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1.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 489-496, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989820

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a mortality risk prediction model of severe bacterial infection in children and compare it with the pediatric early warning score (PEWS), pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) and pediatric risk of mortality score Ⅲ (PRISM Ⅲ).Methods:A total of 178 critically ill children were selected from the PICU of the Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from May 2017 to June 2022. After obtaining the informed consent of the parents/guardians, basic information such as sex, age, height and weight, as well as indicators such as heart rate, systolic blood pressure and respiratory rate were collected from all children. A standard questionnaire was used to score the child 24 h after admission to the PICU. The children were divided into the survival and death groups according to their survival status at 28 d after admission. A mortality risk prediction model was constructed and nomogram was drawn. The value of the mortality risk prediction model, PEWS, PCIS and PRISM in predicting the risk of death was assessed and compared using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC).Results:Among the 178 critically ill children, 11 cases were excluded due to severe data deficiencies and hospitalization not exceeding 24 h. A total of 167 children were included in the analysis, including 134 in the survival group and 33 in the death group. A mortality risk prediction model for children with severe bacterial infection was constructed using pupillary changes, state of consciousness, skin color, mechanical ventilation, total cholesterol and prothrombin time. ROC curve analysis showed that the AUCs of mortality risk prediction model was 0.888 ( P<0.05). The AUCs of PEWS, PCIS and PRISM Ⅲ in predicting death in children with severe bacterial infection were 0.769 ( P< 0.05), 0.575 ( P< 0.05) and 0.759 ( P< 0.05), respectively. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test showed the best agreement between risk of death and PEWS predicted morbidity and mortality and actual morbidity and mortality (χ 2 = 5.180, P = 0.738; χ 2 = 4.939, P = 0.764), and the PCIS and PRISM Ⅲ predicted mortality rates fitted reasonably well with actual mortality rates (χ 2= 9.110, P= 0333; χ 2 = 8.943, P= 0.347). Conclusions:The mortality risk prediction model for predicting the death risk has better prognostic value than PEWS, PCIS and PRISM Ⅲ for children with severe bacterial infection.

2.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 486-496, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986057

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the protective effect and its possible mechanism of A-kinase anchored protein 1 (AKAP1) on the myocardial injury induced by highland hypobaric hypoxia. Methods: From January 2021 to May 2022, male C57BL/6 SPF grade mice were divided into wild type control (WT) group and highland hypobaric hypoxia (HH) group with 6 mice in each group. HH group simulated 6000 m altitude with low pressure oxygen chamber for 4 weeks to build the model. Primary myocardial cells of SD rats were divided into normoxia control group and hypoxia experimental group (n=3). Cell models were constructed in a three-gas hypoxia incubator with 1% oxygen concentration for 24 h. AKAP1 protein and mRNA expression in myocardial tissue and cells were detected by western blotting, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). After myocardial point injection of the AKAP1 or the control adenovirus, the mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6) : WT group, highland hypobaric hypoxia overexpression control group (HH+Ad-Ctrl group) and highland hypobaric hypoxia overexpression experimental group (HH+Ad-AKAP1 group). The cardiac function of mice was detected by noninvasive M-type ultrasonic cardiomotive, myocardial fibrosis was detected by Masson and Sirius Red staining, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was detected by wheat germ agglutinin. After the expression of AKAP1 in primary cardiomyocytes was downregulated by siRNA and upregulated by adenovirus, the cells were divided into three groups (n=3) : normoxia control group, hypoxia interference control group (hypoxia+siCtrl group), hypoxia AKAP1 knockdown group (hypoxia+siAKAP1 group) ; normoxia control group, hypoxia overexpression control group (hypoxia+Ad-Ctrl group), hypoxia AKAP1 overexpression group (hypoxia+Ad-AKAP1 group). Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, AKAP1, apoptosis-related protein and mRNA expression levels were detected by western blotting and qPCR, mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 staining, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen specie (ROS) level was detected by MitoSOX. Results: The expression of AKAP1 in cardiac muscle of HH group was lower than that in the WT group, and the expression of AKAP1 in hypoxia experimental group was lower than that in normoxia control group (P<0.01). Compared with WT group, the left ventricular ejection fraction and fraction shortening of left ventricle in HH+Ad-Ctrl group were decreased (P<0.01), myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy were aggravated (P<0.01), and the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) was decreased, the expressions of BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX), Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 were increased (P<0.01). After AKAP1 overexpression, compared with HH+Ad-Ctrl group, the left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fraction shortening were increased in HH+Ad-AKAP1 group (P<0.01), myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy were reduced (P<0.01), and the expression of BCL-2 was increased, the expressions of BAX, Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 were decreased (P<0.01). Compared with normoxia control group, the expression of BCL-2 in hypoxia+siCtrl group was decreased, the expressions of BAX, Caspase 3, Caspase 9 were increased, the apoptosis level was increased (P<0.01), the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and the production of ROS was increased (P<0.01). After AKAP1 knockdown, compared with hypoxia+siCtrl group, the expression of BCL-2 in hypoxia+siAKAP1 group was decreased, the expressions of BAX, Caspase 3, Caspase 9 were increased, the apoptosis level was increased (P<0.01), mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased, and the production of ROS was increased (P<0.01). After AKAP1 overexpression, compared with hypoxia+Ad-Ctrl group, the expression of BCL-2 in hypoxia+Ad-AKAP1 group was increased, the expressions of BAX, Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 were decreased (P<0.05), the apoptosis level was decreased (P<0.01), and the mitochondrial membrane potential was enhanced, and the production of ROS was decreased (P<0.01) . Conclusion: The downregulation of AKAP1 in cardiomyocytes under highland hypobaric hypoxia may lead to the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and the increase of ROS generation, leading to the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and thus aggravating the myocardial injury at highland hypobaric hypoxia.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1732-1741, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978669

