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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874161

ABSTRACT

Background@#We developed an assay to measure DNA-incorporated 6-thioguanine (DNATG) and validated its clinical applicability in Korean pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in order to improve individualized thiopurine treatment and reduce the life-threatening cytotoxicity. @*Methods@#The DNA-TG assay was developed based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with isotope-labeled TG-d3 and guanine-d3 as internal standards.This method was applied to 257 samples of pediatric ALL patients. The DNA-TG level was compared with erythrocyte TG nucleotide (RBC-TGN) level in relation to the TPMT and NUDT15 genotypes, which affect thiopurine metabolism, using Spearman’s rank test and repeated measure ANOVA. @*Results@#For DNA-TG quantification, a linearity range of 10.0-5,000.0 fmol TG/µg DNA;bias for accuracy of –10.4% –3.5%; coefficient of variation for intra- and inter-day precision of 3.4% and 5.8% at 80 fmol TG/µg DNA and of 4.9% and 5.3% at 800 fmol TG/µg DNA, respectively; and recovery of 85.7%–116.2% were achieved without matrix effects or carry-over. The median DNA-TG level in the 257 samples was 106.0 fmol TG/µg DNA (interquartile range, 75.8–150.9). There was a strong correlation between DNA-TG and RBC-TGN levels (ρ = 0.68,ρ < 0.0001). The DNA-TG/RBC-TGN ratio was significantly higher in NUDT15 intermediate metabolizers (*1/*2 and *1/*3) than in patients with wildtype alleles (ρ < 0.0001). @*Conclusions@#This simple and sensitive method for measuring DNA-TG level can improve therapeutic drug monitoring for thiopurine treatment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Differences in the performance of suggested warfarin dosing algorithms among different ethnicities and genotypes have been reported; this necessitates the development of an algorithm with enhanced performance for specific population groups. Previous warfarin dosing algorithms underestimated warfarin doses in VKORC1 1173C carriers. We aimed to develop and validate a new warfarin dosing algorithm for Korean patients with VKORC1 1173C.METHODS: A total of 109 patients carrying VKORC1 1173CT (N=105) or 1173CC (N=4) were included in this study. Multiple regression analysis was performed to deduce a new dosing algorithm. Following literature searches for genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms, 21 algorithms were selected and evaluated using the correlation coefficient (ρ) of actual dose and estimated dose, mean error, and root mean square error.RESULTS: The developed algorithm is as follows: maintenance dose (mg/week)=exp [3.223−0.009×(age)+0.577×(body surface area [BSA])+0.178×(sex)−0.481×(CYP2C9 genotype)+0.227×(VKORC1 genotype)]. Integrated variables explained 44% of the variance in the maintenance dose. The predicted and actual doses showed moderate correlation (ρ=0.641) with the best performance with a mean error of −1.30 mg/week. The proportion of underestimated groups was 17%, which was lower than with the other algorithms.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to develop and validate a warfarin dosing algorithm based on data from VKORC1 1173C carriers; it showed superior predictive performance compared with previously published algorithms.


Subject(s)
Genotype , Humans , Korea , Population Groups , Warfarin
3.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 227-234, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836920

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because there is limited recent information on this topic, this study investigated the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the South Korean population in 2015–2017. @*Methods@#Anti-HAV IgG seroprevalence data were obtained from the laboratory information system of Green Cross Laboratories, one of the largest referral laboratories in South Korea. @*Results@#During the three-year study period, we obtained test results from 240,840 individuals (124,353 men and 116,487 women) from 1,348 hospitals and local clinics throughout South Korea. The median (range) age of subjects was 38.0 (18.0–97.2) years. The annual seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 53.3%, 53.0%, and 53.1% in 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The median age differed among geographic regions and anti-HAV seroprevalence differed among age groups and geographic regions (P1.0, P<0.05). @*Conclusions@#This study provides basic information about the recent seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG in the Korean population and contributes to identifying groups at high risk of an HAV epidemic.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715970

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to identify the impact of NUDT15 variants on thiopurine intolerance and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) levels in Korean children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotyping of NUDT15 was tested in 258 patients with ALL registered at Samsung Medical Center. Patients were classified into normal-activity (wild-type), intermediate-activity (heterozygous variant), and low-activity groups (homozygous or compound heterozygous variant). Clinical and laboratory features during the first year of maintenance therapy were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 182 patients were included in the final analysis. There were five (2.7%), 46 (25.3%), and 131 (72.0%) patients in low-, intermediate-, and normal-activity groups, respectively. The lowest 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) dose (mg/m2/day) was administered to the low-activity group (low-activity group 7.5 vs. intermediate-activity group 24.4 vs. normalactivity group 31.1, p < 0.01) from three months to a year after beginning maintenance therapy. The low-activity group experienced the longest duration of therapy interruption during the first year (low-activity group 169 days vs. intermediate-activity group 30 days vs. normal-activity group 16 days, p < 0.01). They also showed the lowest blood cell counts and had a longer duration of leukopenia (low-activity group 131 days vs. intermediate-activity group 92 days vs. normal-activity group 59 days, p < 0.01). 6-TGN level and its ratio to 6-MP dose were lowest in the low-activity group. CONCLUSION: NUDT15 variants cause hematopoietic toxicity with low 6-TGN levels. NUDT15 genotyping should be conducted before administering thiopurine, and dose adjustments require caution regardless of 6-TGN levels.


