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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 49-54, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013248

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (IALL). Methods: A retrospective cohort study.Clinical data, treatment and prognosis of 28 cases of IALL who have been treated at Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University and Baoding Children's Hospital from October 2013 to May 2023 were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), all patients were divided into KMT2A gene rearrangement (KMT2A-R) positive group and KMT2A-R negative group. The prognosis of two groups were compared. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-Rank test were used to analyze the survival of the patients. Results: Among 28 cases of IALL, there were 10 males and 18 females, with the onset age of 10.9 (9.4,11.8) months. In terms of immune classification, 25 cases were B-ALL (89%), while the remaining 3 cases were T-ALL (11%). Most infant B-ALL showed pro-B lymphocyte phenotype (16/25,64%). A total of 22 cases (79%) obtained chromosome karyotype results, of which 7 were normal karyotypes, no complex karyotypes and 15 were abnormal karyotypes were found. Among abnormal karyotypes, there were 4 cases of t (9; 11), 2 cases of t (4; 11), 2 cases of t (11; 19), 1 case of t (1; 11) and 6 cases of other abnormal karyotypes. A total of 19 cases (68%) were positive for KMT2A-R detected by FISH. The KMT2A fusion gene was detected by real-time PCR in 16 cases (57%). A total of 24 patients completed standardized induction chemotherapy and were able to undergo efficacy evaluation, 23 cases (96%) achieved complete remission through induction chemotherapy, 4 cases (17%) died of relapse. The 5-year event free survival rate (EFS) was (46±13)%, and the 5-year overall survival rate (OS) was (73±10)%.The survival time was 31.3 (3.3, 62.5) months. There was no significant statistical difference in 5-year EFS ((46±14)% vs. (61±18)%) and 5-year OS ((64±13)% vs. (86±13)%) between the KMT2A-R positive group (15 cases) and the KMT2A-R negative group (9 cases) (χ2=1.88, 1.47, P=0.170, 0.224). Conclusions: Most IALL patients were accompanied by KMT2A-R. They had poor tolerance to traditional chemotherapy, the relapse rate during treatment was high and the prognosis was poor.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Infant , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Prognosis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Abnormal Karyotype , Recurrence
2.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 591-596, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994236

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of selective cerebral mild hypothermia on small ubiquitin-like modifier 2/3 (SUMO2/3) modification of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R).Methods:Sixty clean-grade healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 240-260 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=15 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (S group), cerebral I/R group (I/R group), selective cerebral mild hypothermia group (HT group) and normal temperature group (NT group). The operation was performed under the monitoring of cerebral temperature and rectal temperature.Only the cervical blood vessels were exposed in S group, while focal cerebral I/R was induced by 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 h reperfusion in anesthetized animals in the other three groups.In HT group and NT group, 4 and 37 ℃ normal saline was perfused through the left internal carotid artery at a rate of 80 ml·kg -1·h -1 for 15 min, respectively. Modified neurological severity score (mNSS) was assessed at 24 h of reperfusion. Then the rats were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, brains were removed, brain tissues were obtained for determination of the percentage of cerebral infarct size (by TTC staining), and the ischemic penumbra tissues in the cerebral cortex were removed for examination of the ultra-structural changes of mitochondria (with a transmission electron microscope) and for determination of the SUMO2/3 modification of Drp1 (by CO-IP), expression of total Drp1 (T-Drp1) and total cytochrome c (T-Cytc) (by Western blot), and expression of mitochondrial outer membrane Drp1 (M-Drp1) and cytoplasmic Cytc (C-Cytc) (by Western blot) after isolation of mitochondria and cytoplasm. Results:Compared with S group, the mNSS and percentage of cerebral infarct size were significantly increased, the expression of M-Drp1, T-Drp1, C-Cytc and T-Cytc was up-regulated, and SUMO2/3 modification of Drp1 in ischemic penumbra area was increased ( P<0.05), the fragmentation of mitochondria was aggravated, and cristae rupture and vacuolation were obvious in the other three groups. Compared with I/R group, the mNSS and percentage of cerebral infarct size were significantly decreased, the expression of M-Drp1, T-Drp1, C-Cytc and T-Cytc was down-regulated, SUMO2/3 modification of Drp1 was increased ( P<0.05), the fragmentation of mitochondria was significantly attenuated, and cristae rupture and vacuolation were weakened in HT group. There were no significant differences in these detection parameters between NT group and I/R group ( P>0.05). Conclusions:The mechanism by which selective cerebral mild hypothermia alleviates the cerebral I/R injury is related to increased SUMO2/3 modification of Drp1, decreased binding of Drp1 to mitochondrial outer membrane, and reduced mitochondrial excessive fission in rats.

