habits. This index was further validated in a sample of 153 adults by comparing the concordance between the results obtained by self-application of the Chilean-MDI with those obtained by a trained nutritionist. Additionally, the index was applied in a sample of 53,366 Chilean adults in order to describe the diet quality of our population. Results: There was an adequate concordance between findings obtained by self-application of the Chilean-MDI and those achieved by the nutritionist. The application of the index in Chilean adult population showed a better diet quality (high Mediterranean diet adherence) among women, with advanced age and among people with higher educational levels. Conclusions: The Chilean-MDI can be successfully self-applied to portray the overall diet quality in the Chilean adult population. Additionally, this dietary index describes overall food intake in Chilean adults, showing demographic trends that are comparable to those obtained with similar indexes applied in other populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Energy Intake , Diet, Mediterranean/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Chile , Diet Surveys , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Status , Self Report
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(8): 1044-1052, ago. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830610

ABSTRACT

The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a functional diet with an increasing amount of scientific evidence that supports its beneficial effects in human health. Several observational cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies show an association between this diet and a lower prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases as well as a reduced overall mortality. Additionally, clinical interventional studies, particularly the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) initiative, have shown, with high quality scientific evidence, that a Mediterranean diet -supplemented either with olive oil or nuts- can lower by 30% the incidence of cardiovascular disease, reverse the metabolic syndrome, and prevent the development of diabetes and aging-related cognitive decline. Chile has one of the five Mediterranean ecosystems in the world, and therefore the implementation of this food pattern and lifestyle in our country may determine large benefits to the health status and quality of life in the Chilean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Diet, Mediterranean , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Clinical Trials as Topic , Mortality/trends , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Health Impact Assessment , Neoplasms/mortality
12.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 35(2): 133-143, 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796799

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Las dislipidemias, ya sea un aumento en los niveles de colesterol LDL y/o una disminución en las cifras de colesterol HDL, son muy relevantes para el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular ateroesclerótica, siendo el colesterol HDL bajo la dislipidemia más frecuente en la población chilena. Con respecto al colesterol HDL bajo y los tri -glicéridos elevados, los fibratos, agonistas del receptor nuclear PPAR-a que modula la transcripción de genes involucrados en el metabolismo de lípidos, representan una importante alternativa de manejo farmacológico de las dislipidemias. Sin embargo, estudios clínicos recientes no han sido concluyentes con respecto a su beneficio real sobre el control de la ateroesclerosis cuando se usan combinados con estatinas. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la administración de fibratos sobre el metabolismo del colesterol HDL y la función antioxidante del plasma usando el ratón como modelo experimental. Metodología: Los ratones de la cepa C57BL/6 fueron tratados con ciprofibrato al 0,2% en dieta control durante 7 días. Luego del tratamiento, se analizaron los niveles de colesterol plasmático y triglicéridos, la expresión hepática de proteínas claves involucradas en el metabolismo de colesterol HDL, el contenido de colesterol hepático, la secreción de colesterol biliar y el daño oxidativo y la función antioxidante plasmática. Resultados: El tratamiento con ciprofibrato disminuyó significativamente los niveles de triglicéridos plasmáticos y la expresión hepática del receptor de HDL SR-BI, efecto que se correlacionó con un aumento en el tamaño de las partículas de HDL, pero no en los niveles de colesterol HDL. Además, el ciprofibrato disminuyó los niveles proteicos de los transportadores de colesterol ABCG1 y ABCG8, aunque no modificó ABCA1, en conjunto con una reducción del contenido hepático de colesterol y un aumento en la secreción de colesterol hacia la bilis. Finalmente, el uso de este hipolipemiante mejoró la función antioxidante del plasma, aunque se detectó un aumento en el daño nitrosativo de las proteínas plasmáticas. Conclusión: Este estudio ha permitido obtener nueva información sobre el efecto metabólico y funcional de la administración de fibratos en ratones, lo cual podría ayudar comprender los resultados de estudios clínicos recientes que han usado esta clase de hipolipemiantes en humanos.


Background: Increased serum levels of LDL cholesterol and/or decreased values of HDL cholesterol are very relevant for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Low HDL cholesterol is the most prevalent dyslipidemia in the Chilean population. Regarding reduced HDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, fibrates, nuclear receptor PPAR-a agonists that modulate transcription of genes involved in lipid metabolism, represent an important alternative for pharmacological management of dyslipidemia. However, recent clinical studies have been inconclusive with respect to their real benefit on atherosclerosis when used in combination with statins. Aim: To evaluate the impact of fibrate administration on HDL cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant plasma functionality using the mouse as experimental model. Methodology: Using wild-type C57BL/6 mice, ciprofibrate was administered at 0.2% in chow diet for 7 days. After treatment, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels, hepatic expression of key proteins involved in HDL cholesterol metabolism, liver cholesterol content, biliary cholesterol secretion, and plasma oxidative damage and antioxidant function were analyzed. Results: Ciprofibrate treatment significantly decreased plasma triglycerides levels and hepatic HDL receptor SR-BI expression. This latter finding was associated with increased HDL particle size, without changes in HDL cholesterol levels. Furthermore, ci-profibrate decreased hepatic expression of cholesterol transporters ABCG1 and ABCG8, but not ABCA1, which correlated with reduced liver cholesterol content and increased biliary cholesterol secretion. Fina-lly, fibrate therapy improved plasma antioxidant func-tion, even though increased nitrosative plasma protein damage was detected. Conclusion: This study has provided new information on metabolic and functional effects derived from fibrate use in mice and it may help to better understand recent clinical findings using this lipid-lowering drug class in humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Fibric Acids/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/chemistry , Mice, Inbred C57BL
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(9): 1097-1104, set. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762679