Subject(s)
Mercaptopurine , Blood Cell Count , Child , Humans , Leukemia , Leukopenia , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Thioguanine
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the current statuses of eight hormone tests (testosterone, estradiol, prolactin, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone, and thyroglobulin) used by clinical laboratories in Korea. METHODS: From November 1 to December 31, 2016, we surveyed 300 laboratories that participated in the regular proficiency survey program administered by the Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory. The survey comprised a questionnaire designed to address factors related to these hormone tests, including the measurement methods, instruments, test numbers per month, turnaround times, reporting units and ranges, reference ranges, and internal or external quality control methods. RESULTS: Fifty-four (18.0%) of 300 laboratories replied to the survey questionnaire. Each laboratory performed hormone analyses that used variable instruments, commercial kits, and calibrators. The test numbers per month, turnaround times, and reporting units (particularly for testosterone) varied among laboratories. Most laboratories used reference intervals that had been transferred from other references and were verified using in-house samples. Many laboratories that assessed luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone levels did not participate in the proficiency survey program conducted by The Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: We hope that the results of this study, which investigated the status of hormone testing at Korean diagnostic laboratories, will facilitate improvements in the quality of hormone testing and promote the development of guidelines for testing.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Services , Estradiol , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Hope , Korea , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Luteinizing Hormone , Parathyroid Hormone , Progesterone , Prolactin , Quality Control , Reference Values , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Molecular techniques are fundamental for establishing an accurate diagnosis and therapeutic approach of glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). We aimed to evaluate SLC37A4 mutation spectrum in Korean GSD Ib patients. METHODS: Nine Korean patients from eight unrelated families with GSD Ib were included. SLC37A4 mutations were detected in all patients with direct sequencing using a PCR method and/or whole-exome sequencing. A comprehensive review of previously reported SLC37A4 mutations was also conducted. RESULTS: Nine different pathogenic SLC37A4 mutations were identified in the nine patients with GSD Ib. Among them, four novel mutations were identified: c.148G>A (pGly50Arg), c.320G>A (p.Trp107*), c.412T>C (p.Trp138Arg), and c.818G>A (p.Gly273Asp). The most common mutation type was missense mutations (66.7%, 6/9), followed by nonsense mutations (22.2%, 2/9) and small deletion mutations (11.1%, 1/9). The most common mutation identified in the Korean population was c.443C>T (p.Ala148Val), which comprised 39.9% (7/18) of all tested alleles. This mutation has not been reported in GSD Ib patients in other ethnic populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study expands knowledge of the SLC37A4 mutation spectrum in Korean patients with GSD Ib.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Codon, Nonsense , Diagnosis , Glycogen Storage Disease , Glycogen , Humans , Methods , Mutation, Missense , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Deletion
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100532

ABSTRACT

Metachromatic leukodystrophy is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A activity. The patient in this study, a 5-yr-old girl, presented with progressive psychomotor regression. An MRI image of her brain showed bilateral symmetrical demyelination. The arylsulfatase A activity in her leukocytes was decreased to 8.0 nmol/hr/mg protein (reference range, 25-80 nmol/hr/mg protein). Mutation analysis of ARSA, using PCR and direct sequencing, showed two heterozygote pathogenic variations of c.449C>T (p.Pro150Leu) and c.640G>A (p.Ala214Thr). In summary, we report a Korean patient with an early juvenile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy, who was diagnosed based on her clinical symptoms as well as by using biochemical, radiological, and molecular genetic investigations.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebroside-Sulfatase , Demyelinating Diseases , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Leukocytes , Leukodystrophy, Metachromatic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Molecular Biology , Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72416