ABSTRACT

Depression is a common emotional disorder that seriously affects people's life and health all over the world. The pathogenesis of depression is complex, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for antidepressants has a good therapeutic effect because of its multi-component, multi-pathway, and multi-target action mode. At present, the anti-depressive mechanism of TCM has not been fully clarified, but it is clear that depression is closely related to metabolic health. Therefore, in order to further explore the anti-depressive mechanism of TCM, this paper proposes research strategies on the anti-depressive mechanism of TCM based on functional metabolomics from the perspective of metabolism, the potential biomarkers of depression are analyzed with the help of multi-omics combined analysis technology, and the functional molecules of TCM for antidepressant are studied. Molecular biology techniques are used to accurately capture the molecular interactions between biomarkers of depression and functional compounds, which identify effective drug targets and further elucidate the biochemical functions and related mechanisms involved in depression metabolic disorders. This paper systematically reviews the research strategies and applications of functional metabolomics in the anti-depressive mechanisms of TCM, expounds on the core value of functional metabolomics, and summarizes the current research status and hot issues of TCM for antidepressants in recent years, providing new methods and new ideas for the study of mechanisms of TCM with the help of functional metabolomics.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2146-2152, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936563

ABSTRACT

The quality control and evaluation methods of Schizonepeta tenuifolia were established by HPLC fingerprint, multi index component content determination and chemical pattern recognition to provide basis for the quality control of medicinal materials. The chemical components of 25 batches of Schizonepeta tenuifolia panicle medicinal materials and decoction pieces collected were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, and the common pattern of fingerprint was established. A total of 22 common chromatographic peaks were calibrated, and their similarity was more than 0.9. The samples were divided into three categories according to different producing areas by cluster analysis. The results of principal component analysis and cluster analysis were consistent. Finally, five differential markers of different batches of Schizonepeta tenuifolia were selected by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Through the identification of the reference substance, it was determined that peak 9 was hesperidin, peak 10 was rosmarinic acid, peak 13 was tilianin, peak 14 was quercetin, and peak 20 was pulegone. The quality evaluation method established in this study is stable and reliable, and is suitable for the quality control of Schizonepeta tenuifolia.

5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2082-2089, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928148

