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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190349, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is relevant for human and animal public health. Several factors have been associated with the risk of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs. However, dog owner characteristics have been rarely explored. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and to identify the associated factors for VL infection including dog owners characteristics. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted including dogs from an endemic canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) region in the Federal District, Brazil. The infection was detected using parasitological, serological, and molecular methods. The associated factors were identified through Poisson regression modelling. FINDINGS The prevalence of infection was 26.25% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20.05 to 33.57]. The associated factors were: short coat prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.33 (95% CI: 1.02 to 5.22); presence of backyard with predominance of soil and/or vegetation PR = 4.15 (95% CI: 1.35 to 12.77); and highest gross family income score PR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.16 to 3.54). MAIN CONCLUSION This is the first study that relates higher socioeconomic status of dog owners as an independent factor associated with higher prevalence of VL infection, along with other strongly associated factors related to receptive environment for phlebotomines. Our findings strengthen the need for exploration of the biological and behavioural bases linking dog owner characteristics to the risk of canine infection in prospective cohort studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190117, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057297

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study intends to describe a HIV intake screening strategy in recently incarcerated adults in Distrito Federal, Brasilia, Brazil. METHODS: We tested 455 recently incarcerated adults in Distrito Federal in 2016 using rapid tests (RT) applied to oral samples (OS). RESULTS: The estimated frequency of positive tests was 0.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34% to 2.24%). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings reveal the potential significance of detecting new HIV infection cases in a vulnerable population using point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200007, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136827

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: It is believed that delays in diagnosis and treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) contribute significantly to the burden of VL lethality in Brazil. METHODS: This study included several parts: a descriptive cross-sectional study of the individual characteristics of deaths from disease; a descriptive ecological study of the spatial distribution of deaths from disease; and an ecological analytical study to evaluate the association between disease lethality rates and the demographic, socioeconomic, and health indicators. The study population comprised all cases diagnosed throughout the country per the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) and the total number of disease deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System (SIM) from 2007 to 2012. RESULTS: Of the 223 deaths from disease captured by pairing the databases, 59.1% were reported as "death from other causes". There were significant associations between VL lethality rate and municipalities with the highest proportion of vulnerable individuals (rate ratio (RR)=1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.27), with VL lower incidence rate (RR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.58-0.67) and a higher incidence rate of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (RR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.51). CONCLUSIONS: Linking the SINAN and SIM databases allowed the inclusion of 14% of otherwise underreported deaths from VL for the study period, showing that this method is useful for the surveillance of VL-related deaths. The size of the municipal population, proportion of the vulnerable population, incidence of disease, and the incidence of AIDS were associated with municipal lethality rates related to VL in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180452, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Studies aimed at validating canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic tests present heterogeneous results regarding test accuracy, partly due to divergences in reference standards used and different infection evolution periods in animals. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the rapid test-dual path platform (TR-DPP) (Biomanguinhos®), EIE-Leishmaniose-Visceral-Canina-Biomanguinhos (EIE-LVC) (Biomanguinhos®), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) rK39 (in-house), and the direct agglutination test (DAT-Canis) against a reference standard comprising parasitological and molecular techniques. METHODS A phase II/III validation study was carried out in sample sera from 123 predominantly asymptomatic dogs living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. FINDINGS Sixty-nine (56.1%) animals were considered infected according to the reference standard. For each test, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were as follows: TR-DPP, 21.74% [confidence interval (CI)95% 13.64% to 32.82%] and 92.59% (CI95% 82.45% to 97.08%); EIE-LVC, 11.59% (CI95% 5.9% to 21.25%) and 90.74% (CI95% 80.09% to 95.98%); ELISA rK39, 37.68% (CI95% 27.18% to 49.48%) and 83.33% (CI95% 71.26% to 90.98%); and DAT-Canis, 18.84% (CI95% 11.35% to 29.61%) and 96.30% (CI95% 87.46% to 98.98%). CONCLUSION We concluded that improving the sensitivity of serum testing for diagnosing asymptomatic dogs must constitute a priority in the process of developing new diagnostic tests to be used in the visceral leishmaniasis control program in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/therapy , Serology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170377, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There is little information on the effect of using deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collars (Scalibor®) in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis by comparing populations in intervention and non-intervention areas. METHODS Phlebotomine flies were captured over 30 months in four neighbourhoods with intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Fortaleza and Montes Claros. We calculated the rates of domicile infestation, relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis, and Lu. longipalpis distribution in each site, capture location (intra- and peridomestic locations) and area (intervention and non-intervention areas). FINDINGS In the control area in Fortaleza, the relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis was 415 specimens at each capture site, whereas in the intervention area it was 159.25; in Montes Claros, the relative abundance was 5,660 specimens per capture site in the control area, whereas in the intervention area it was 2,499.4. The use of dog collars was associated with a reduction in captured insects of 15% (p = 0.004) and 60% (p < 0.001) in Montes Claros and Fortaleza, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We observed a lower vector abundance in the intervention areas, suggesting an effect of the insecticide-impregnated collars.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Psychodidae , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Insect Control/instrumentation , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles/administration & dosage
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(8): e170433, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The diagnosis of dengue is complex. Until recently, only specialised laboratories were able to confirm dengue infection. However, this has changed with the newly available immunochromatographic rapid tests. Early diagnosis is of great interest, and point-of-care rapid tests have been increasingly used in Brazil. Most of those tests have not undergone validation in the Brazilian population. In this context, we decided to evaluate a rapid test introduced in the Federal District (FD). OBJECTIVES To estimate the accuracy and reliability of the SD Bioeasy Dengue Duo rapid test and its components to detect dengue infections in a consecutive sample of symptomatic residents in the FD, Brazil. METHODS In total, 1353 venous blood samples were collected between 2013 and 2014. Two hundred and six positive samples (cases) and 246 negative samples (non cases) were required for sensitivity and specificity estimation, respectively; for agreement evaluation, we used 401 samples. The reference standard used was a composite of MAC-ELISA, virus isolation and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The evaluation was conducted prospectively under field conditions in the public health units of the FD. FINDINGS The results for the overall accuracy of the rapid test (NS1/IgM combined) showed 76% sensitivity and 98% specificity. The sensitivity for the NS1 component (67%) was better than that for the IgM component (35%). The positive likelihood ratio was 46, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.24. The reliability of the test (NS1/IgM combined) demonstrated crude agreement of 98% (Kappa index 0.94). MAIN CONCLUSIONS The present phase III, large-scale validation study demonstrates that the rapid test SD Bioeasy Dengue Duo has moderate sensitivity (NS1/IgM combined) and high specificity. Therefore, the test is useful in confirming the diagnosis of dengue, but not enough to rule out the diagnosis. Our results also suggest that Dengue virus (DENV) viral load estimated through the RT-qPCR and antibody level measured through the MAC-ELISA could have had a direct influence on the accuracy of the rapid test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Dengue/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Antibodies, Viral/blood
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 92-97, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039184