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of the urea cycle disorder (USD) carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) deficiency (CPS1D) based on only the measurements of biochemical intermediary metabolites is not sufficient to properly exclude other UCDs with similar symptoms. We report the first Korean CPS1D patient using whole exome sequencing (WES). A four-day-old female neonate presented with respiratory failure due to severe metabolic encephalopathy with hyperammonemia (1,690 µmol/L; reference range, 11.2-48.2 µmol/L). Plasma amino acid analysis revealed markedly elevated levels of alanine (2,923 µmol/L; reference range, 131-710 µmol/L) and glutamine (5,777 µmol/L; reference range, 376-709 µmol/L), whereas that of citrulline was decreased (2 µmol/L; reference range, 10-45 µmol/L). WES revealed compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CPS1 gene: one novel nonsense pathogenic variant of c.580C>T (p.Gln194*) and one known pathogenic frameshift pathogenic variant of c.1547delG (p.Gly516Alafs*5), which was previously reported in Japanese patients with CPS1D. We successfully applied WES to molecularly diagnose the first Korean patient with CPS1D in a clinical setting. This result supports the clinical applicability of WES for cost-effective molecular diagnosis of UCDs.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia)/chemistry , Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase I Deficiency Disease/diagnosis , Codon, Nonsense , Exons , Female , Frameshift Mutation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Urea Cycle Disorders, Inborn/diagnosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8654

ABSTRACT

Although tuberculosis is largely a curable disease, it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the standard 6-month treatment regimen is highly effective for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, the use of multiple drugs over long periods of time can cause frequent adverse drug reactions. In addition, some patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis do not respond adequately to treatment and develop treatment failure and drug resistance. Response to tuberculosis treatment could be affected by multiple factors associated with the host-pathogen interaction including genetic factors and the nutritional status of the host. These factors should be considered for effective tuberculosis control. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), which is individualized drug dosing guided by serum drug concentrations during treatment, and pharmacogenetics-based personalized dosing guidelines of anti-tuberculosis drugs could reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions and increase the likelihood of successful treatment outcomes. Moreover, assessment and management of comorbid conditions including nutritional status could improve anti-tuberculosis treatment response.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/blood , Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase/genetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Nutritional Status , Pharmacogenetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several molecular assays have been developed to detect the BRAF V600E mutation in fine needle aspirates (FNAs) for the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer. Using a multiplex PCR technique, we evaluated the Anyplex BRAF V600E Real-time Detection (Anyplex) assay and compared its efficacy with that of the Seeplex BRAF V600E ACE Detection (Seeplex) method. METHODS: We tested 258 consecutive FNA specimens using the Seeplex and Anyplex assays. Any conflicting results between the two assays were confirmed by using mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotide (MEMO) sequencing. The limits of detection (LODs) and reproducibility for each assay were evaluated with serially diluted DNA from a BRAF V600E-positive cell line. RESULTS: The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 36.4% (94/258) FNA specimens by either the Seeplex or Anyplex assay. Results for the two assays showed 93.4% (241/258) agreement, with a kappa value of 0.861 (95% confidence interval, 0.798-0.923). Of the eight specimens that were BRAF V600E-positive by the Anyplex assay but not by the Seeplex assay, five were found to be BRAF V600E-positive by MEMO sequencing. The mutation detection rate of the Seeplex and Anyplex assays was 79.0% and 84.0%, respectively, in the FNA specimens diagnosed as malignant (n=81). The LOD as determined by probit analysis was 0.046% (95% confidence interval, 0.019-0.532%). CONCLUSIONS: The Anyplex assay performed better than the Seeplex assay with respect to the detection of the BRAF V600E mutation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , DNA/chemistry , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , DNA Primers/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oligonucleotides/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Republic of Korea , Thyroid Nodule/metabolism
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110960

ABSTRACT

CYP21A2 mutation analysis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is challenging because of the genomic presence of a homologous CYP21A2 pseudogene and the significant incidence of pseudogene conversion and large deletions. The objective of this study was to accurately analyze the CYP21A2 genotype in Korean CAH patients using a combination of complementary methods. Long-range PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were performed to confirm valid amplification of CYP21A2 and to detect large gene conversions and deletions before direct sequencing. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was conducted concurrently in 14 CAH-suspected patients and six family members of three patients. We identified 27 CYP21A2 mutant alleles in 14 CAH-suspected patients. The c.293-13A>G (or c.293-13C>G) was the most common mutation, and p.Ile173Asn was the second, identified in 25% and 17.9% of alleles, respectively. A novel frame-shift mutation of c.492delA (p.Glu 164Aspfs*24) was detected. Large deletions were detected by MLPA in 10.7% of the alleles. Mutation studies of the six familial members for three of the patients aided in the identification of haplotypes. In summary, we successfully identified CYP21A2 mutations using both long-range PCR and sequencing and dosage analyses. Our data correspond relatively well with the previously reported mutation spectrum analysis.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Alleles , Gene Conversion , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Pseudogenes , Spectrum Analysis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131171

