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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(3): 329-334, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279316

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, such as third and fourth-generation, are responsible for emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms in neonatal units. Furthermore, antimicrobial daily doses are not standardized in neonatology. This study aimed to investigate the association between the use of antimicrobial broad spectrum to bacterial sensitivity profile in a referral unit of neonatal progressive care. Methods This is a cohort study conducted in a referral neonatal progressive care unit from January 2008 to December 2016. The data of all hospitalized neonates was collected daily. The infection criteria used were the standardized national criteria, based on definitions of Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. In this study, the use of antimicrobials was evaluated as antimicrobial-day (ATM-day) and the ratio of multidrug-resistant microorganisms per 1000 ATM-day of broad spectrum was also calculated. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ETIC 312/08 e CAAE 58973616.2.0000.5149). Results From 2008 to 2016, 2751 neonates were hospitalized, corresponding to 60,656 patient-days. The ratio of multidrug-resistant microorganisms per 1000 ATM-day of broad spectrum was 1,3 in the first period and 4,3 in the second period (p = 0,005). Conclusion It was observed that use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, especially those with coverage for Gram-negative bacteria, was associated with an increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 3-14, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This was a systematic review of the incidence density and risk factors for central venous catheter-related infections in a neonatal population. Data source: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, and LILACS databases were used without date or language restriction. Studies that analyzed risk factors for bloodstream infections in newborns were identified. Data synthesis: A total of 134 articles were found that met the eligibility criteria. Of these articles, 14 were selected that addressed risk factors for central venous catheter-related infection in neonates. Catheter-related bloodstream infections remain an important complication, as shown by the incidence rates reported in the studies included in this review. The observed risk factors indicate that low birth weight, prematurity, and longer catheter permanence are related to a higher incidence of bloodstream infections. It has been observed that low rates of catheter-related infections, i.e., close to zero, are already a reality in health institutions in developed countries, since they use infection surveillance and control programs. Conclusion: Catheter-related bloodstream infections still show high incidence density rates in developing countries. The authors emphasize the need for further longitudinal studies and the need for better strategies to prevent risk factors, aiming at the reduction of catheter-related infections.


Resumo Objetivo: Revisão sistemática sobre a densidade de incidência e de fatores de risco para infecção associada a cateter venoso central em população neonatal. Fontes dos dados: Usaram-se os bancos de dados Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Bdenf, Scielo e Lilacs, sem restrição de data ou de idioma. Identificaram-se os estudos que analisaram fatores de risco para infecção da corrente sanguínea em recém-nascidos. Síntese dos dados: Foram encontrados 134 artigos conforme os critérios de elegibilidade. Desses, foram selecionados 14 que abordaram fatores de risco para infecção associada a cateter venoso central em neonatos. A infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter continua a mostrar-se como uma importante complicação, conforme demonstram as taxas de incidência relatadas nos estudos incluídos nesta revisão. Os fatores de risco observados apontam que baixo peso ao nascer, prematuridade e maior tempo de permanência do cateter estão relacionados a maior incidência de infecção da corrente sanguínea. Observou-se que taxas de infecção associada a cateter em valores baixos, próximos a zero, já são uma realidade em instituições de saúde de países desenvolvidos, uma vez que usam programas de vigilância e controle de infecção. Conclusão: A infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter ainda apresenta altas taxas de densidade de incidência em países em desenvolvimento. Destaca-se a necessidade de mais estudos longitudinais e a necessidade de melhores estratégias de prevenção dos fatores de risco para a redução de infecção associada a cateter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(5): 451-456, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828135