3.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 219-224, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993796

ABSTRACT

Microglia are widely present in the central nervous system and participate in various pathophysiological processes.They play an important role in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.In recent years, the study of exosomes produced by microglia activation involved in the pathophysiological processes of various diseases has attracted extensive attention, but the role of exosomes has not been fully clarified.This article reviewed the characteristics and functions of microglia, the characteristics and functions of microglia-derived exosomes and their roles in central neurodegenerative diseases.

4.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 435-438, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989003

ABSTRACT

Single-cell sequencing (SCS) sequences the genetic information of a single cell to better understand the differences amongst cells and reveal the unique changes of each cell type. The specific analysis of cell subsets at the single-cell level can accurately evaluate tumor cells and microenvironment cells to reveal the complexity of molecular components and the difference from the corresponding components in non-malignant tissues. Lymphoma is highly heterogeneous, some have unknown pathological types, etiology and poor prognosis. SCS is helpful to clarify the molecular mechanisms of lymphomagenesis and pathological staging, and guide clinical practice. This article reviews SCS and its application in lymphoma.

5.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 470-475, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986914

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize clinical features and our experience of the diagnosis and treatment of laryngocele. Methods: Clinical data of 11 laryngocele patients in department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from January 2012 to December 2021 were retrospectively reviewed, including 9 men and 2 women, aged from 12 to 75 years, with median age of 56 years. Electronic laryngoscope was performed in 10 of all patients, laryngeal CT in 10 and cervical color ultrasound in 5 before operation.All the operations were performed under general anesthesia, and the external cervical approach was used for external and combined laryngocele. The internal laryngocele was resected by low temperature plasma through transoral endoscopy. Patients were followed up regularly after operation to evaluate the effect. Clinical feature, types of lesions, imaging findings, surgical approaches and follow-up results were analyzed through descriptive statistical method. Results: Eleven laryngocele patients were divided into mixed type (n=6), internal type (n=4) and external type (n=1).Nine patients presented with hoarseness or dysphonia, 7 with cervical mass and 1 with airway obstruction. Surgical resections were done through external cervical approach (n=7)or transoral endoscopic approach (n=4). All the operations were successful and no complication occurred. All cases were followed up from 17 to 110 months. No recurrence was encountered. Conclusions: Laryngocele is a rare lesion with atypical clinical presentation. Preoperative imaging including CT scan and electronic laryngoscope is essential to evaluate the location, and extent of the lesion, and to make the surgical plan.Complete surgical excision is required. Surgical resection is the only effective method for the treatment of laryngocele.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Aged , Laryngocele/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Larynx/pathology , Laryngoscopy/methods , Hoarseness
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1508-1511, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic basis of two brothers featuring X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome.@*METHODS@#An infant who had presented at the Qilu Children's Hospital in 2020 for unstable upright head and inability to roll over and his family were selected as the study subjects. The clinical features of the child and one of his brothers were summarized, and their genomic DNA was subjected to targeted capture and next generation sequencing (NGS).@*RESULTS@#The brothers had presented with mental retardation and facial dysmorphisms. NGS revealed that they had both harbored a hemizygous c.5275C>A variant of the ATRX gene located on the X chromosome, which was inherited from their mother.@*CONCLUSION@#The siblings were diagnosed with ATR-X syndrome. The discovery of the c.5275C>A variant has enriched the mutational spectrum of the ATRX gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis , Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins/genetics , East Asian People , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mental Retardation, X-Linked/diagnosis , Pedigree , X-linked Nuclear Protein/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1345-1349, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of three Chinese pedigrees affected with Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1).@*METHODS@#Three children diagnosed at the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University from 2017 to 2020 were selected as the study subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the probands and their parents. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to detect pathological variants of the probands. Sanger sequencing was used for validating the candidate variant among the pedigrees.@*RESULTS@#The probands have respectively carried compound heterozygous variants of c.207_209delGGA and c.1168G>A, c.349G>A and c.364-1G>A, c.470G>A and c.970G>A of the ASS1 gene, which were respectively inherited from their parents.@*CONCLUSION@#The newly discovered c.207_209delGGA and c.364-1G>A variants have enriched the mutational spectrum of the ASS1 gene. And the mutation spectrum of Chinese CTLN1 patients is heterogeneous.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Argininosuccinate Synthase/genetics , Citrullinemia/genetics , East Asian People , Mutation , Pedigree
8.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 847-850, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934818

