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Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e058, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285725


Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive and micro-invasive treatments on the arrest of occlusal enamel carious lesions in erupting permanent molars. This two-arm randomized clinical trial included 27 subjects, aged 5-11 years, with 64 erupting permanent molars presenting active occlusal enamel carious lesions (as assessed by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System [ICDAS]; scores 1-3). The sample was randomly assigned into two treatment groups: 1) resin-modified glass ionomer cement sealant (Clinpro XT Varnish; 3M ESPE) and 2) 4-week topical fluoride varnish application (Duraphat; Colgate). All children and parents received oral hygiene and dietary instructions. Teeth were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months regarding the eruption stage, biofilm accumulation, as well as severity and activity of the carious lesions. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival estimates for inactivation of the carious lesions for both treatment groups. Multivariate Cox regression models with shared frailty were performed to identify factors associated with the outcome (p < 0.05). After 12 months, 22% and 3% of the lesions treated with topical fluoride varnish and sealant, respectively remained active. The adjusted model demonstrated that younger children had a higher probability of active enamel carious lesions arresting (hazard ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.78; p=0.01). However, the probability of active enamel carious lesions arresting after sealant application was 8.85 times higher compared with fluoride varnish applications (p=0.01). Sealing is a more effective approach than fluoride varnish for arresting occlusal enamel carious lesions in erupting permanent molars.

Humans , Child , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Dental Caries/therapy , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Fluorides , Glass Ionomer Cements , Molar
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e094, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285723


Abstract Artificial intelligence (AI) is a general term used to describe the development of computer systems which can perform tasks that normally require human cognition. Machine learning (ML) is one subfield of AI, where computers learn rules from data, capturing its intrinsic statistical patterns and structures. Neural networks (NNs) have been increasingly employed for ML complex data. The application of multilayered NN is referred to as "deep learning", which has been recently investigated in dentistry. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are mainly used for processing large and complex imagery data, as they are able to extract image features like edges, corners, shapes, and macroscopic patterns using layers of filters. CNN algorithms allow to perform tasks like image classification, object detection and segmentation. The literature involving AI in dentistry has increased rapidly, so a methodological guidance for designing, conducting and reporting studies must be rigorously followed, including the improvement of datasets. The limited interaction between the dental field and the technical disciplines, however, remains a hurdle for applicable dental AI. Similarly, dental users must understand why and how AI applications work and decide to appraise their decisions critically. Generalizable and robust AI applications will eventually prove helpful for clinicians and patients alike.

Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Deep Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Dentistry , Machine Learning
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250443


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the survival of occlusal and occlusal-proximal restorations performed with resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) in deciduous molars using rubber dam and cotton rolls isolation. Material and Methods: Ninety-two patients were included and 200 deciduous molars with cavitated occlusal or occlusoproximal dentin caries lesions were randomized into two groups: cotton rolls (n = 100) and rubber dam (n = 100) and RMGIC restorations were placed. At baseline and in the follow-up visit, presence, severity and activity of caries lesions were registered. Two independent, blinded examiners evaluated the treated teeth clinically using the USPHS criteria and radiographically after 9 months. Descriptive analysis, survival curve (log-rank test) and Cox regression were performed to assess risk factors related to failure. Results: Out of the 179 teeth (92 cotton rolls group and 87 rubber dam group) evaluated at 9-month follow-up period. No lesion progression was observed radiographically. The overall treatment success rate was 85.47% (83.47% for cotton rolls and 87.35 rubber dam group). No significant difference between isolation methods was observed in the log-rank test (p = 0.16). Cox regression showed no risk factors related to failure. Conclusion: No difference was found in the survival of occlusal and occlusal-proximal restorations performed with RMGIC in deciduous molars using a rubber dam and cotton rolls isolation after a 9-month follow-up period.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Survival Analysis , Risk Factors , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Glass Ionomer Cements , Molar/anatomy & histology , Survival , Brazil/epidemiology , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Single-Blind Method , Regression Analysis
Braz. dent. j ; 31(2): 157-163, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132281