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms are used as biological markers to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, APOE genotyping is one of the most frequently conducted tests in clinical molecular laboratories. Although APOE genotyping may appear to be uncomplicated and a relatively easy test to perform, genotyping errors can still occur due to polymorphisms near codons 112 and 158 in the human APOE gene. Therefore, validation and verification of APOE genotyping assays before clinical use are essential. So far, we have been using the TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay (Life Technologies, USA). However, recently, the Real-Q ApoE genotyping kit (BioSewoom, Korea) was approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, which led us to compare the results obtained from this genotyping kit to those of the TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. The Real-Q ApoE genotyping kit yielded correct genotyping results for all six APOE genotypes and provided concordant results with the TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay in a series of blinded comparison samples. Thus, we validated its use in clinical tests.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Apolipoproteins E , Apolipoproteins , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases , Codon , Dyslipidemias , Genotype , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131170

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms are used as biological markers to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, APOE genotyping is one of the most frequently conducted tests in clinical molecular laboratories. Although APOE genotyping may appear to be uncomplicated and a relatively easy test to perform, genotyping errors can still occur due to polymorphisms near codons 112 and 158 in the human APOE gene. Therefore, validation and verification of APOE genotyping assays before clinical use are essential. So far, we have been using the TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay (Life Technologies, USA). However, recently, the Real-Q ApoE genotyping kit (BioSewoom, Korea) was approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, which led us to compare the results obtained from this genotyping kit to those of the TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. The Real-Q ApoE genotyping kit yielded correct genotyping results for all six APOE genotypes and provided concordant results with the TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay in a series of blinded comparison samples. Thus, we validated its use in clinical tests.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Apolipoproteins E , Apolipoproteins , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases , Codon , Dyslipidemias , Genotype , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136525

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia are caused by abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) derived from mutation of the HBB gene encoding beta-globin. Compound heterozygous status for both mutations results in Hb S/beta-thalassemia (sickle-beta-thalassemia). Vaso-occlusive phenomena and hemolysis are the clinical hallmarks and major causes of mortality. Due to the limited availability of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with or without gene therapy, red blood cell (RBC) exchange transfusion is the first-line adjunctive therapy. Here we report on a successful reduction of Hb S level in a Tunisian male sickle-beta-thalassemia patient by RBC exchange transfusion for primary prophylactic transfusion therapy before flying to his country. Results of both Ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and HBB gene mutation analysis indicated sickle-beta-thalassemia. Pre-erythrocytapheresis Hb S level was 80.6% of total Hb. Two volumes of RBC exchange were performed using automated erythrocytapheresis with the COBE Spectra Apheresis System (Version 7.0, Caridian BCT, CO, USA). Post-erythrocytapheresis Hb S level was 23.4% of total Hb and hematocrit level was 32.6%, both of which met the target end points. This is the first case report in Korea on successful RBC exchange transfusion in a patient with sickle-beta-thalassemia for rapid reduction of pathologic RBCs with Hb S.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , beta-Globins , beta-Thalassemia , Blood Component Removal , Blood Transfusion , Chromatography, Liquid , Diptera , Erythrocytes , Genetic Therapy , Hematocrit , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hemoglobins , Hemolysis , Humans , Ion Exchange , Korea , Male , Thalassemia
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136524

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia are caused by abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) derived from mutation of the HBB gene encoding beta-globin. Compound heterozygous status for both mutations results in Hb S/beta-thalassemia (sickle-beta-thalassemia). Vaso-occlusive phenomena and hemolysis are the clinical hallmarks and major causes of mortality. Due to the limited availability of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with or without gene therapy, red blood cell (RBC) exchange transfusion is the first-line adjunctive therapy. Here we report on a successful reduction of Hb S level in a Tunisian male sickle-beta-thalassemia patient by RBC exchange transfusion for primary prophylactic transfusion therapy before flying to his country. Results of both Ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and HBB gene mutation analysis indicated sickle-beta-thalassemia. Pre-erythrocytapheresis Hb S level was 80.6% of total Hb. Two volumes of RBC exchange were performed using automated erythrocytapheresis with the COBE Spectra Apheresis System (Version 7.0, Caridian BCT, CO, USA). Post-erythrocytapheresis Hb S level was 23.4% of total Hb and hematocrit level was 32.6%, both of which met the target end points. This is the first case report in Korea on successful RBC exchange transfusion in a patient with sickle-beta-thalassemia for rapid reduction of pathologic RBCs with Hb S.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , beta-Globins , beta-Thalassemia , Blood Component Removal , Blood Transfusion , Chromatography, Liquid , Diptera , Erythrocytes , Genetic Therapy , Hematocrit , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hemoglobins , Hemolysis , Humans , Ion Exchange , Korea , Male , Thalassemia
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