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand sleep behavior among primary and middle school students and its impact on overweight and obesity changes, to provide evidence for developing obesity prevention and controlling strategies in children and adolescents.@*Methods@#Primary and middle school students from three cities in Zhejiang Province who participated in questionnaire surveys and physical measurements in both 2017 and 2019 were selected. A follow up dataset of 605 students was developed and the relationship between sleep duration and body mass index was analyzed.@*Results@#From 2017 to 2019, BMI Z scores for male and female participants increased by 0.24 and 0.13, respectively. BMI Z scores increased by 0.29 in students of 9-12 years old and increased by 0.11 and 0.25 in urban and rural students, respectively ( P <0.05). The prevalence of insufficient sleep duration increased from 37.0 % to 41.8% simultaneously ( χ 2=3.68, P =0.06). After adjusting for confounding factors, the BMI Z score of students with insufficient sleep was 0.20 higher than those with sufficient sleep duration ( P <0.01). Compared with participants who had sufficient sleep duration from 2017 to 2019, participants whose sleep duration changed from sufficient to insufficient, and those who always had insufficient sleep duration increased by 0.23, respectively ( P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#Insufficient sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity. Shortened sleep duration is related to weight gain, and maintaining sufficient sleep duration may reduce the risk of obesity in children and adolescents.

9.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1233-1237, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994098

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between M2-type microglia-derived exosomes (M2-exo) and neuronal oxygen-glucose deprivation and restoration (OGD/R) injury in mice.Methods:Mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a cells) and BV2 microglia were cultured in vitro, and BV2 microglia were activated to M2 type using 20 ng/ml IL-4, and M0-type microglia-derived exosomes (M0-exo) and M2-exo were extracted.N2a cells were divided into 4 groups ( n=23 each) using the random number table method: control+ M0-exo group (C+ M0 group), control+ M2-exo group (C+ M2 group), OGD/R+ M0-exo group (O+ M0 group) and OGD/R+ M2-exo group (O+ M2 group).M0-exo and M2-exo (final concentration 100 μg/ml) were added in C+ M0 and C+ M2 groups, respectively, and the cells were incubated for 24 h. M0-exo and M2-exo (final concentration 100 μg/ml) were added at 3 h after oxygen and glucose deprivation, and then the cells were incubated for 24 h in O+ M0 and O+ M2 groups, respectively.N2a cell viability was measured by the CCK-8 method, and the severity of cell damage was assessed using the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate.The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 protein and mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results:Compared with C+ M0 group, no significant changes were found in N2a cell viability, LDH release rate, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Bax mRNA/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio in C+ M2 group ( P>0.05), and N2a cell viability was significantly decreased, and the LDH release rate, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Bax mRNA/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio were increased in O+ M0 group ( P<0.05).Compared with C+ M2 group, the N2a cell viability was significantly decreased, and the LDH release rate, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Bax mRNA/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio were increased in O+ M2 group ( P<0.05).Compared with O+ M0 group, N2a cell viability was significantly increased, and LDH release rate, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and Bax mRNA/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio were decreased in O+ M2 group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:M2-exo exerts an endogenous protective effect during OGD/R in mouse neurons, which may be related to the inhibition of cell apoptosis.

10.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 265-268, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933328

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of M1 microglia.Methods:The well-growing BV2 microglia cells were divided into 3 groups ( n=18 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), group LPS, LPS and electrical stimulation group (group LE). The cells were cultured for 24 h in normal culture atmosphere in group C. In group LPS and group LE, the LPS medium culture 100 ng/ml was added, and the cells were cultured for 24 h. In group LE, cells were stimulated with 100 mV/mm direct current for 4 h before LPS incubation.The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and leukocyte interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The expression of the M1 microglia surface markers CD32 and inducible nitric oxide synase (iNOS) was detected using immunofluorescent staining.The expression of CD32 and iNOS mRNA was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results:Compared with group C, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly increased, and the expression of CD32 and iNOS protein and mRNA was up-regulated in LPS and LE groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group LPS, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly decreased, and the expression of CD32 and iNOS protein and mRNA was down-regulated in group LE ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Electrical stimulation can inhibit LPS-induced activation of M1 microglia and thus alleviate the inflammatory responses.