Abstract This study assessed the effectiveness of models for developing subsurface caries lesions in vitro and verified mineral changes by transverse microradiography (TMR). Enamel blocks from permanent (n=5) and deciduous teeth (n=5) were submitted to lesion induction by immersion in demineralizing solutions during 96 h, followed by pH cycles of demineralization (de) and remineralization (re) for 10 days. Two de-/re solutions were tested. Demineralizing solution "A" was composed by 2.2 mM CaCl2, 2.2 mM KH2PO4, 0.05 M acetic acid, with pH 4.4 adjusted by 1 M KOH. Demineralizing solution "B" was composed by 2.2 mM CaCl2, 2.2 mM NaH2PO4, 0.05 M acetic acid and 0.25 ppmF, with pH 4.5 adjusted by 1M KOH. Solution "A" produced cavitated lesions in permanent teeth, whereas solution "B" led to subsurface lesions in deciduous teeth. Solution "B" was then tested in enamel blocks from permanent teeth (n=5) and subsurface lesions were obtained, so that solution "B" was employed for both substrates, and the blocks were treated with slurries of a fluoride dentifrice (1450 ppm F, as NaF, n=5) or a fluoride-free dentifrice (n=5). Solution "B" produced subsurface lesions in permanent and primary teeth of an average (±SD) depth of 88.4µm (±14.3) and 89.3µm (±15.8), respectively. TMR analysis demonstrated that lesions treated with fluoride-free dentifrice had significantly greater mineral loss. This study concluded that solution "B" developed subsurface lesions after pH cycling, and that mineral changes were successfully assessed by TMR.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a efetividade de modelos para o desenvolvimento de lesões de cárie subsuperficiais in vitro e verificou alterações minerais por microradiografia transversal (TMR). Blocos de esmalte de dentes permanentes (n = 5) e decíduos (n = 5) foram submetidos à indução de lesão por imersão em soluções desmineralizadoras durante 96h, seguido de ciclos de pH de desmineralização e remineralização por 10 dias. Duas soluções des-/re foram testadas. A solução desmineralizadora "A" foi composta por 2,2 mM de CaCl2, 2,2 mM de KH2PO4, 0,05 M de ácido acético, com pH de 4,4 ajustado por 1 M de KOH. A solução desmineralizadora "B" foi composta por 2,2 mM de CaCl2, 2,2 mM de NaH2PO4, 0,05 M de ácido acético e 0,25 ppmF, com pH de 4,5 ajustado por 1 M de KOH. A solução "A" produziu lesões cavitadas em dentes permanentes, enquanto a solução "B" apresentou lesões subsuperficiais em dentes decíduos. Portanto, a solução "B" foi posteriormente usada em blocos de esmalte de dentes permanentes (n = 5) e lesões subsuperficiais foram obtidas. Portanto, a solução "B" foi empregada para ambos os substratos, sendo metade deles tratada com dentifrício fluoretado e a outra metade com dentifrício livre de flúor. A solução "B" produziu lesões subsuperficiais de cárie com profundidade de 88.4µm (14.3) em dentes permanentes e com 89.3 µm (15.8) em dentes decíduos e TMR demonstrou que lesões tratadas com dentifrício sem flúor tiveram maior perda mineral. Este estudo concluiu que a solução "B" desenvolveu lesões subsuperficiais após o ciclo de pH e as alterações minerais foram avaliadas com sucesso por TMR.

Humans , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Caries , Dentifrices , Tooth Remineralization , Cariostatic Agents , Dental Enamel , Fluorides , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Arq. odontol ; 56: 1-8, jan.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1120201


Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade de uma abordagem de tratamento não invasiva para a inativação de lesões não cavitadas de dentes decíduos e permanentes realizada na Clínica Infanto-Juvenil (CIJ) da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (FO-UFRGS), identificando os fatores clínicos do paciente e associando-os ao sucesso clínico do tratamento. Métodos: Foram incluídos 55 prontuários de pacientes que receberam instruções de higiene bucal, controle de dieta e aplicações tópicas de flúor (ATF) na CIJ da FO-UFRGS entre 2016 e 2018. Foram coletados dados demográficos e clínicos referentes a avaliação da atividade de cárie dentária na consulta inicial e após o tratamento realizado: índice de placa visível (IPV), índice de sangramento gengival (ISG) e o número médio de dentes permanentes cariados, perdidos e restaurados (CPO-D) e/ou número médio de dentes decíduos cariados, extraídos ou com indicação de extração e restaurados (ceo-d). Na análise estatística foram utilizados os testes Qui-quadrado de Pearson, Exato de Fisher e Wilcoxon, nível de significância: p < 0,05. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quando se comparou as variáveis idade, sexo, IPV, ISG e ceo-d/CPO-D com o sucesso do tratamento. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa comparando o IPV inicial com o final (p = 0,016) e número de lesões não cavitadas ativas inicial e final (p < 0,001), mas não houve diferença para o ISG inicial e final (p = 0,324). Conclusão:Baseado nos achados da redução do IPV e da redução no número de lesões não cavitadas ativas ao final do tratamento, sugere-se que a abordagem de tratamento não invasiva para inativação de lesões de cárie dentária não cavitadas aplicada na CIJ da FO-UFRGS é efetiva.

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a non-invasive treatment on the arrest of non-cavitated caries lesions of primary and permanent teeth performed at the Pediatric Clinic (PC) at the Dental Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (DT-UFRGS), identifying the patient's clinical factors and associating them with the clinical success of the treatment. Methods: This study included 55 patient's medical records who received oral hygiene instructions, diet control, and topical fluoride applications (TFA) at the PC of DT-UFRGS between 2016 and 2018. Demographic and clinical data regarding the evaluation of caries activity in the initial visit and after the performed treatment were collected: visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and DMF-T caries index (average number of decayed, missing, and restored permanent teeth), and/or dmf-t (average number of decayed, extracted or with recommendation for extraction, and restored deciduous teeth). Pearson's Chi-square, Fisher's Exact, and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis, significance level: p < 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed when the variables of age, gender, VPI, CBI, DMF-T/dmf-t were compared with treatment success. A statistically significant difference was found when comparing the initial with the final VPI (p = 0.016), as well as the number of initial and final active non-cavitated carious lesions (p < 0.001), but no difference was identified for the initial and final GBI (p = 0.324). Conclusion: Based on the findings of VPI reduction and reduction in the number of active non-cavitated carious lesions upon completion of treatment, it is suggested that the non-invasive treatment for arrestment of non-cavitated carious lesions applied at the PC of DT-UFRGS is effective.