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. Aim: To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. Material and Methods: In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Results: Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Conclusions: Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Hypoalphalipoproteinemias/metabolism , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Niacin/pharmacology , Biological Transport , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Pilot Projects , Phospholipids/blood , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism
14.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-10, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is a healthy diet with positive scientific evidence of preventing chronic diseases. Bioactive components support the healthy properties of the Mediterranean diet. Antioxidants and fiber, two components of the Mediterranean diet, are key functional nutrients for healthy eating and nutrition. Wine grape pomace is a rich source of these dietary constituents and may be beneficial for human health. Our hypothesis was that the intake of red wine grape pomace flour (WGPF) prepared from red wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon variety) reduced the metabolic syndrome in humans. To evaluate the effect of WGPF on components of metabolic syndrome we design a 16-week longitudinal intervention study. Thirty-eight males, 30-65 years of age, with at least one component of metabolic syndrome, were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 25) or the control group (n = 13). At lunch, the intervention group was given 20 g of WGPF per day, which contained 10 g of dietary fiber, 822 mg of polyphenols and an antioxidant capacity of 7258 ORAC units. Both groups were asked to maintain their regular eating habits and lifestyles. Clinical evaluation, anthropometric measurements and biochemical blood analyses were done at the beginning and the end of the study. RESULTS: WGPF intake significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as fasting glucose levels. Plasma γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol increased and carbonyl group in plasma protein decreased in WGPT group, significantly. No significant effect was observed for waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C in and between groups. The group-dependent magnitude of the differences between the baseline and final postprandial insulin values and γ-tocopherol concentrations was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of WGPF-rich in fiber and polyphenol antioxidants, as a food supplement in a regular diet improves blood pressure, glycaemia and postprandial insulin. In addition, increased antioxidant defenses and decreased oxidative protein damage indicating attenuation of oxidative stress. WGPF might be a useful food ingredient for health promotion and chronic disease prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Wine , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Dietary Fiber , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Energy Intake , Case-Control Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Fasting , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diet, Mediterranean
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(1): 34-43, feb. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-706544

ABSTRACT

High density lipoproteins (HDL) are responsible of reverse cholesterol transport and play an important antiatherogenic role. In recent years, several studies suggest that HDL have additional functions, including a possible anti-inflammatory activity in infectious conditions. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) within the circulation during infectious states induced by gram-negative bacteria may be involved in the decrease in HDL cholesterol levels and changes in lipoprotein composition, which have been associated with a higher mortality due to sepsis in animal models and in humans. In this article, we review this subject and also discuss possible mechanisms that explain the positive impact achieved by native HDL, reconstituted HDL, or HDL apolipoprotein peptides on the inflammatory response and mortality in models of endotoxemia. In this regard, it has been proposed that one of the mechanisms by which HDL protect against sepsis may be mediated by its binding ability and/or neutralizing capacity on LPS, avoiding an excessive response of the immune system. Thus, increasing blood levels of HDL and/or parenteral HDL administration may represent a new anti-inflammatory tool for managing septic states in humans.


Las lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL) son responsables del transporte reverso de colesterol y ejercen un importante papel anti-aterogénico. En los últimos años, diversos estudios indican que las HDL también tendrían otras funciones críticas, incluyendo una posible actividad anti-inflamatoria durante estados infecciosos. Además, la evidencia disponible sugiere que la presencia de lipopolisacárido (LPS) en la circulación durante estados infecciosos inducidos por bacterias gramnegativas podría estar involucrado en la disminución del colesterol HDL y los cambios en composición de esta clase lipoproteínas, lo cual se asociaría con una mayor tasa de mortalidad por sepsis en modelos animales y en humanos. En este trabajo, se revisan los antecedentes mencionados y además se discuten posibles mecanismos que explican la disminución de la respuesta inflamatoria y de la mortalidad que se logran en modelos de endotoxemia tratados con HDL o preparaciones similares. En este sentido, se ha propuesto que uno de los mecanismos protectores de las HDL estaría mediado por su capacidad de unión y/o neutralización del LPS, evitando una respuesta exacerbada del sistema inmune. De esta manera, el aumento de los niveles sanguíneos de HDL y/o su administración parenteral podrían constituir nuevas herramientas anti-inflamatorias para el manejo de estados sépticos en humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Endotoxemia/immunology , Lipoproteins, HDL/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Sepsis/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Apolipoprotein A-I/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Endotoxemia/blood , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/drug effects , Sepsis/blood , Thrombosis/blood
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(2): 175-183, feb. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-710985