11.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 44-49, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933294

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of long-term intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on the activation of hippocampal microglia in a mouse model of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD).Methods:Ninety-six clean-grade healthy male C57BL/6 mice, aged 8 weeks, weighing 18-24 g, were stratified according to body weight and divided into 4 groups ( n=24 each) by a random number table method: control diet group (group C), ω-3 PUFAs group (group ω), control diet plus POCD group (group C+ P) and ω-3 PUFAs plus POCD group (group ω+ P). Mice were fed a special ω-3 PUFAs diet (DHA 0.14 g/100 g, EPA 0.03 g/100 g) for 12 weeks in group ω and group ω+ P, while mice were fed with a control diet for 12 weeks in group C and group C+ P.Tibial fracture procedures were performed under isoflurane anesthesia to develop the POCD model after 12 weeks of feeding.The fear conditioning test and Y maze test were performed on 1st and 3rd days after developing the model.The mice were sacrificed after behavioral tests, and the hippocampal tissues were removed for determination of the contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy), density of Iba-1 positive microglia (by immunofluorescence staining), and expression of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and precursor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (pro-BDNF) (by Western blot), and contents of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results:Compared with group C, the contents of DHA and EPA were significantly increased, the percentage of freezing time in the contextual test was increased, mBDNF/pro-BDNF ratio was increased ( P<0.05), no significant change was found in the rotation accuracy in Y maze test, density of Iba-1 positive microglia and contents of IL-1β and IL-6 in hippocampus ( P>0.05) in group ω ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the contents of DHA and EPA ( P>0.05), the percentage of freezing time in the contextual test and accuracy of rotation in Y maze test were decreased on 1st and 3rd days after operation, the density of Iba-1 positive microglia and contents of IL-1β and IL-6 were increased, and mBDNF/pro-BDNF ratio was decreased in group C+ P ( P<0.05). Compared with group C+ P, the contents of DHA and EPA were significantly increased, the percentage of freezing time in the contextual test and accuracy of rotation in Y maze test were increased on 1st and 3rd days after operation, the density of Iba-1 positive microglia and contents of IL-1β and IL-6 were decreased, and mBDNF/pro-BDNF ratio was increased in group ω+ P ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Long-term intake of ω-3 PUFAs can improve cognitive function in a mouse model of POCD, and the mechanism may be related to inhibition of activation of hippocampal microglia, reduction of inflammatory responses, and thus increasing the mBDNF/Pro-BDNF ratio.

12.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1943-1949, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To optimize the extraction technology of modified Tabusen- 2(MT-2),and to investigate inhibitory effects of the extract obtained by the optimal technology on osteoclast differentiation. METHODS The index components of MT- 2 process optimization were selected by using network pharmacology. Based on single factor tests ,the extraction technology of MT- 2 was optimized by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology according to the comprehensive score of contents of above index components ,and then validated. RAW 264.7 cells were induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(100 ng/mL) to prepare osteoclast differentiation model. Inhibitory effects of MT- 2 extract(18.6,37.2,74.4 ng/mL)obtained by the optimal technology on osteoclast differentiation were investigated. RESULTS The index components screened by network pharmacology included chlorogenic acid ,terpineol diglucoside ,isochlorogenic acid A ,1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid ,hydroxysafflower yellow A , ginsenoside Rg 1 and ginsenoside Rb 1. The optimal extraction technology of MT- 2 was ethanol volume fraction of 60% ,the solid-liquid ratio of 1 ∶ 14(g/mL),extraction time of 94 min and extraction times of twice. The average comprehensive score obtained by the three validation experiments was 95.50,and the relative error with the predicted value (95.75)was -0.26%. Compared with osteoclastic differentiation model cells ,the cells treated with MT- 2 extract prepared by the optimal technology were mostly mononuclear round cells ,and the number of osteoclasts decreased significantly (P<0.05),its inhibitory effects tended to strengthen with the increase of drug concentration. CONCLUSIONS The optimal extraction technology of MT- 2 is stable and feasible. Obtained extract can inhibit osteoclast differentiation.