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has been identified as the main nosocomial agent of neonatal late-onset sepsis. However, based on the pharmacokinetics and erratic distribution of vancomycin, recommended empirical dose is not ideal, due to the inappropriate serum levels that have been measured in neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of vancomycin used in newborns and compare the prediction of adequate serum levels based on doses calculated according to mg/kg/day and m2/day. This is an observational reprospective cohort at a referral neonatal unit, from 2011 to 2013. Newborns treated with vancomycin for the first episode of late-onset sepsis were included. Total dose in mg/kg/day, dose/m2/day, age, weight, body surface and gestational age were identified as independent variables. For predictive analysis of adequate serum levels, multiple linear regressions were performed. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve for proper serum vancomycin levels was also obtained. A total of 98 patients received 169 serum dosages of the drug, 41 (24.3%) of the doses had serum levels that were defined as appropriate. Doses prescribed in mg/kg/day and dose/m2/day predicted serum levels in only 9% and 4% of cases, respectively. Statistical significance was observed with higher doses when the serum levels were considered as appropriate (p < 0.001). A dose of 27 mg/kg/day had a sensitivity of 82.9% to achieve correct serum levels of vancomycin. Although vancomycin has erratic serum levels and empirical doses cannot properly predict the target levels, highest doses in mg/kg/day were associated with adequate serum levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/blood , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/blood , Reference Values , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Linear Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Neonatal Sepsis/blood
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(5): 472-478, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796113

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare two different empiric treatments for late-onset neonatal sepsis, vancomycin and oxacillin, in a neonatal intensive care unit with a high prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an neonatal intensive care unit from 2011 to 2014. Data from the medical records of at-risk newborns were collected daily. Infections were defined according to the National Health Surveillance Agency criteria. Data analysis was performed using an internal program. Results: There was a significant reduction in the number of Staphylococcus aureus infections (p = 0.008), without endocarditis, meningitis, or lower respiratory tract infection, as well as a reduction in the frequency of deaths related to S. aureus infection. There were no significant changes in the incidence of Gram-negative bacterial or fungal infections. An increase in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections was observed (p = 0.022). However, there was no measured increase in related morbidity and mortality. There was a reduction in the median number of days of treatment with oxacillin from 11.5 to 6 days (p < 0.001) and an increase of one day in the median number of days of treatment with vancomycin (p = 0.046). Conclusions: Modification of the empiric treatment regimen for neonatal late-onset sepsis with use of oxacillin showed a significant reduction in S. aureus infections, as well as a reduction in the frequency of infections with major organ system involvement and mortality due to infection with this microorganism. As a result, oxacillin can be considered as an effective treatment for late-onset sepsis, making it possible to avoid broad-spectrum antibiotics.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar dois períodos com diferentes esquemas empíricos para tratamento de sepse neonatal tardia, incluindo vancomicina ou oxacilina respectivamente, em unidade neonatal de referência com alta prevalência de Staphylococcus coagulase negativo. Métodos Estudo transversal, feito em unidade neonatal de referência, de 2011 a 2014. Os dados foram coletados diariamente por vigilância ativa em prontuário de recém-nascidos de risco. As infecções foram notificadas conforme critérios definidos pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O banco de dados e a análise foram feitos em programa interno. Resultados Ocorreu redução significativa da notificação de infecções por Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0,008), sem notificações de endocardite, meningite e infecções de vias aéreas inferiores, além de redução na frequência de óbitos pelo microrganismo e sem alteração significativa nas incidências de infecções por bactérias Gram negativas e fungos. Houve aumento de infecções S. aureus coagulase negativo (p = 0,022), mas sem aumento de morbidade e mortalidade. Ocorreu redução na mediana do tempo de uso de oxacilina, de 11,5 para 6 dias (p < 0,001), com aumento de mediana de um dia de uso de vancomicina (p = 0,046). Conclusões A modificação do esquema empírico com uso de oxacilina revelou redução significativa das infecções por S. aureus, além da redução na frequência de infecção de foco profundo e mortalidade pelo microrganismo. Considera-se que oxacilina pode ser usada como esquema de tratamento de sepse neonatal tardia para se evitar o uso de antibióticos de largo espectro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Oxacillin/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/mortality , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus aureus , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/mortality
5.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 23(1)jan.-mar. 2013.
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-702861

ABSTRACT

O presente relato aborda o planejamento e as ações tomadas pelo Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais para o enfrentamento e controle da pandemia pelo vírus Influenza A subtipo H1N1, ocorrida entre os meses de março e abril de 2009. São descritos os fluxos de pessoas, as precauções estabelecidas no atendimento doscasos suspeitos ou confirmados, a evolução para gravidade desses pacientes, a mortalidade associada e o destino dos resíduos gerados no atendimento.