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in improving scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice based on Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. ICR mice were randomized into blank group, model group, low-dose(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(400 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(800 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups, and donepezil hydrochloride group. The learning and memory impairment was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of scopola-mine. The learning and memory abilities of mice were detected by Morris water maze test, and the damage of hippocampal neurons and cortical neurons was detected based on Nissl staining. The expression of neuron specific nuclear protein(NeuN) in hippocampus and cortex of mice was determined by immunofluorescence assay, and the content of acetylcholine(Ach) and the activity of acetylcholines-terase(AchE) in hippocampus of mice by kits. Moreover, the content of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in serum of mice was detected. The content of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) in hippocampus was determined by Western blot. The results showed that there were significant differences in the trajectory map of mice among different groups in the behavioral experiment. Moreover, the latency of ESP groups decreased significantly compared with that in the model group. The hippocampal neurons in the high-dose ESP group were significantly more than those in the model group and the cortical neurons in the high-dose and medium-dose ESP groups were significantly more than those in the model group. The expression of NeuN in the model group was significantly decreased compared with that in the blank group, and the expression in the ESP groups was significantly higher than that in the model group. The AchE activity and MDA level were significantly decreased, and Ach content and levels of SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the ESP groups were significantly increased in the ESP groups compared with those in the model group. The expression of Keap1 in the model group was significantly increased compared with that in the blank group, and the Keap1 expression increased insignificantly in ESP groups compared with that in the model group. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was significantly lower in the model group than in the blank group, and the expression was significantly higher in the medium-dose ESP group than in the model group. In conclusion, ESP protected mice against the scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment by regulating the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts , Scopolamine/adverse effects , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2074-2081, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928147

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan patent medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in alleviating Alzheimer's disease in mice via Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into a blank control group, a model group, low(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium(400 mg·kg~(-1)) and high(800 mg·kg~(-1)) dose groups of ESP, and donepezil hydrochloride group. Except the blank control group, the other groups were given 20 mg·kg~(-1) aluminum chloride by gavage and 120 mg·kg~(-1) D-galactose by intraperitoneal injection for 56 days to establish Alzheimer's disease model. Morris water maze was used to detect the learning and memory ability of mice. The level of p-tau protein in mouse hippocampus and the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in hippocampus and serum were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were performed for the pathological observation of whole brain in mice. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL) staining was employed for the observation of apoptosis in mouse cortex. Western blot was adopted to detect the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-Akt, and GSK-3β in the hippocampus. Compared with the model group, the ESP groups showcased alleviated pathological damage of the whole brain, decreased TUNEL positive cells, reduced level of p-tau protein in hippocampus, and risen SOD, CAT, and T-AOC levels and declined MDA level in hippocampus and serum. Furthermore, the ESP groups had up-regulated protein levels of p-mTOR and p-Akt while down-regulated protein level of GSK-3β in hippocampus. Therefore, ESP can alleviate the learning and memory decline and oxidative damage in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose combined with aluminum chloride, which may be related to Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Aluminum Chloride/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Galactose/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Extracts , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , tau Proteins
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2064-2073, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928146

ABSTRACT

To study the protective effect of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills on ischemic stroke rats. Ninety 4-weeks-old SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(n=15):sham operation group, model group, nimodipine group(12 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills high-dose group(400 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills medium-dose group(200 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills low-dose group(100 mg·kg~(-1)).The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model(PMCAO) was established in the model group, nimodipine group, and Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills groups by the improved thread plug method, while the sham operation group did not insert the thread plug.Nimodipine group and Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills groups were given intragastric administration once a day for 24 days before the modeling operation, and once 1 hour before the modeling operation, while sham operation group and model group were given equal volumes of distilled water.The neuroethology of the surviving rats was measured; The volume of cerebral infarction in rats was measured by TTC method; The histopathology of rat brain was observed by HE method; The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β),interleukin-6(IL-6),malondialdehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in serum were detected by ELISA;The mRNA expressions of Notch 1,Jagged 1,Hes 1 and Bcl-2 in rat brain were detected by RT-PCR;Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of caspase-3 protein in rat brain; the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and CD34 positive cells in rat brain were detected by immunofluorescence.The low, medium and high dose groups of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills and nimodipine group could significantly reduce the neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarction volume of rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, reduce the morphological changes of nerve cells, decrease the expression of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 in rat serum, increase the activity of SOD and CAT,and reduce the level of MDA.Furthermore, the expression levels of Notch l, Jagged l, Hes l and Bcl-2 mRNA were significantly increased, and the expression level of caspase-3 protein was decreased.Meanwhile, the number of VEGF and CD34 positive cells increased in the treatment group.The differences were statistically significant. Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills has a protective effect on ischemic stroke rats, and its mechanism may be related to anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, promotion of nerve cell proliferation, inhibition nerve cell apoptosis and promotion of angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Caspase 3/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2056-2063, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928145