13.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 681-689, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of m7G-lncRNAs in predicting the prognosis and microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC).@*METHODS@#We screened m7G-lncRNAs from TCGA to construct an m7G-lncRNAs risk model using multivariate Cox analysis, which was validated using ROC and C-index curves. Calibration and nomogram were used to predict the prognosis of CRC patients. Point-bar charts and K-M survival curves were used to assess the correlation of risk scores with the patients' clinical staging and prognosis. CIBERSORT and ESTIMATE were used to explore the association between the tumor microenvironment and immune cell infiltration in patients in high and low risk groups and the correlation of risk scores with microsatellite instability, stem cell index and immune checkpoint expression. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed, and the key targets regulated by m7G-lncRNAs were identified and validated in paired samples of CRC and adjacent tissues by immunoblotting.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 1722 m7G-lncRNAs from TCGA database, from which 12 lncRNAs were screened to construct the risk model. The AUCs of the risk model for predicting survival outcomes at 1, 3 and 5 years were 0.727, 0.747 and 0.794, respectively. The AUC of the nomogram for predicting prognosis was 0.794, and the predicted results were consistent with actual survival outcomes of the patients. The patients in the high-risk group showed more advanced tumor stages and a greater likelihood of high microsatellite instability than those in the low-risk group (P < 0.05). The tumor stemness index was negatively correlated with the risk score (r=-0.19; P=7.3e-05). Patients in the high-risk group had higher stromal cell scores (P=0.0028) and higher total scores (P=0.007) with lowered expressions of activated mast cells (r=-0.11; P=0.045) and resting CD4+ T cells (r=-0.14; P=0.01) and increased expressions of most immune checkpoints (P < 0.05). ATXN2 (P= 0.006) and G3BP1 (P=0.007) were identified as the key targets regulated by m7G-lncRNAs, and their expressions were both higher in CRC than in adjacent tissues.@*CONCLUSION@#The risk model based on 12 m7G-lncRNAs has important prognostic value for CRC and can reflect the microenvironment and the efficacy of immunotherapy in the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Microsatellite Instability , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , Prognosis , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 93-100, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect against intestinal mucosal injury in rats following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#SD rat models of TBI were established by fluid percussion injury (FPI), and the specimens were collected at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after TBI. Another 15 rats were randomly divided into shamoperated group (n=5), TBI with saline treatment (TBI+NS) group (n=5), and TBI with PD treatment (TBI+PD) group (treated with 30 mg/kg PD after TBI; n=5). Body weight gain and fecal water content of the rats were recorded, and after the treatments, the histopathology of the jejunum was observed, and the levels of D-lactic acid (D-LAC), diamine oxidase (DAO), ZO-1, claudin-5, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected. Lipid peroxide (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2 content, jejunal pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF- α), Sirt1 activity, SOD2 and HMGB1 acetylation level were also determined after the treatments.@*RESULTS@#The rats showed significantly decreased body weight and fecal water content and progressively increased serum levels of D-LAC and DAO after TBI (P < 0.05) with obvious jejunal injury, significantly decreased expression levels of ZO-1 and claudin-5, lowered SOD2 and Sirt1 activity (P < 0.05), increased expression levels of LPO, ROS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced SOD2 and HMGB1 acetylation levels (P < 0.05). Compared with TBI+NS group, the rats in TBI+PD group showed obvious body weight regain, increased fecal water content, reduced jejunal pathologies, decreased D-LAC and DAO levels (P < 0.05), increased ZO-1, claudin-5, SOD2 expression levels and Sirt1 activity, and significantly decreased ROS, LPO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and acetylation levels of SOD2 and HMGB1 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PD alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory response by activating Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of SOD2 and HMGB1 to improve intestinal mucosal injury in TBI rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Glucosides/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
15.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1098-1102, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957573

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of hypothermia on the polarization of microglia and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway during oxygen-glucose deprivation/restoration (OGD/R).Methods:BV2 microglia were cultured in vitro and divided into 3 groups ( n=18 each) using the random number table method: control group (group C), group OGD/R and OGD/R plus hypothermia group (group OGD/R+ HT). Group C was cultured normally for 24 h. In group OGD/R, the cells were exposed to 5% CO 2-1% O 2 at 37 ℃ for 2 h in a glucose-free medium, followed by restoration of glucose and oxygen for 24 h. In group OGD/R+ HT, the high-glucose medium was replaced with a glucose-free medium, the cells were exposed to 5% CO 2-1% O 2 for 2 h in a 33 ℃ cryostat, followed by restoration of glucose and oxygen for 24 h. The cell survival rate was measured by CCK-8 assay.The expression of M1 microglia markers CD32 and iNOS protein and mRNA and M2 microglia markers CD206 and Arg-1 and mRNA was detected by immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.The expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB in cells was detected by Western blot, and the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB mRNA in cells was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in the cell supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results:Compared with group C, the cell survival rate was significantly decreased, the expression of CD32, iNOS, CD206, Arg-1, TLR4 and NF-κB protein and mRNA was up-regulated, and the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 in supernatant were increased in OGD/R and OGD/R+ HT groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group OGD/R, the cell survival rate was significantly increased, the expression of CD32, iNOS, TLR4 and NF-κB protein and mRNA was down-regulated, the expression of CD206 and Arg-1 protein and mRNA was up-regulated, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β in supernatant were decreased, and the concentration of IL-10 was increased in group OGD/R+ HT ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Hypothermia can significantly inhibit microglia polarization toward M1 phenotype, increase microglia polarization toward M2 phenotype and inhibit the development of inflammatory responses during OGD/R, and the mechanism may be related to inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