The present report addresses the planning and actions taken by the Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais to confront and control the Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 pandemia, which occurred between the months of March and April 2009. We describe patient triage, the precautions established in the care of suspected or confirmed cases, the evolution of these patients, the associated mortality and the destination of the waste generated in care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Medical Care , Nursing Care , Medical Waste
6.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 87(6): 469-477, nov.-dez. 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-623439

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Rever os fatores de risco para infecção associada a cateteres venosos centrais e as recomendações para a sua prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foram revisados artigos publicados sobre o tema no PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration e Bireme. Os seguintes critérios de inclusão foram levados em consideração: trabalhos publicados entre 2000 e 2010, delineamento do estudo, população pediátrica hospitalizada com utilização de cateteres venosos centrais e artigos sobre infecção associada a cateteres venosos centrais. Além disso, foram utilizados documentos de referência dos Centers for Disease Control and Prevention e da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os fatores de risco associados foram: tempo de utilização de acesso central, duração da internação e uso de cateter central de longa permanência, colocação de cateter venoso central em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, doença cardiovascular não cirúrgica, recebimento de nutrição parenteral e de transfusão de hemoderivados. Entre as medidas preventivas, a literatura recomenda a implementação de protocolos e diretrizes multidisciplinares de cuidados na inserção e manutenção dos cateteres centrais, cuidados com a técnica de inserção dos cateteres venosos centrais, utilização de curativos impregnados com clorexidina, retirada precoce do cateter e adoção de programas de educação continuada para a equipe assistencial. CONCLUSÃO: O controle dos fatores de risco pode levar a uma redução igual ou superior a 40% na incidência dessas infecções. A vigilância do processo de inserção e cuidados com os cateteres vasculares centrais na população pediátrica orienta a padronização de rotinas dos serviços de saúde para a obtenção de taxas de referência para comparação intra e interinstitucionais.


OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection and the recommendations for its prevention. SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration and Bireme were reviewed using the following inclusion criteria: studies published between 2000 and 2010, study design, hospitalized pediatric population with central venous catheters and studies about central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection. In addition, reference documents were retrieved from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Associated risk factors were: duration of central venous catheter use; length of hospitalization time; long-term indwelling central venous catheter; insertion of central venous catheter in intensive care unit; nonoperative cardiovascular disease; parenteral nutrition; and administration of blood products. The preventive measures recommended by studies in the literature are: development of records and multidisciplinary guidelines of care for central venous catheter insertion and maintenance; correct use of central venous catheter insertion technique; use of chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings; early catheter removal; and adoption of continued education programs for the healthcare team. CONCLUSION: The control of risk factors may lead to a reduction of 40% or greater in the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Insertion surveillance and special attention to central venous catheter in pediatric populations should guide the standardization of healthcare routines to achieve standards for comparisons within and between institutions.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors
7.
RBCF, Rev. bras. ciênc. farm. (Impr.) ; 44(4): 675-682, out.-dez. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-507917

ABSTRACT

A administração de medicamentos parenterais tem grande importância na assistência pediátrica e no risco para aquisição de infecções hospitalares. Este estudo observacional transversal visoudescrever a utilização de medicamentos em uma unidade de internação pediátrica. Elaborou-se um instrumento de coleta de dados, as variáveis relativas à farmacoterapia foram coletadas da prescrição médica e a análise estatística descritiva foi realizada no SPSS. A amostra foi constituída de 75 pacientes pediátricos, sendo 56,0 % do sexo masculino; apresentando como predominante a faixa etária de lactentes. O tempo de internação mais frequente foi maior que 20 dias (24,0%) seguida de 6 a 10 dias (21,3%) e menos de 3 dias (17,3%). A via parenteral foi prescrita para 56 pacientes (74,7%) e 19 (25,3%) utilizaram outras vias ou não utilizaram medicamentos; sendo que a via parenteral endovenosa foi utilizada por 52 (92,9%) dos pacientes. O número de medicamentos parenterais prescritos abrangeu 47 fármacos. A média do número de medicamentos por paciente foi quatro, o que implica em exigência de maior tempo da equipe de enfermagem em atividades relacionadas à administração de medicamentos. O número elevado de medicamentos prescritos desperta preocupações em relação à segurança. O farmacêutico deve estimular a conversão da via de administração parenteral para a oral.