Child , Oral Hygiene , Tooth, Deciduous , Child , Fluorides, Topical , Dental Caries , Fluorine/therapeutic use , DMF Index , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Retrospective Studies
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 3(3): 9-18, Sept.-Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1021967


Introduction: Erosive tooth wear (ETW) is defined as a chemical-mechanical process leading to the cumulative loss of hard dental tissue without the involvement of bacteria. Objective: to give to clinicians an overview about most important ETW topics. Data source: main scientific data base (PubMed, Lilacs) in the last 10 years, with the keywords: dental erosion, diagnosis and prevention. Classical articles were selected for the realization of an integrative literature review. Data synthesis : the prevalence of ETW has been reported to range from 10% to 80% in children and 4% to 82% in adults. The management of ETW should include early diagnosis, the evaluation of different etiological factors, risk identification and the proposal of preventive measures to avoid the progression of the condition. These measures include fluoride exposure, use of low abrasive toothpastes, clinical monitoring, and in more severe cases sealant application and restorations. Patients suffering from eating disorders with purging behaviour and gastroesophageal reflux disease are considered the most important risk groups. Conclusion : Clinicians should be aware of this condition with growing prevalence, once substance loss is an irreversible condition, providing prompt preventive measures during the early stages that are essential to reduce ETW.

Introdução: O Desgaste Dentário Erosivo é definido como um processo químico- mecânico que leva a uma perda cumulativa de tecido dentário duro, sem que ocorra o envolvimento de bactérias. Objetivo : atualizar os cirurgiões-dentistas sobre os principais tópicos a respeito do Desgaste Dentário Erosivo. Fonte de dados: principais bases científicas (PubMed, Lilacs) nos últimos 10 anos, com as palavras-chave: erosão dentária, diagnóstico e prevenção. Foram selecionados os artigos clássicos sobre o tema para a realização da revisão integrativa de literatura. Síntese de dados : A prevalência de Desgaste Dentário Erosivo tem sido reportada na literatura em porcentagens que variam de 10% a 80% em crianças e de 4% a 82% em adultos. A abordagem clínica do Desgaste Dentário Erosivo deve incluir um diagnóstico precoce, a avaliação dos diferentes fatores etiológicos, a identificação do risco e a proposta de medidas preventivas para retardar a progressão dessa condição. Essas medidas incluem a aplicação de fluoretos, o uso de dentifrícios com baixa abrasividade, monitoramento clínico e, em casos mais graves, a aplicação de selantes e procedimentos restauradores. Pacientes diagnosticados com transtornos alimentares ou com refluxo gastroesofágico são considerados um dos grupos de risco mais importantes para o desenvolvimento dessa condição. Conclusão: Os clínicos devem estar atentos a essa condição de prevalência crescente, uma vez que a perda de estrutura dentária é irreversível, promovendo medidas preventivas eficazes, desde os estágios iniciais, contribuindo assim para o controle e redução do Desgaste Dentário Erosivo entre seus pacientes.

Tooth Erosion , Tooth Wear/diagnosis , Tooth Wear/etiology , Tooth Wear/prevention & control
RGO (Porto Alegre) ; 66(3): 239-244, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-984902


ABSTRACT This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education for undergraduate Brazilian dental students. Data collection was via a Portuguese version of a 12-item questionnaire (Schulte et al., 2011) that was sent to all Brazilian dental schools (n = 219). The response rate was 57.0% (n = 125). Of the schools that returned the questionnaire, 84.8% supported the development of a Brazilian cariology curriculum. The units responsible for teaching cariology were predominantly operative dentistry (49.6%), pediatric dentistry (49.6%), dental public health (44.8%), and cariology (32%). Theoretical teaching of cariology (74.4%) and pre-clinical exercises (63.2%) were cited to occur mainly during the second year of the course, while clinical activities were placed in the third (71.2%) and fourth (64.8%) years. Among respondents, 76.8% of the schools included dental erosion and 86.4% included defects of dental hard tissues, such as abrasion, in teaching cariology. This survey was able to determine the panorama of cariology education in Brazil and to detect some differences among Brazilian geographic areas. The promotion of a workshop to discuss the topics that should be taught to undergraduate dental students and the development of a Brazilian core curriculum in cariology would be likely to reduce the differences in teaching cariology in Brazil.

RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um panorama do ensino de cariologia nos cursos de graduação em Odontologia no Brasil. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de uma versão em Português Brasileiro de um questionário de 12 itens (Schulte et al., 2011) que foi enviado a todas as faculdades de Odontologia brasileiras (n = 219). A taxa de resposta foi de 57,0% (n = 125). Dentre as faculdades que responderam o questionário, 84,8% apoiam o desenvolvimento de um currículo brasileiro de cariologia. As disciplinas responsáveis por lecionar os conteúdos de cariologia são principalmente dentística (49,6%), odontopediatria (49,6%), saúde bucal coletiva (44,8%), e cariologia (32%). O ensino teórico de cariologia (74,4%) e os exercícios de pré-clínica (63,2%) são abordados principalmente durante o segundo ano do curso, enquanto as atividades clínicas ocorrem, em geral, no terceiro (71,2%) e quarto (64,8%) anos. Dentre os respondentes, 76,8% das faculdades incluem erosão dentária e 86,4% incluem defeitos dos tecidos dentários duros, como abrasão, no ensino da cariologia. Essa pesquisa foi capaz de determinar o panorama do ensino da cariologia no Brasil e detectar algumas diferenças de currículo entre as regiões do país. A promoção de um workshop para discutir os assuntos que devem ser ministrados aos estudantes de graduação em Odontologia e para desenvolver um currículo brasileiro de cariologia seria válida para reduzir as diferenças no ensino de cariologia no Brasil.

Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 3(2): 47-51, May-Aug. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1021871


Introduction: Erosive tooth wear (ETW) is defined as a mechanical chemical process that results in a cumulative loss of hard tissue without the involvement of bacteria. This process may occur in permanent and deciduous teeth and may also reach the dentin tissue. Patients who report chronic diseases, such as respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma, or recurrent acute diseases, such as tonsillitis, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and otitis, commonly use drugs for prolonged periods; thus, more attention should be given to the dental aspects since the drugs may cause undesirable effects. Objective: This paper aims to report and discuss a clinical case of a nine-year-old, male, Caucasian, asthmatic patient who continually uses anti-asthmatic medications and has developed ETW. Case report: According to the patient's needs, oral hygiene instructions (use of fluoride stannous dentifrice, dental floss, and topical fluoride applications), daily use of mouthwash solution containing 0.05% sodium fluoride, and dietary guidance were recommended. Conclusion: An early and accurate diagnosis of ETW lesions and recognition of specific etiological factors allow the professional to elaborate an individualized prevention and control program for ETW progression.

Introdução: O desgaste dentário erosivo é definido como um processo químico mecânico que resulta em uma perda cumulativa de tecido duro, sem o envolvimento de bactérias. Esse processo pode ocorrer em dentes permanentes e decíduos, podendo atingir o tecido dentinário. Pacientes que relatam doenças crônicas, como alergia respiratória e asma brônquica ou doenças agudas recorrentes como amigdalite, rinite alérgica, sinusite e otite, comumente usam medicamentos por períodos prolongados, portanto, mais atenção deve ser dada ao aspecto odontológico, uma vez que os medicamentos podem causar efeitos indesejáveis. Objetivo : Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar e discutir um caso clínico de um paciente de nove anos, asmático, caucasiano, sexo masculino, que faz uso contínuo de medicamentos anti-asmáticos e desenvolveu o desgate erosivo dentário. Relato do caso: De acordo com as necessidades do paciente foi realizado instruções de higiene oral (uso de dentifrício contendo fluoreto estanhoso, fio dental e aplicações tópicas de flúor). Uso diário de enxaguatório bucal contendo 0,05% de fluoreto de sódio também foi recomendado e orientações dietéticas foram realizadas. Conclusão: O diagnóstico precoce e preciso das lesões de desgaste erosivo e o reconhecimento dos fatores etiológicos específicos permite o profissional elaborar um programa individualizado de prevenção e controle da progressão do desgaste erosivo dentário.

Orthodontics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Child , Chronic Disease , Tooth Wear
Audiol., Commun. res ; 22: e1801, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-950624


RESUMO Introdução As doenças e desordens bucais, bem como hábitos orais, podem causar impacto na qualidade de vida das crianças. Objetivo Associar a cárie dentária, maloclusão e hábitos orais com a qualidade de vida de crianças pré-escolares. Métodos Estudo transversal com 93 crianças de 3 a 5 anos de idade, acometidas, ou não, por lesões de cárie não tratadas. Os responsáveis responderam ao questionário sobre hábitos orais e ao Questionário sobre a Qualidade de Vida Relacionada à Saúde Bucal de Crianças na Idade Pré-escolar (B-ECOHIS). Um odontopediatra avaliou a gravidade das lesões de cárie e a presença de alterações oclusais. O nível de significância utilizado foi de 5%. Resultados O B-ECOHIS evidenciou impacto na qualidade de vida, conforme o aumento da idade, nos domínios dos sintomas, aspectos psicológicos, autoimagem e interação social e de função familiar. A cárie dentária apresentou impacto sobre a qualidade de vida das crianças e de seus familiares, especialmente em relação aos domínios dos sintomas e limitações. Hábitos de respiração oronasal e chupeta também evidenciaram efeitos negativos na qualidade de vida das crianças e de seus familiares. Não foi observada associação entre maloclusão e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde oral. Conclusão A cárie dentária, os hábitos de sução de chupeta e de respiração oronasal demonstraram impacto negativo na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde oral das crianças.