16.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 985-990, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957557

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of exosomes in M2 microglia-induced reduction of oxygen-glucose deprivation and restoration (OGD/R) injury to astrocytes.Methods:The primary astrocytes were cultured in vitro to the logarithmic growth phase and divided into 5 groups ( n=14 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), OGD/R group (group O), OGD/R+ M2 microglia group (O+ M2 group), OGD/R+ M2 microglia+ GW4869 group (O+ M2+ G group) and OGD/R+ M2 microglia-derived exosome group (O+ M2-E group). Cells in group C were cultured routinely.Cells in group O were subjected to 4 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and 24 h of restoration of O 2-glucose supply.In group O+ M2, cells were subjected to 4 h of OGD, and the supernatant of M2 microglia 2 ml was added to the medium during restoration of O 2-glucose supply, and the cells were cultured for 24 h. In group O+ M2+ G, cells were subjected to 4 h of OGD, and the supernatant of M2 microglia 2 ml treated with the exosome inhibitor GW4869 10 μmol/L was added to the medium during restoration of O 2-glucose supply, and the cells were cultured for 24 h. In group O+ M2-E, cells were subjected to 4 h of OGD, and the M2 microglia-derived exosome 10 μg/ml was added to the medium during restoration of O 2-glucose supply, and the cells were cultured for 24 h. The morphological changes of cells were observed with a light microscope, the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay, the expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of AQP4 and porimin was detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with group C, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the expression of AQP4 protein and mRNA and porimin was up-regulated ( P<0.05), and cell swelling occurred in the other four groups.Compared with group O, the cell viability was significantly increased, and the expression of AQP4 protein and mRNA and porimin was down-regulated in O+ M2 and O+ M2-E groups ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above ( P>0.05), and the cell viability was significantly attenuated in group O+ M2+ G.Compared with group O+ M2, the cell viability was significantly decreased, and the expression of AQP4 protein and mRNA and porimin was up-regulated in group O+ M2+ G ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above ( P>0.05), and the degree of cell swelling was increased in group O+ M2-E. Conclusions:M2 microglia can mitigate OGD/R injury to astrocytes through exosomes.

17.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 974-979, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957555

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of miR-20a-5p in M1 microglia aggravating oxygen-glucose deprivation and restoration (OGD/R)-induced injury to neurons and the relationship with mitofusin2 (MFN2).Methods:The well-growing BV2 microglia (M0 type) were polarized into M1 phenotype by lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/ml) and IFN-γ (20 ng/ml) and identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence.The well-growing N2a cells were divided into 6 groups ( n=6 each) by the random number table method: control group (group C), OGD/R group, M0 microglia co-culture group (group M0), M1 microglia co-culture group (group M1), miR-20a-5p inhibitor transfection group (group I) and negative control group (group NC). The cells were routinely cultured in group C, and the cells were subjected to OGD for 3 h followed by restoration of oxygen-glucose supply to develop the model of OGD/R injury in group OGD/R.The cells were subjected to OGD for 3 h and were co-cultured with M0 microglia for 24 h during restoration of oxygen-glucose supply in group M0.The cells were subjected to OGD for 3 h and were co-cultured with M1 microglia for 24 h during restoration of oxygen-glucose supply in group M1.In group I and group NC, cells were transfected with miR-20a-5p inhibitor and negative control miRNA into M1 microglia, respectively, and N2a cells were subjected to OGD for 3 h and co-cultured with M1 microglia for 24 h during restoration of oxygen-glucose supply.The cell viability was determined by cell counting kit-8 assay, amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released was determined, the expression of miR-20a-5p and MFN2 mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and MFN2 expression was detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with group C, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the amount of LDH released was increased, and the expression of MFN2 protein and mRNA was down-regulated in the other five groups, miR-20a-5p expression was significantly up-regulated in OGD/R, M0 and M1 groups, and miR-20a-5p expression was significantly down-regulated in group I ( P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the cell viability, amount of LDH released, and expression of miR-20a-5p, MFN2 protein and mRNA between group OGD/R and group M0 ( P>0.05). Compared with group OGD/R and group M0, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the amount of LDH released was increased, and the expression of MFN2 protein and mRNA was down-regulated, and miR-20a-5p expression was up-regulated in group M1 ( P<0.05). Compared with group M1, the cell viability was significantly increased, the amount of LDH released was decreased, the expression of MFN2 protein and mRNA was up-regulated, and miR-20a-5p expression was down-regulated in group I ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The mechanism by which M1 microglia aggravates OGD/R-induced damage to N2a cells may be related to the up-regulation of miR-20a-5p expression in M1 microglia and the inhibition of MFN2 expression in N2a cells.