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To describe early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) epidemiology in a public maternity hospital in Brasilia, Brazil. Methods: We defined EOS as a positive blood culture result obtained from infants aged ≤72 hours of life plus treatment with antibiotic therapy for ≥5 days. Incidence was calculated based on the number of cases and total live births (LB). This is a descriptive study comparing the period of 2012-2013 with the period of 2014-September 2015, before and after implementation of antibiotic prophylaxis during labor for group B streptococcus (GBS) prevention, respectively. Results: Overall, 36 infants developed EOS among 21,219 LB (1.7 cases per 1000 LB) and 16 died (case fatality rate of 44%). From 2014, 305 vaginal-rectal swabs were collected from high-risk women and 74 (24%) turned out positive for GBS. After implementation of GBS prevention guidelines, no new cases of GBS were detected, and the EOS incidence was reduced from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.8) to 1.3 (95% CI 0.7-2.3) cases per 1000 LB from 2012-2013 to 2014-September 2015 (p = 0.32). Conclusions: Although the reduction of EOS incidence was not significant, GBS colonization among pregnant women was high, no cases of neonatal GBS have occurred after implementation of prevention guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Neonatal Sepsis/prevention & control , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Streptococcus/drug effects , Vaginal Smears , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Hospitals, Maternity
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 67-74, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842815

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Despite their high toxicity, antimonials and amphotericin B deoxycholate are commonly used for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Few studies showing conflictive data about their efficacy and adverse events in pediatric population are available. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of amphotericin B deoxycholate vs. that of N-methylglucamine antimoniate in treating pediatric VL in Brazil. METHODS This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm and controlled pilot clinical trial. Treatment naïve children and adolescents with VL without signs of severe illness were treated with N-methylglucamine antimoniate (20mg/kg/day for 20 days) or amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days). All patients were diagnosed with positive direct examination and/or positive PCR for Leishmania spp. performed in bone marrow samples. The primary efficacy end-point was VL cure determined after 180 days of completion of treatment. The analysis was performed using intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. RESULTS In total, 101 volunteers were assessed. Efficacy was similar for both groups. The antimonial (n=51) and amphotericin B groups (n=50) had a cure rate of 94.1% and 100%, and 94% and 97.9% according to ITT and PP analyses, respectively. All patients reported adverse events (AE). Serious AE incidence was similar in both groups. Five individuals were excluded from the study because of severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS N-methylglucamine antimoniate and amphotericin B deoxycholate have similar efficacy and adverse events rate in pediatric patients with VL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Meglumine Antimoniate , Meglumine/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
10.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043313