ABSTRACT Introduction Oral diseases and disorders as well as oral habits can impact the quality of life of children. Purpose To associate the dental caries, malocclusion and oral habits with the quality of life of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional study with 93 children from three to five years of age who have or have not been affected by untreated carious lesions. Parents answered the questionnaire on oral habits and quality of life instrument related to oral health denominated Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS). A pediatric dentist assessed the severity of the carious lesions and the presence of occlusal disorders. The level of significance used was 5%. Results The B-ECOHIS demonstrated impact on quality of life with increasing age in the fields of symptoms, psychological aspects, self-image and social interaction and family function. Dental caries were shown to have an impact on the quality of life of children and their families, especially in relation the domains of symptoms and limitations. Oronasal breathing and pacifier habits negatively impacted the quality of life of children and their families. There was no association between malocclusion and quality of life related to oral health. Conclusion The dental caries, the pacifier suction habits and oronasal breathing demonstrated negative impact on quality of life related to oral health of children.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Quality of Life , Dental Caries/psychology , Habits , Malocclusion , Self Concept , Family , Pacifiers/adverse effects , Dental Occlusion , Interpersonal Relations
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 45(5): 253-257, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-798169


Introduction: Methods of decontamination or sanitization of toothbrushes have been questioned. Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of pomegranate peels infusion as a disinfectant of toothbrushes against Streptococcus mutans. Material and method: A sample of 16 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 9 years performed brushing 5 days/week, with a careful brushing once a day. After each day of brushing, the toothbrushes were washed and sprayed with one disinfectant solution. This procedure was repeated for 4 weeks using one of the different solutions per week: distilled water (G1; negative control), pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn) peels infusion (G2), 1% sodium hypochlorite (G3) and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (G4). After the fifth day, toothbrushes were collected for laboratory analysis. Toothbrushes heads were subjected to agitation in saline dilution of 10–1, 10–2,10–3, and 25 μL of each dilution were seeded in mitis salivarius agar culture medium for S. mutans colony-forming unit (CFU) counting. One calibrated examiner (Kappa = 0.91) performed the CFU (mL–1 × 104) counts. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn Multiple Comparison tests were used at a significance level of 5%. Result: G1 presented the highest number of CFU (3.9 ± 8.4), followed by G2 (3.2 ± 4.0). No S. mutans growth was observed in G3 and G4. There was no statistically significant difference between G1 and G2 and between G3 and G4 (p>0.05). Conclusion: Pomegranate infusion was completely ineffective for the disinfection of toothbrushes against S. mutans when compared with 1% sodium hypochlorite and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate solutions.

Introdução: Os métodos de descontaminação ou desinfecção de escovas dentais têm sido questionados. Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou a eficácia da infusão de cascas de romã como um desinfetante de escovas dentais contra Streptococcus mutans. Material e método: Uma amostra de 16 escolares com idade entre 7 e 9 anos realizou escovação dentária cuidadosa, uma vez ao dia por 5 dias/semana durante 4 semanas. Após cada dia de escovação, as escovas foram lavadas e pulverizadas com uma solução desinfetante. Este procedimento foi repetido por 4 semanas utilizando uma das diferentes soluções por semana: água destilada (G1; grupo controle), infusão de casca de romã (Punica granatum Linn) (G2), hipoclorito de sódio a 1% (G3) e digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12% (G4). Após o quinto dia, as escovas foram coletadas para análise laboratorial. As cabeças das escovas foram agitadas em solução salina diluída em 10–1, 10–2,10–3, e 25μL de cada diluição foi semeada em meio de cultura agar mitis salivarius para contagem de unidade formadora de colônias (UFC) de S. mutans. Um examinador calibrado (Kappa = 0,91) realizou a contagem de UFC mL–1 × 104. Os testes de Kruskal-Wallis e de Comparações Múltiplas de Dunn foram usados em um nível de significância de 5%. Resultado: G1 apresentou o maior número de UFC (3,9 ± 8,4), seguido de G2 (3,2 ± 4,0). Não foi observado crescimento de S. mutans em G3 e G4. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre G1 e G2 e entre G3 e G4 (p>0,05). Conclusão: A infusão de romã foi completamente ineficaz para a desinfecção de escovas dentais contra S. mutans quando comparada às soluções de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% e digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12%.

Child , Streptococcus mutans , Toothbrushing , Child , Disinfection , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pomegranate , Sodium Hypochlorite , Distilled Water , Chlorhexidine , Saline Solution
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 70(2): 147-150, abr.-jun. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797065


Objetivo: Estudar o efeito anticárie da adição de trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) aos compostos fluoretados (dentifrícios, vernizes e soluções) para prevenção e tratamento de lesões de cárie através de uma revisão de literatura. Materiais e Métodos: Foram selecionados artigos de pesquisa e revisões sistemáticas da literatura mais relevantes sobre o assunto publicados na língua inglesa, desde 1968 até 2015, pesquisados no PubMed. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: trimetafosfato de sódio, cárie dentária e fluoretos.Resultados: Foram apresentados os principais resultados de trabalhos de pesquisa sobre o TMP quando associado aos dentifrícios, vernizes e soluções para bochechos e estudos clínicos longitudinais. Conclusão: Os estudos in vitro e in situ mostram que o trimetafosfato de sódio pode potencializar a eficácia do flúor na prevenção e tratamento da cárie dentária, porém ainda faltam estudos para entender o mecanismo de ação do TMP, além de estudos clínicos para comprovar sua eficácia e indicação.