ABSTRACT

A chronic cholestasis model was induced in mice by feeding a diet containing 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine(DDC). The effects of Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) on endogenous metabolites in mice with chronic cholestasis were investigated by metabolomics analysis based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS). The results showed that ESP was effective in improving pathological injury and reducing serum levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), and total bile acid in the model mice. Meanwhile, 13 common differential metabolites were revealed in metabolomic screening between the model/control group and the model/ESP group, including uric acid, glycolaldehyde, kynurenine, flavin adenine dinucleotide, L-3-phenyllactic acid, I-urobilin, leukotriene D4(LTD4), taurocholic acid, trioxilin A3, D-inositol-1,4-diphosphate, PC [16:0/20:2(11Z,14Z)], PC[14:0/22:2(13Z,16Z)], and PC[20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)]. After ESP intervention, the levels of all 13 differential metabolites were significantly retraced, and pathway analysis showed that ESP achieved its therapeutic effect mainly by affecting arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and primary bile acid biosynthesis. This study elucidated the mechanism of action of ESP against chronic cholestasis based on metabolites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bile Acids and Salts , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Chromatography, Liquid , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Metabolomics
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2049-2055, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928144

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) against the liver injury induced by acetaminophen(APAP) in mice based on the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1)/nuclear transcription factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) p65 signaling pathways. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, an N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC) group, and high-(400 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(200 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(100 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups. After 14 days of continuous administration, except for those in the control group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg·kg~(-1) APAP. After 12 h, the serum and liver tissues of mice were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed on pathological sections of the liver, and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) in the serum and the levels of glutathione(GSH), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), myeloperoxidase(MPO), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in liver tissue homogenate were detected to observe and analyze the protective effect of ESP on APAP-induced liver injury in mice. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The protein expression of Nrf2, Keap1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in the liver was determined by Western blot. Quantitative real-time was used to determine the mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit(GCLM), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1(NQO-1) in the liver to explore the mechanism of ESP in improving APAP-induced liver damage in mice. As revealed by results, compared with the model group, the ESP groups showed improved liver pathological damage, decreased ALT and AST levels in the serum and MDA and MPO content in the liver, increased GSH, SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the liver, reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum, down-regulated expression of Keap1 in the liver cytoplasm and NF-κB p65 in the liver nucleus, up-regulated expression of Nrf2 in the liver nucleus, insignificant change in TLR4 expression, and elevated relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant genes GCLC, GCLM, HO-1, and NQO-1. ESP can reduce the oxidative damage and inflammation caused by APAP, and the mechanism may be related to the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and the signal transduction factors on the TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/pharmacology , Glutathione , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Liver , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2038-2048, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928143

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) on the intestinal flora of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) mice. Forty-eight male C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the control group, model(methionine-choline-deficient, MCD) group, high-(0.8 g·kg~(-1)), medium-(0.4 g·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(0.2 g·kg~(-1)) ESP groups, and pioglitazone(PGZ, 10 mg·kg~(-1)) group, with eight mice in each group. Mice in the control group were fed with normal diet, while those in the remaining five groups with MCD diet for five weeks for inducing NASH. During modeling, they were gavaged with the corresponding drugs. The changes in body mass, daily water intake, and daily food intake were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the liver tissues were collected and stained with hematoxylin-eosin(HE) for observing the pathological changes, followed by oil red O staining for observing fat accumulation in the liver. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and triglyceride(TG) in liver tissue were measured. The changes in intestinal flora of mice were determined using 16 S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that compared with the model group, the high-, medium-and low-dose ESP groups and the PGZ group exhibited significantly lowered AST and ALT in serum and TG in liver tissues and alleviated hepatocellular steatosis and fat accumulation in the liver. As demonstrated by 16 S rRNA sequencing, the abundance index and diversity of intestinal flora decreased in the model group, while those increased in the ESP groups. Besides, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased at the phylum level. In the alteration of the composition of intestinal flora, ESP reduced the abundance of Erysipelotrichia and Faecalibaculum but increased the abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae, Rikenellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. This study has revealed that ESP has a protective effect against NASH induced by MCD diet, which may be related to its regulation of the changes in intestinal flora, alteration of the composition of intestinal flora, and inhibition of the intestinal dysbiosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Liver , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2028-2037, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928142