Parenteral drug administration has clinical relevance in pediatric care and the risk of acquire nosocomial infection. The purpose of this observational crosssectional study was to describe the utilization of parenteral drugs in a pediatric unit. A research questionnaire was created. The variables about pharmacotherapy were collect in prescriptions. The descriptive statistical analysis was performed using SPSSA total of 75 patients were admitted, 56% were male. The age range most frequently was the infants. The length of hospitalization was over 20 days (24.0%), 6 to 10 days (21.3%) and less than 3 days (17.3%). Parenteral route was used to 56 (74.7%) patients, so 19 (25.3%) used other routes or did not use medicine. Intravenous route was used to 52 (92.9%) patients. Overall, 47 different parenteral drugs were prescribed. The average of 4 drugs per patient requires more time of nursing team in activities related with drug administration. The high number of drug prescribed per patient raise concern about safety. The pharmacist should stimulate conversion from parenteralto oral administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cross Infection , Hospitals, Pediatric , Medication Systems, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Injections, Intravenous
8.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 42(4)dez. 2008. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-500613

ABSTRACT

Este estudo observacional determinou a freqüência de utilização de medicamentos parenterais em frascos-ampola em uma unidade pediátrica, e identificou as ações da equipe de enfermagem associadas ao preparo e administração desses medicamentos. Os dados foram coletados por meio da prescrição médica e observação direta dos medicamentos nas geladeiras e armários da unidade. A apresentação em frascos-ampola foi prescrita para 30,8 por cento dos pacientes. Foram observados aspectos quanto à reconstituição, ao armazenamento, à temperatura e à rotulagem dos medicamentos, fatores importantes para utilização segura dos mesmos. As informações pesquisadas para avaliar o processo de preparo e de administração estavam todas presentes em apenas 6,8 por cento dos medicamentos. A identificação correta dos frascos-ampola é importante para o uso seguro dos medicamentos. O treinamento da equipe de saúde e a adoção de diretrizes de terapia endovenosa são instrumentos essenciais para otimizar o processo de utilização de medicamentos parenterais.


This observational study aimed to determine the frequency of utilization of vials containing parenteral medications in a pediatric unit, and to identify nursing team actions related to their preparation and administration. Data were collected from prescription forms and by checking these drugs in the refrigerator and stocks at the unit. Vials were prescribed to 30.8 percent of patients. Aspects such as: reconstitution, storage, temperature and drug label were observed. Only 6.8 percent of the drugs had all the information researched in order to evaluate the process of preparation and administration. The correct identification of vials is important for the safe use of medication. Training programs for the healthcare team and the adoption of intravenous therapy guidelines are essential tools to optimize the utilization of parenteral medication.


Este estudio de observación determinó la frecuencia para utilizar medicamentos parenterales en frascos-ampolla en una unidad pediátrica, identificando las acciones del equipo de enfermería con respecto a su preparación y administración. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó la prescripción médica y la observación directa de los medicamentos en los frigideres y estantes del servicio. La presentación en frascos-ampolla fue prescripta en 30.8 por ciento de los pacientes. Se observó la reconstitución, el almacenamiento, la temperatura y los rótulos de los medicamentos, factores importantes para asegurar su administración. Las informaciones investigadas para evaluar el proceso de preparación y administración estuvieron presentes en apenas 6.8 por ciento de los medicamentos. La correcta identificación de los frascos-ampolla es importante para su administración. El entrenamiento del equipo de salud y la adopción de directrices sobre tratamiento endovenoso son instrumentos esenciales para optimizar la utilización del medicamento parenteral.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Drug Packaging , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Infusions, Parenteral/statistics & numerical data , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dosage Forms , Drug Storage/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Units/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data
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