Objective: The aim of this work was to study the anticaries effect of adding sodium trimeta phosphate (TMP) to fluoride compounds (tooth pastes, varnishes and mouthrinse)for prevention and treatment of caries lesions with a review of the literature. Materials and Methods: The most relevant research articles and systematic reviews on the subject published in English, were selected from 1968 to 2015, browsed on Pubmed. The key words used were: sodium trimetaphosphate, dental caries and fluorides. Results: Themain results of research articles on the TMP associated with dentifrices, varnishes and mouthrinses and longitudinal clinical studies were presented. Conclusion: In situ and in vitro studies have shown that TMP might increase the effectiveness of fluoride in the prevention and treatment of caries, but there are few studies that explain its mechanism of action, as well as clinical studies to demonstrate its anticaries effect and indication.

Dental Caries/classification , Dental Caries/complications , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Fluorides , Fluorine Compounds , Polyphosphates , Sodium Compounds
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 45(1): 47-52, jan.-fev. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-774585


Introdução: Critérios clínicos vêm sendo utilizados para determinação da presença de tecido cariado remanescente, mas geram dúvidas, tornando-se relevante a utilização de métodos que auxiliem na determinação da presença de cárie dentária remanescente. Objetivo: Avaliar in vitro a eficácia de métodos de indução de fluorescência no diagnóstico da remoção de tecido cariado artificial dentinário. Material e método: O esmalte oclusal de 94 terceiros molares humanos hígidos foi removido, expondo a dentina subjacente, para indução microbiológica de lesão de cárie artificial. Após a remoção do tecido cariado induzido, o remanescente dentinário foi avaliado por dois examinadores com DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent pen e Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF). Após todas as avaliações, secções dos dentes foram observadas e fotografadas em lupa estereoscópica com 30× de aumento por um examinador independente. As imagens foram analisadas no software Image J, permitindo a quantificação de tecido remanescente em milímetros quadrados. Foi calculada a reprodutibilidade interexaminador através de coeficiente intraclasse, sensibilidade, especificidade e área sob a curva ROC, e o teste de McNemar (p< 0,05) foi aplicado para comparação dos diferentes métodos. Resultado: Dos 94 dentes, 51 (54,2%) apresentaram remanescente de tecido cariado. Os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade e área sobre a curva ROC foram semelhantes para os três grupos (p> 0,05). Os valores de reprodutibilidade variaram entre 0,952 e 0,978. Conclusão: Dentre os métodos utilizados, o DIAGNOdent e o DIAGNOdent pen apresentaram melhor desempenho na avaliação da presença de cárie artificial remanescente quando comparados ao QLF.

Introduction: Clinical criteria have been used for the determination of the presence of residual caries, however in a subjective manner. Then the use of auxiliary methods that assist in determination of the remaining presence of caries can be considered for this purpose. Objective: Evaluate the in in vitro efficacy fluorescence induction methods in the diagnosis of removing artificial dentinal caries. Material and method: Ninety-four thirds sound human molars without occlusal enamel were used for microbiological artificial caries lesion induction. The decayed tissue was removed and the remaining dentin evaluated by two examiners with DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent pen and Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence - QLF. After all assessments, sections of the specimens were observed and photographed in stereoscopic lens with 30× increase by an independent examiner. These images were analyzed with Image J software, allowing quantitation of remaining caries tissue in mm2. The inter-examiner reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve was calculated and the McNemar test (p< 0.05) was used to compare the different among methods. Result: Of the 94 teeth, 51 (54.2%) had residual caries. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve were similar for the three methods (p> 0.05). The inter-examiner agreement ranged between 0.952 and 0.978. Conclusion: Among the methods used, the DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent pen showed better performance in residual caries detection after dentin caries removal when compared to QLF.

In Vitro Techniques , Dental Caries , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Fluorescence , Lasers , Molar, Third , Dental Enamel , Dental Plaque , Dentin
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e75, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951976


Abstract The layer formed by fluoride compounds on tooth surface is important to protect the underlying enamel from erosion. However, there is no investigation into the properties of protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on eroded enamel. This study aimed to evaluate the thickness, topography, nanohardness, and elastic modulus of the protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on enamel after erosion using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human enamel specimens were sorted into control, NaF, and TiF4 varnish groups (n = 10). The initial nanohardness and elastic modulus values were obtained and varnishes were applied to the enamel and submitted to erosive challenge (10 cycles: 5 s cola drink/5 s artificial saliva). Thereafter, nanohardness and elastic modulus were measured. Both topography and thickness were evaluated by AFM. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test and Student's t test (α = 0.05). After erosion, TiF4 showed a thicker protective layer compared to the NaF group and nanohardness and elastic modulus values were significantly lower than those of the control group. It was not possible to measure nanohardness and elastic modulus in the NaF group due to the thin protective layer formed. AFM showed globular deposits, which completely covered the eroded surface in the TiF4 group. After erosive challenge, the protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish showed significant properties and it was thicker than the layer formed by NaF varnish.