18.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 734-738, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957521

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of miR-205-3p in oncosis in astrocytes subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and restoration (OGD/R) and the relationship with aquaporin4 (AQP4).Methods:Primary astrocytes were cultured in vitro to the logarithmic growth phase and divided into 5 groups ( n=16 each) using a random number table method: control group (C group), OGD/R group (O group), OGD/R+ miR-205-3p mimic group (M group), OGD/R+ miR-205-3p inhibitor group (I group), and OGD/R+ negative control group (NC group). Cells were cultured routinely in C group.Cells were subjected to 4 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation in a 37℃ anaerobic incubator (containing 94% N 2, 1% O 2 and 5% CO 2) followed by restoration of O 2-glucose supply for 24 h in O group.Cells in M, I and NC groups were transfected with miR-205-3p mimic, miR-205-3p inhibitor and miR-205-3p negative control for 48 h, respectively, and then cells were subjected to 4 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by restoration of O 2-glucose supply for 24 h. The cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8 assay, the cell injury and oncosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, the expression of AQP4 mRNA was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of AQP4 and porimin was detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with C group, the expression of miR-205-3p was significantly down-regulated, the cell viability was decreased, the rates of cell injury and oncosis were increased, and the expression of AQP4 protein and mRNA and porimin was up-regulated in O group ( P<0.05). Compared with O group, the expression of miR-205-3p was significantly up-regulated, the cell viability was increased, the rates of cell injury and oncosis were decreased, and the expression of AQP4 protein and mRNA and porimin was down-regulated in M group, the expression of miR-205-3p was significantly down-regulated, the cell viability was decreased, the rates of cell injury and oncosis were increased, and the expression of AQP4 protein and mRNA and porimin was up-regulated in I group ( P<0.05), and no significant changes were found in NC group( P>0.05). Conclusions:miR-205-3p is involved in oncosis in astrocytes subjected to OGD/R, which is associated with regulation of AQP4 expression.

19.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 685-689, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957510

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of exosomes in neuronal injury induced by M1 microglia.Methods:Liposolysaccharide 100 ng/ml and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)20 ng/ml were added to well-growing BV2 microglia to induce the polarization of microglia into M1 phenotype.Cell supernatant of M1 microglia was collected and M1 microglia exosomes (M1-exo) were extracted with exosome kit.The well-growing N2a cells were divided into 4 groups ( n=24 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), M1 microglia group (group M), exosome group (group E), and exosome inhibitor+ M1 microglia group (group G+ M). The cells in group C were conventionally cultured, the cells in group M were cultured with the supernatant of M1 microglia for 24 h, and the cells in group E were cultured with M1 microglia-derived exosomes for 24 h. In G+ M group, exosome inhibitor GW4869 was added, M1 microglia were incubated for 24 h, then the supernatant was collected and added to N2a cells, and the cells were incubated for 24 h. Cell viability of N2a cells was measured by the cell counting kit 8 assay, cell apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry.The expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2 and Bax protein was detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with group C, the cell viability was significantly decreased, the apoptosis rate was increased, the expression of Bcl-2 protein and mRNA was down-regulated, and the expression of Bax protein and mRNA was up-regulated in the other three groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group M, the cell viability was significantly increased, the apoptosis rate was decreased, the expression of Bcl-2 protein and mRNA was up-regulated, and the expression of Bax protein and mRNA was down-regulated in group G+ M ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the above indexes between group E and group M ( P>0.05). Conclusions:M1 microglia can mediate neuronal injury via exosomes.