ABSTRACT

Precious Tibetan medicine formula is a characteristic type of medicine commonly used in the clinical treatment of central nervous system diseases. Through the summary of modern research on the precious Tibetan medicine formulas such as Ratnasampil, Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills, Ershiwewei Shanhu Pills, and Ruyi Zhenbao Pills, it is found that they have obvious advantages in the treatment of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, angioneurotic headache, and vascular dementia. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the mechanisms of precious Tibetan medicine formulas in improving central nervous system diseases are that they promote microcirculation of brain tissue, regulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, alleviate inflammation, relieve oxidative stress damage, and inhibit nerve cell apoptosis. This review summarizes the clinical and pharmacological studies on precious Tibetan medicine formulas in prevention and treatment of central nervous system diseases, aiming to provide a reference for future in-depth research and innovative discovery of Tibetan medicine against central nervous diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Central Nervous System Diseases , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Stroke/drug therapy
12.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 358-365, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985225

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the genetic polymorphism of whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes in She population in Zhejiang and to explore the maternal genetic structure of the She population. Methods Whole mtDNA genomes of 231 unrelated individuals from She population in Zhejiang Province were sequenced. The number of mutations and population genetics parameters such as, the haplotype diversity (HD), discrimination power (DP), and random match probabilities (RMP) were analyzed. The mtDNA haplogroups of Zhejiang She population were classified, and the maternal genetic relationships between She and nine other Chinese populations were estimated. Results In 231 Zhejiang She samples, 8 507 mutations (702 types) were observed and the samples were classified into 94 haplogroups. The HD, DP and RMP values were 0.998 6, 0.994 2 and 0.005 8, respectively. The lowest genetic differentiation degree (Fst=0.006 89) was detected between Zhejiang She population and southern Han population. Principal component analysis (PCA) and median-joining network analysis showed that the genetic distance of Zhejiang She population with Guangxi Yao, Yunnan Dai and Southern Han populations was relatively close, but the population still had some unique genetic characteristics. Conclusion The whole mtDNA genomes are highly polymorphic in Zhejiang She population. The Zhejiang She population contains complex and diverse genetic components and has a relatively close maternal genetic relationship with Guangxi Yao, Yunnan Dai and Southern Han populations. Meanwhile, Zhejiang She population has kept its unique maternal genetic components.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People/genetics , China , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Ethnicity/genetics , Genetics, Population , Haplotypes , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Polymorphism, Genetic
13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 749-754, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of children with adenovirus pneumonia and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the mediacal data of 7 children with adenovirus pneumonia and HLH from March to September, 2019.@*RESULTS@#The age of these children ranged from 11 months to 5 years, and among these children, 5 were aged <2 years and 5 were boys. None of these children had underlying diseases. All children were hospitalized due to persistent high fever and cough, and the peak temperature of fever was 39°C to 41°C. With disease progression, 7 children developed hepatomegaly and 6 developed splenomegaly. Routine blood test results showed reductions in two or three lineages of blood cells, with increases in serum ferritin (SF), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Phagocytosis of blood cells was observed in 6 children. Radiological examination of lungs showed pneumonia changes. All 7 children were diagnosed with human adenovirus type 7 infection based on pathogenic metagenome detection. No abnormality was found by HLH gene detection and the children were diagnosed with secondary HLH. All children received intravenous immunoglobulin. Among these children, 4 received dexamethasone and etoposide chemotherapy, 3 received dexamethasone alone, and 4 received plasma exchange. Of the 7 children, 2 died and 5 were recovered. Compared with those who survived, the children who died had significantly greater reductions in the three lineages of blood cells and significantly greater increases in serum levels of CRP, PCT, SF, and LDH.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The children with adenovirus pneumonia and HLH have main clinical features of persistent high fever, progressive reductions in two or three lineages of peripheral blood cells, and involvement of other organ systems, including hepatosplenomegaly. Significant increases in serum levels of CRP, PCT, SF, and LDH may suggest a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Adenoviridae , Etoposide , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Retrospective Studies
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5151-5158, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008378