Humans , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/chemistry , Reference Values , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Carbonated Beverages , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Elastic Modulus , Hardness Tests
J. res. dent ; 3(3): 688-696, may-jun.2015.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363299


AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different adhesive systems (etch-and-rinse or self-etch) render enamel-composite resin interface in primary teeth more susceptible to erosive challenge. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty enamel specimens from caries-free primary incisors were selected and cavities were prepared for restoration. According to adhesive protocols, specimens were divided into groups: G1 (Adper Single Bond 2), G2 (Adper SE Plus), and G3 (35% phosphoric acid + Adper SE Plus). After restorative procedures, half of the surface of enamel and restorative material was protected with nail varnish, thus, only half of the sample was subjected to the erosive challenge (immersion in Coca-Cola®, 3 cycles of 5 minutes, for 5 days). Samples were analysed quantitatively through Knoop microhardness, the indentations were made on enamel-composite interface. Data were submitted to statistical analysis (Student's t test, two-way ANOVA, p<0.05). RESULTS: It showed that different adhesive systems did not significantly affect the percentage of superficial microhardness change after an erosive challenge (p=0.387). However, although no significant difference was observed, G2 (self-etch system) showed the lowest percentage of superficial microhardness change. CONCLUSION: The use of different adhesive systems did not influence superficial microhardness of enamel-composite interface after an erosive challenge. The incomplete removal of the smear layer, though self-etch systems, suggests a greater ability to withstand the erosive challenge on the enamel-resin interface.

Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796385


To evaluate the knowledge of dentists from the health units (HU) of Porto Alegre -Brazil, regarding the management of avulsion of permanent teeth.Material and Methods:All dentists (n = 117) from HU were invited to answer a self-applied questionnaire regarding the treatment and preservation of avulsed permanent teeth in different clinical scenarios, based on the guidelines of the International Association of Dental Trauma (IADT). The professional data were also collected. The correlation between the performance of each professional and professional data was performed, (StudentÆs t test, PearsonÆs and SpearmanÆs correlations), assuming 5% significance.Results:The response rate was 56.41%. The mean performance rate of the dentists regarding the clinical questions was 69.3%, but 37.4% had poor performance (less than 70% correct). The greatest number of hits was where the patient comes with the already replanted teeth (89.2%); 87.3% agreed in situations where the injured child reaches two hours of trauma with the tooth in a liquid medium, however in cases that period of trauma was more than two hours and tooth was dehydrated, the professionals performance was reduced (64.9%). There was a lack of knowledge about the use of intracanal medication (error rate of 56.9%); 41% are mistaken about the period to start endodontics procedures; 32.8% did the wrong about contention of avulsed teeth and clinical and radiographs follow-up. Dentists with postgraduate performed better than those without (p = 0.011)...

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Tooth Avulsion , Dentition, Permanent , Dentists , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 68(4): 346-350, out.-dez. 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-745435


Introdução: Hipomineralização molar incisivo (HMI) é a displasia do esmalte dos dentes que afeta um ou mais primeiros molares permanentes frequentemente associados aos incisivos permanentes. Pacientes com essa alteração apresentam vários problemas clínicos, que podem incluir um desgaste dentário acentuado, perda do esmalte, aumento da suscetibilidade à cárie e sensibilidade dentária. O tratamento da hipomineralização molar-incisivo dependerá da gravidade do dente afetado, abrangendo desde medidas preventivas até procedimentos restauradores complexos. Objetivos: Relatar um caso de um paciente infantil, 7 anos, gênero feminino, diagnosticada com HMI. Além, disso, descrever a abordagem terapêutica, tratamento restaurador e acompanhamento de 28 meses. Conclusão: Pacientes com hipomineralização molar-incisivo necessitam de acompanhamento longitudinal para prevenir perda de estrutura dentária e manutenção do tratamento restaurador.

Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is defined as the enamel dysplasia that affects one or more first permanent molars and frequently permanent incisors. These patients have several oral health problems that may include increased tooth wear, loss of enamel, higher susceptibility to dental caries and tooth sensitivity. The treatment of molar incisor hypomine-ralization depends on the severity of the affected teeth, including preventive measures as well as extensive restorative procedures. Objectives: To present a case report of a patient, female, diagnosed at 7 years old with MIH and to describe restorative procedures with a 28-months follow-up period. Conclusion: MIH Patients require longitudinal follow-up to prevent loss of tooth structure and maintenance of restorative treatment.

Humans , Female , Child , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/diagnosis , Pediatric Dentistry , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156544