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study has been to study whether the top-down method, based on the average value identified in the Brazilian Hospitalization System (SIH/SUS), is a good estimator of the cost of health professionals per patient, using the bottom-up method for comparison. The study has been developed from the context of hospital care offered to the patient carrier of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with severe adverse effect because of the use of primaquine, in the Brazilian Amazon. The top-down method based on the spending with SIH/SUS professional services, as a proxy for this cost, corresponded to R$60.71, and the bottom-up, based on the salaries of the physician (R$30.43), nurse (R$16.33), and nursing technician (R$5.93), estimated a total cost of R$52.68. The difference was only R$8.03, which shows that the amounts paid by the Hospital Inpatient Authorization (AIH) are estimates close to those obtained by the bottom-up technique for the professionals directly involved in the care.


RESUMO A pesquisa teve por objetivo estudar se o macrocusteio, baseado no valor médio identificado no Sistema de Internação Hospitalar (SIH/SUS), constitui um bom estimador do custo de profissionais de saúde por paciente, tendo como comparação o método de microcusteio. O estudo foi desenvolvido no contexto da assistência hospitalar oferecida ao portador da deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (dG6PD) do sexo masculino com evento adverso grave devido ao uso da primaquina, na Amazônia Brasileira. O macrocusteio baseado no gasto em serviços profissionais do SIH/SUS, como proxy desse custo, correspondeu a R$60,71, e o microcusteio, baseado nos salários do médico (R$30,43), do enfermeiro (R$16,33) e do técnico de enfermagem (R$5,93), estimou um custo total de R$52,68. A diferença foi de apenas R$8,03, mostrando que os valores pagos pela Autorização de Internação Hospitalar (AIH) são estimadores próximos daqueles obtidos por técnica de microcusteio para os profissionais envolvidos diretamente no cuidado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Primaquine/adverse effects , Hospital Costs/statistics & numerical data , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/economics , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/drug therapy , Hospitalization/economics , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Patient Care Team/economics , Primaquine/economics , Time Factors , Brazil , Malaria/diet therapy , Malaria/economics , National Health Programs/economics , Antimalarials/economics
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 446-455, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792792

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In the Brazilian Amazon, malaria infections are primarily caused by Plasmodium vivax. The only drug that kills the hypnozoite form of P. vivax is primaquine, thereby preventing relapse. However, treating glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals with primaquine can lead to severe hemolysis. G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) affects approximately 400 million people worldwide, most of whom live in malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, clinicians need tools that can easily and reliably identify individuals with G6PDd. This study estimated the accuracy of the Carestart(tm) G6PD rapid test (Access Bio) in the diagnosis of G6PDd in male participants with and without P. vivax acute malaria. METHODS: Male participants were recruited in Manaus. Malaria diagnosis was determined by thick blood smear. G6PD quantitative analysis was performed spectro photometrically at a wave length of 340nm. The Carestart(tm) G6PD test was performed using venous blood. Genotyping was performed for individuals whose samples had an enzyme activity less than 70% of the normal value. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-four male participants were included in this study, of whom 320 had a diagnosis of P. vivax malaria. In individuals with enzyme activity lower than 30% (n=13), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Carestart(tm) G6PD test were as follows: 61.5% (95%CI: 35.5%-82.3%), 98.3% (95%CI: 97.0%-99.1%), 42.1% (95%CI: 23.1%-63.7%), and 99.2% (95%CI: 98.2%-82.3%), 98.3% (95%CI: 97.0%-99.1%), 42.1% (95%CI: 23.1%-63.7%), and 99.2% (95%CI: 98.2%-99.7%), respectively. Increases in sensitivity were observed when increasing the cut-off value. CONCLUSIONS: Despite low sensitivity, Carestart(tm) G6PD remains a good alternative for rapid diagnosis of G6PDd in malaria-endemic regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/blood , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Endemic Diseases , Middle Aged
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(2): 119-126, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780799