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a recognized atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) risk factor. This association has yet to be quantified in the Chilean population. Aim: To compare the frequency of ACVD between diabetic and non-diabetic Chilean subjects. Material and Methods: Data was extracted from the Chile National Health Survey (ENS) performed in 2009-2010. DM diagnosis was made with fasting glucose. ACVD (coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular disease) was established by self-report. Major cardiovascular risk factors were identified by clinical and laboratory assessment. Results: A total of 5,416 adults (2,200 men and 3,216 women) were surveyed in ENS 2009-2010. Of these, 508 were diabetic and 375 reported ACVD. ACVD frequency was 16.1% and 6.1% in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, respectively. In diabetic men, the frequency of ACVD steadily increased with age, from 5.1% to 22.1%. In diabetic women, the highest frequency of ACVD (17.4%) was found in ages ranging from 45 to 54 years. In people younger than 54 years, the odds ratio for ACVD in diabetic compared to non-diabetic subjects, was 3.59 in men (χ2 = 4.03 p < 0.03) and 5.26 in women (χ2 = 7.7 p < 0.007). Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome were significantly more common in diabetic subjects with reported ACVD. Conclusions: DM is associated with an increased frequency of ACVD and cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean adults. In line with international reports, our findings suggest that DM is also a cardiovascular risk factor in Chile, particularly relevant for women.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chile/epidemiology , Fasting , Health Surveys , Risk Factors , Self Report
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(2): 222-228, feb. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-710991

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, an increased number of new cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among patients who use statins have been reported. The aim of the present review is to compile the most relevant information about the risk of T2DM associated with the use and dose of different statins, especially based on meta-analysis considering different studies worldwide. To explain this relationship, several studies have reported the effect of statins on insulin resistance in dyslipidemic non-diabetic patients, reporting different findings according to the types of statins. In addition, some reports -based on culture of β pancreatic cells- have evaluated the effect of these drugs in certain cellular events that are essential for insulin secretion. Clearly, further studies in humans are needed -applying more robust tests than those used up to date- in order to define more precisely the potential mechanisms explaining the higher incidence of T2DM among statin users.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Insulin , Risk Factors
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(11): 1441-1448, nov. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-704572

ABSTRACT

Since 1964, the hypothesis of Pedersen has been used to explain fetal macrosomia observed in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), by a mechanism involving maternal hyperglycemia - fetal hyperglycemia - fetal hyperinsulinemia. However,since the 1980-89 decade, it is known that pregnant women with pre-gestationaloverweight not suffering from GDM still have a higher frequency of fetal macrosomia. Furthermore, pregnant women with GDM, despite being subjected to optimalglycemic control, still show unacceptably high frequencies of fetal macrosomia, aphenomenon that is concentrated in pregnancies with overweight or obesity priorto pregnancy. If glucose is not the single nutrient responsible for fetal macrosomiain pregnant women with gestational diabetes that undergo strict glycemic control,other nutrients may cause excessive fetal growth in pre-pregnancy overweightmothers. In this review, we propose that triglycerides (TG) could be responsible forthis accelerated fetal growth. If this hypothesis is validated in animal models andclinical studies, then normal and pathological ranges of TG should be defined, andmonitoring of triglyceride levels during pregnancy should be advised as a possiblenew alternative, besides a good glycemic control, for the management of fetal macrosomia in GDM women with overweight prior to pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Fetal Macrosomia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/physiology , Gestational Age , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hypertriglyceridemia/blood , Obesity/complications , Overweight/etiology
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(8): 1053-1059, ago. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-660060

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 1985, the Nobel Prize of Medicine was awarded to Drs. Joseph L. Goldstein and Michael S. Brown for their fundamental scientific work on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism mediated by the low density lipoprotein receptor pathway. This article briefly reviews the academic and research accomplishments of Drs. Brown and Goldstein as a tribute to these physician-scientists for their well-deserved award and enormous contribution to biomedical science worldwide.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol/history , Nobel Prize
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 139(6): 802-806, jun. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-603128

ABSTRACT

Despite the clinical use of statins to reduce serum levels of LDL cholesterol and treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, a high proportion of patients remain at significant residual cardiovascular risk. In this context, low HDL cholesterol levels are an additional risk factor and intervention studies suggest that a fraction of the cardiovascular protection achieved with pharmacotherapy is explained specifically by the increase in serum levels of HDL cholesterol. Pharmacological inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) can induce a significant elevation in HDL cholesterol and, potentially, lead to better control of residual cardiovascular risk beyond the benefit demonstrated by statins. While the use of torcetrapib had unexpected side effects, dalcetrapib and anacetrapib are new CETP inhibitors with a better safety profile and are currently under study to evaluate their effects on vascular lesions and clinical events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. If these studies show positive findings, we will witness a new biomedical advance as significant as was the clinical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology , Arteriosclerosis/prevention & control , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
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