20.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 842-847, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956062

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of M1 microglia-derived exosomes (M1-exo) on neuronal injury after oxygen-glucose deprivation and restoration, and to explore its mechanism.Methods:The mouse microglia BV2 cells grown in logarithmic growth phase were added with 100 μg/L liposolysaccharide (LPS) and 20 μg/L interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to induce the polarization of microglia into M1 phenotype. M1 microglia were identified by Western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunofluorescence. The supernatant of M1 microglia was collected, and exosomes were extracted by ExoQuick-TC TM kit. The morphology of exosomes were observed by transmission electron microscope and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and the expression of characteristic proteins CD9 and CD63 of exosomes were detected by Western blotting. The well-growing mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells were divided into six groups: the cells in group C were conventionally-cultured; and the cells in group O were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 3 hours followed by restoration of oxygen-glucose supply 24 hours to establish the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation and restoration injury; and the N2a cells in group E were co-cultured with M1-exo 24 hours after oxygen-glucose deprivation 3 hours; NC group, M group and I group constructed negative control, overexpression and knockdown of microRNA-20a-5p (miR-20a-5p) M1-exo, respectively. The succession of transfection was detected by qPCR and N2a cells in group NC, group M and group I were co-cultured with such transfected M1-exo for 24 hours after oxygen-glucose deprivation 3 hours. Cell viability were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry, and the expression of miR-20a-5p were detected by qPCR. Results:Compared with M0 microglia, the fluorescence intensity and mRNA and protein expressions of CD32 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), specific markers of M1 microglia, were increased [CD32 (fluorescence intensity): 36.919±1.541 vs. 3.533±0.351, CD32 mRNA (2 -ΔΔCt): 4.887±0.031 vs. 1.003±0.012, CD32/β-actin: 2.663±0.219 vs. 1.000±0.028; iNOS (fluorescence intensity): 29.513±1.197 vs. 7.933±0.378, iNOS mRNA (2 -ΔΔCt): 4.829±0.177 vs. 1.000±0.016, iNOS/β-actin: 1.991±0.035 vs. 1.000±0.045; all P < 0.01], indicating M1 microglia were successfully activated. Under electron microscopy, M1-exo had round or oval vesicular bodies with obvious membranous structures, with diameters ranging from 100 nm. Western blotting showed that the exosomes expressed specific CD63 and CD9 proteins. Compared with group C, the cell viability was decreased, the apoptosis rate and the expression of miR-20a-5p were significantly increased in group O [cell viability ( A value): 0.540±0.032 vs. 1.001±0.014, apoptosis rate: (19.857±0.910)% vs. (13.508±0.460)%, miR-20a-5p (2 -ΔΔCt): 5.508±0.291 vs. 1.033±0.101, all P < 0.01]. Compared with O group, cell viability was decreased, apoptosis rate and the expression of miR-20a-5p were increased in group E [cell viability ( A value): 0.412±0.029 vs. 0.540±0.032, apoptosis rate: (31.802±0.647)% vs. (19.857±0.910)%, miR-20a-5p (2 -ΔΔCt): 8.912±0.183 vs. 5.508±0.291, all P < 0.01], indicating that M1 microglia-derived exosomes further aggravated the damage of N2a cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation and restoration. Compared with group E, cell viability was decreased, apoptosis rate and the expression of miR-20a-5p were increased in group M [cell viability ( A value): 0.311±0.028 vs. 0.412±0.029, apoptosis rate: (36.343±0.761)% vs. (31.802±0.647)%, miR-20a-5p (2 -ΔΔCt): 32.348±0.348 vs. 8.912±0.183, all P < 0.01]; and the cell viability was increased, apoptosis rate and the expression of miR-20a-5p were decreased in group I [cell viability ( A value): 0.498±0.017 vs. 0.412±0.029, apoptosis rate: (26.437±0.793)% vs. (31.802±0.647)%, miR-20a-5p (2 -ΔΔCt): 6.875±0.219 vs. 8.912±0.183, all P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference in cell viability, apoptosis rate and the expression of miR-20a-5p between group E and group NC. Conclusion:M1 microglia-derived exosomes aggravate the injury of neurons after oxygen and glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, which may be related to miR-20a-5p carried by M1-exo.

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