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient method of nine-steaming and nine-sun-curing,the chemical composition changes and quality profiles in different processes of Polygoni Multiflori Radix were studied. Their contents of stilbene glycoside,anthraquinones and polysaccharides were determined by nine-steaming and nine-sun-curing with black bean juice and pharmacopoeia method. HPLC chemical fingerprints were established,and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) was performed on different processed products using SIMCA 14. 1 software to evaluate the quality difference between samples. The results of content determination show that,with the increase of the number of processing and steaming times,the stilbene glycoside and the combined anthraquinone showed a decreasing trend,and the free anthraquinone,total anthraquinone and polysaccharide showed an upward trend in the different preparations of Polygoni Multiflori Radix and Pharmacopoeia. Six-steamed and six-sun-cured products can be used as the finishing point for the classic steaming. Fingerprint results showed that there were significant differences in chemical composition in Polygoni Multiflori Radix at different processing processes. It can be identified stilbene glycoside( peak 13),emodin( peak 21),and physcion( peak 24). By comparing the relative peak areas of the 26 chromatographic peaks in the sample after normalization( the reference is peak 7),it was found that the relative peak areas of 12 peaks in the processed products were higher than the raw products,13 peaks were reduced; according to statistical analysis of OPLS-DA,Polygoni Multiflori Radix at different processing degrees was further divided into three categories,sample S1 was class I,S2-S5 were class Ⅱ,and S6-S11 were class Ⅲ. And 8 peaks with the VIP value higher than 1. 0 were peak 13,21,4,3,11,14,5,and 24 in order. The eight chemical components were the main components to distinguish the difference between Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the process of nine-steaming and nine-sun-curing,suggesting that it was rational to use stilbene glycoside,emodin and emodin methyl ether as quality control indicators of Polygoni Multiflori Radix. The method established in this experiment conformed to the methodological verification requirements,established a method of multi-component content determination combined with fingerprint,and clarified that six-steaming and six-sun-curing was used as an improved classical processing technology,and more clearly defined the whole dynamic change of chemical composition in Polygoni Multiflori Radix by nine-steaming and ninesun-curing process. It provides a basis for the chemical quality evaluation model about different processed products of Polygoni Multiflori Radix.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycosides/analysis , Least-Squares Analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Polygonum/chemistry , Polysaccharides/analysis , Steam , Stilbenes/analysis , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 217-223, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801719

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the use of ITS2 sequences as DNA barcode to identify the Zingiberaceae medicinal plants from E'mei area. Method: The genomic DNAs were extracted from 43 Zingiberaceae medicinal plant samples from Sichuan E'mei area. The ITS2 sequences of these samples were amplified and bidirectionally sequenced by PCR. 40 ITS2 sequences were downloaded from the GenBank,and then the interspecific and intraspecific genetic distances were calculated and analyzed by using MEGA 6.0 to construct Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree; TAXON DNA software was also used to analyze intraspecific and interspecific variations and barcoding gaps. The differences in secondary structure of the ITS2 sequences were predicted and compared. Result: The minimum interspecific distance in Zingiberaceae samples was greater than the maximum intra specific distance,with obvious barcoding gap. The NJ tree showed that the samples were clustered into five different branches,Alpinia,Curcuma,Globba,Hedychium,and Zingiber respectively,and further cluster into sub-branches. Significant differences were also present in the secondary structures of ITS2 between different samples. Conclusion: ITS2 sequences as DNA barcode can be used to conduct accurate and rapid identification of the Zingiberaceae plants and clearly figure out the phylogenetic relationship among them,providing guidance for the study of the distribution of medicinal plants of this genus,as well as theoretical basis for the quality control,medication safety and rational development of Zingiberaceae medicinal plants in E'mei area.

16.
Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 6-9, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707149

ABSTRACT

Objective To provide basis for the traceability and safty of Bangna-Tiebangchui according to textual research on the name and base resource of Bangna-Tiebangchui. Methods On the basis of literature textual research, combining herbal and modern Chinese (Tibetan) medicine specifications, literature research, medicinal name interpretation method and plant classification method were used for comprehensive analysis. Results Si Bu Yi Dian records toxic herb medicine of Banganabao. Jing Zhu Ben Cao divides Banganabao into five kinds with different types of efficacy according toxicity and colors, and records Langqingqietu (Tiebangchui) with similar toxicity from Yin Mountain or Han Areas. Base resource of Banganabao includes ten kinds of ranunculaceae aconitum plants. Conclusion Bangna (????? Tibetan transliteration) is the most toxic kind of Banganabao according to textual research, which is also named as Tiebangchui (TCM name) now. Bangna is widely used in anti-inflammation, analgesia, and local anesthesia, which base resource is Aconitum pendulum Busch and dry roots of A. flavum Hand.-Mazz.