ABSTRACT

Abstract A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect®) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence. Data on the epidemiological, clinical and environmental characteristics of individuals were collected along with the diagnostic tests. After sampling and enrollment, seven hundred people from 2 to 14 years of age were included in the study. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was 33.28% (95% CI 29.87–36.84). The factors associated with Leishmania infection according to the multivariate analysis were age of more than seven years and the presence of opossums near the home. Age is a known factor associated with Leishmania infection; however, the presence of wild animals, as described, is an understudied factor. The presence of opossums, which are known reservoirs of Leishmania, in peri-urban areas could be the link between the rural and urban occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the outskirts of largest Brazilian cities, as suggested by previous studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Opossums/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Asymptomatic Infections , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 168-173, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777366

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Public Health/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Zoonoses/blood , Zoonoses/diagnosis
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(5): 555-559, Sept.-Oct. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: In the Americas, mucosal leishmaniasis is primarily associated with infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. However, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is another important cause of this disease in the Brazilian Amazon. In this study, we aimed at detecting Leishmaniadeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within paraffin-embedded fragments of mucosal tissues, and characterizing the infecting parasite species.METHODS: We evaluated samples collected from 114 patients treated at a reference center in the Brazilian Amazon by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses.RESULTS: Direct examination of biopsy imprints detected parasites in 10 of the 114 samples, while evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides detected amastigotes in an additional 17 samples. Meanwhile, 31/114 samples (27.2%) were positive for Leishmania spp. kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid (kDNA) by PCR analysis. Of these, 17 (54.8%) yielded amplification of the mini-exon PCR target, thereby allowing for PCR-RFLP-based identification. Six of the samples were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, while the remaining 11 were identified as L. (V.) guyanensis.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of applying molecular techniques for the diagnosis of human parasites within paraffin-embedded tissues. Moreover, our findings confirm that L. (V.) guyanensisis a relevant causative agent of mucosal leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazon.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Leishmania guyanensis/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/parasitology , Mucous Membrane/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Leishmania guyanensis/isolation & purification , Paraffin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Protozoan Proteins/genetics
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 12-19, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748358

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010). The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%), in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6%) and in extractive workers (43.7%); 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Gastropoda/genetics , Life Cycle Stages/genetics , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Sex Determination Processes/genetics , Fertilization , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Genotype , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Paternity , Sex Characteristics
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 756-762, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732985

ABSTRACT

Introduction Parenteral antimony-based compounds are still the standard of care for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment in many countries, despite their high toxicity. Previous studies showed that oral azithromycin could be an option for CL treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of oral azithromycin (AZ) for CL treatment compared with injectable meglumine antimoniate (MA). Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm, non-inferiority clinical trial. Treatment-naïve patients with localized CL were treated with MA (15mg/kg/day up to 1,215mg) or AZ (500mg/day) during 20 consecutive days. The primary efficacy end point was a CL cure 90 days after treatment completion. The analysis was performed with intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. After an anticipated interim analysis, the study was interrupted due to the high failure rate in the azithromycin group. Results Twenty-four volunteers were included in each group. The MA group had a higher cure rate than the AZ group with the ITT and PP analyses, which were 54.2% versus 20.8% [relative risk (RR) 1.97; 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) 1.13-3.42] and 72.2% versus 23.8% (RR 3.03; 95%CI 1.34-6.87), respectively. No unexpected adverse events were observed. Conclusions ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Brazil , Time Factors , Treatment Failure
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(3): 293-296, maio 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676982

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of a rapid immunochromatographic test that was developed to detect antibodies against the rK39 antigen for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This evaluation was performed using sera from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of active cutaneous leishmaniasis. The sera from 272 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) who resided in an area endemic for Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil were obtained before the initiation of antileishmanial treatment. Kalazar Detect(r)(InBios, Seattle, WA) recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic strips were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. The test results were evaluated independently by two examiners in sequential order. The positive controls for the test included five serum samples from five patients with parasitologically confirmed diagnosis of VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Brazil. Overall, 100% of the samples obtained from patients with CL were negative, confirming the absence of a serological cross-reaction for individuals with cutaneous disease when these patients were evaluated using the rapid test. The lack of a cross-reaction in patients who were infected by parasites of the same genus highlights the specificity of the rK39 antigen for the diagnosis of VL in areas with the sympatric circulation of L. braziliensis and L. infantum.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, Protozoan , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Protozoan Proteins , Chromatography, Affinity , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 263-266, Mar.-Apr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673207

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis is a relevant public health problem worldwide. Most of the reported cases in Latin America are from Brazil. Herein we report two human cases of congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis in two patients who developed symptoms during pregnancy. The diagnosis was made by visual examination of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates of the mothers and by detecting parasite kDNA in bone marrow samples of the newborn children using polymerase chain reaction.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/congenital , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis
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