Aim: To evaluate the performance of a pen‑type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent 2190; LFpen, KaVo, Germany) and bitewing radiographs (BW) for approximal caries detection in permanent and primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 246 anterior approximal surfaces (102 permanent and 144 primary) were selected. Contact points were simulated using sound teeth. Two examiners assessed all approximal surfaces using LFpen and BW. The teeth were histologically assessed for the reference standard. Optimal cut‑off limits were calculated for LFpen for primary and permanent teeth. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were calculated for D1 (enamel and dentin lesions) and D3 (dentin lesions) thresholds. The reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen’s weighted kappa values. Results: For permanent teeth, the LFpen cut‑off were 0–27 (sound), 28–33 (enamel caries) and >33 (dentin caries). For primary teeth, the LFpen cut‑off were 0–7 (sound), 8–32 (enamel caries) and >32 (dentin caries). The LFpen presented higher sensitivity values than BW for primary teeth (0.58 vs. 0.32 at D1 and 0.80 vs. 0.47 at D3) and permanent teeth (0.80 vs. 0.57 at D1 and 0.94 vs. 0.51 at D3). Specificity did not show a significant difference between the methods. Rank correlations with histology were 0.59 and 0.83 (LFpen) and 0.36 and 0.70 (BW) for primary and permanent teeth, respectively, considering all lesions. ICC values for LFpen were 0.71 (inter) and 0.86 (intra) for permanent teeth and 0.94 (inter) and 0.90/0.99 for primary teeth. Kappa values for BW were 0.69 (inter) and 0.68/0.90 (intra) for permanent teeth and 0.64 (inter) and 0.89/0.89 for primary teeth. Conclusion: LFpen presented better reproducibility for primary and permanent teeth and higher accuracy in detecting caries lesions at D1 threshold than BW for permanent teeth. LFpen should be used as an adjunct method for approximal caries detection.

Dental Caries/diagnosis , Dental Caries/diagnostic imaging , Lasers/methods , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods , Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods
Stomatos ; 19(36): 4-9, jan.-jun. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-716520


O objetivo deste artigo, que inclui três relatos de caso, é discutir brevemente a etiologia, o diagnóstico e as estratégias de tratamento de três pacientes com hipomineralização de molares e incisivos. Nos três casos apresentados, a etiologia estava relacionada a fatores sistêmicos que ocorreram durante o primeiro ano de vida, especialmente deficiência do sistema respiratório e episódios de febre alta. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base em exame clínico de características específicas como mudanças na cor e opacidade e perda de estrutura dentária. Decisões de tratamento foram tomadas de acordo com a severidade da hipomineralização em cada paciente, variando desde conduta expectante/acompanhamento até a restauração estética de incisivos permanentes. Nossos relatam indicam que a hipomineralização de molares e incisivos pode ocorrer, predominantemente, em crianças com história de deficiência respiratória e episódios de febre alta durante o primeiro ano de vida. O diagnóstico inicial normalmente é determinado pelo exame visual, e a decisão de tratamento dependerá da severidade da hipomineralização.

The aim of this article including three case reports is to briefly discuss the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with molar incisor hypomineralization. In all three cases presented, the etiology was related to systemic factors that occurred in the first year of life, especially respiratory deficiency and episodes of high fever. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination of specific characteristics such as changes in color and opacity and loss of tooth structure. Treatment decisions were made according to severity of hypomineralization in each patient, ranging from expectant management/follow-up to esthetic restoration of permanent incisors. Our reports suggest that molar incisor hypomineralization occur predominantly in children with a history of respiratory deficiency and episodes of high fever in the first year of life. Early diagnosis is usually determined by visual examination and treatment decision is dependent on condition severity.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Tooth Demineralization/diagnosis , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Tooth Demineralization/therapy , Incisor , Molar
Stomatos ; 19(36): 44-52, jan.-jun. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-716525


O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso de uma paciente de 8 anos de idade com a síndrome do miado do gato (CdCS) que foi encaminhada à clínica de odontopediatria para tratamento odontológico de urgência. As principais queixas eram uma lesão traumática nos incisivos centrais superiores permanentes e dificuldade em realizar a higiene oral. A paciente foi extremamente cooperativa durante a avaliação clínica, demonstrando capacidade de colaborar com opções de tratamentos conservadores sob anestesia local. O exame clínico mostrou overjet acentuado, lesões de cárie e uma higiene oral muito pobre. Avaliações clínicas e radiográficas foram necessárias para diagnosticar e determinar estratégias de tratamento das lesões traumáticas, lesões de cárie e gengivite, as quais foram realizadas ao longo de cinco consultas odontológicas. Os desfechos do tratamento são descritos. Este caso ilustra a variedade de achados clínicos que os odontopediatras podem encontrar na cavidade oral e face de pacientes com CdCS e os problemas que essas alterações podem causar. No atendimento desses pacientes, os dentistas devem tentar fornecer o melhor tratamento possível, priorizando o uso de técnicas conservadoras.

The aim of this article was to report the case of an 8-year old patient with Cri-du-Chat syndrome (CdCS) referred to the pediatric dental clinic for urgent dental treatment. The chief complaints were a traumatic injury to both permanent maxillary central incisors and difficulty performing oral hygiene. The patient was extremely cooperative during clinical evaluation, demonstrating ability to withstand conservative treatment options. Dental examination revealed accentuated overjet, carious lesions, and very poor oral hygiene. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were necessary to diagnose and determine treatment strategies for the traumatic injuries, carious lesions, and gingivitis, which were implemented over a total of five dental visits. Outcomes of the treatment strategies adopted are described. This case report illustrates the variety of clinical findings that pediatric dentists may encounter in the oral cavity and face of patients with CdCS and the problems that these alterations may cause. When faced with a CdCS patient, dentists should try to provide the best treatment possible and prioritize the use of conservative techniques.

Humans , Female , Infant , Anesthesia, Local , Cri-du-Chat Syndrome , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment , Maxillofacial Injuries , Pediatric Dentistry