17.
Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 83-86, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707131

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a method for determining benzoylaconine, aconitine and 3-deoxyaconitine in Aconitum pendulum and the habitually medicinal materials by HPLC; To provide basis for control of quality standard toxicity composition in Aconitum pendulum and difference between Aconitum pendulum and the habitually medicinal materials. Methods Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm) was used at 25 ℃ with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.04% trimethylamine (each 1000 mL of water plus 4 mL triethylamine and 1.68 mL phosphoric acid) by gradient elution; detection wavelength was 235 nm; the flow rate was 1 mL/min; injection volume was 10 μL. Results The benzoylaconine, aconitine and 3-deoxyaconitine had good separation and linear relationship in the corresponding range (r>0.999). The average recovery rates were 97.66%–98.47%, and RSD were 0.84%–1.60%. Conclusion The contents of 3 alkaloid were different in Aconitum pendulum and the habitually medicinal materials. Both A. polyschistum and A. sessiliflorum need separate drug names.

18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2129-2133, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690520

ABSTRACT

The type 2 diabetes rat model was induced with high-sugar and high-fat diet combined with low-dose STZ. This study investigated the hypolipidemic mechanism of Coptis chinensis and C. deltoidea. After 30 days of administration, HOMA-IR and the content of TG in serum were detected, and the expressions of SCAP, SREBP-1c were tested by the method of Western blot and Real-time PCR analysis. The test results showed that both components can significantly alleviate insulin resistance and down-regulate the expressions of SREBP-1c and SCAP in liver tissue of type two diabetes mellitus. Compared with the control group, there were significant differences in relevant protein expression (<0.05, <0.01). This indicates that the inhibition of SREBP-1c and SCAP expressions may be the hypolipidemic mechanism of Coptidis Rhizoma on type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results also showed that C. deltoidea has a better efficacy in lipid elimination, but a weaker hypoglycemic effect against C. chinensis.

19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 448-454, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687928

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether the methanol extract of Berberis amurensis Rupr. (BAR) augments penile erection using in vitro and in vivo experiments.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The ex vivo study used corpus cavernosum strips prepared from adult male New Zealand White rabbits. In in vivo studies for intracavernous pressure (ICP), blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and increase of peak ICP were continuously monitored during electrical stimulation of Sprague-Dawley rats.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE) in isolated endotheliumintact rabbit corus cavernosum, BAR relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one, a soluble guanylyl cclase inhibitor. BAR significantly relaxed penile smooth muscles dose-dependently in ex vivo, and this was inhibited by pretreatment with L-NAME H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one. BAR-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA, P<0.01), a nonselective K channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, P<0.01), a voltage-dependent K channel blocker, and charybdotoxin (P<0.01), a large and intermediate conductance Ca sensitive-K channel blocker, respectively. BAR induced an increase in peak ICP, ICP/MAP ratio and area under the curve dose dependently.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BAR augments penile erection via the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate system and Ca sensitive-K (BK and IK) channels in the corpus cavernosum.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Area Under Curve , Berberis , Chemistry , Blood Pressure , Cyclic GMP , Metabolism , Epoprostenol , Pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Indomethacin , Pharmacology , Models, Biological , Muscle Relaxation , Muscle, Smooth , Physiology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Pharmacology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Penile Erection , Phenylephrine , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Pressure
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1395-1400, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350171

ABSTRACT

Artemisia hedinii occupies an important position in the Tibetan medicine. Plants in Artemisia vary a lot and are widely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, many plants in Artemisia look similar, making traditional identification methods laborious. In this article, ITS2 sequences were used as DNA barcoding to identify four kinds of confusable Tibetan medicine plants in Artemisia, aiming to establish a rapid and accurate identification methods. Twenty-one samples in Artemisia were collected from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, ITS2 sequence PCR amplification and sequencing were conducted after the extraction of DNA. Another 11 sequence downloaded from Genbank were added to the analysis. Genetic distance calculation and analysis, building Neighbor Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree were conducted by MEGA 6.0, also comparison of secondary structures of ITS2 sequences among samples. A. hedinii, A. annua, A. dubia and A. argyi shared close genetic distance, but the maximum distance between the four species was much greater than the minimum distance within each species, NJ tree showed that the four species went to four separate branches, differences among secondary structures of ITS2 sequences also made it clear to identify these medical plants. It could be an accurate and rapid method for identification and recognition, as well as the evolutionary relationships between the species by using ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode for plants of Tibetan Artemisia. The study provides theoretical basis for quality control, medication safety and rational exploitation.

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