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1.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 777-783, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993006

ABSTRACT

Objective:To measure the morphological parameters of the fetal vertebral centrum ossification centers (COC) in the second-third trimester using MRI susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and to explore the growth and development trajectory of the vertebrae.Methods:Fetus in the second-third trimester with normal vertebrae development were prospectively and continuously included in Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University from December 2015 to December 2021, and the SWI scanning of fetal spine was performed. The following morphometric parameters of the C4, T6, L3, S1 vertebrae COC were measured, including sagittal diameter, transverse diameter, height, cross-sectional area and volume. The linear and nonlinear regression analysis was used to derive the best-fit curve for each parameters and gestational age.Results:A total of 112 fetuses were recruited with gestatonal age 21-39 (29.4±3.9) weeks, including 30 cases of C4, 58 cases of T6, 92 cases of L3, 62 cases of S1. Fetal spine in utero with global curvature was kyphosis, presenting two primary curves (thoracic and sacral kyphosis). The morphological parameters sagittal diameter, transverse diameter, height, cross-sectional area and volume of C4 followed the quadratic polynomial rule during 25 to 38 weeks (R 2=0.938, 0.943, 0.952, 0.957, 0.982). During 21 to 38 weeks, the sagittal diameter, transverse diameter and height of the T6 followed the exponential growth pattern (R 2=0.915, 0.923, 0.849) and the growth of the area and volume followed the quadratic polynomial growth pattern (R 2=0.943, 0.961). The L3 followed the quadratic polynomial rule during 21 to 39 weeks (R 2=0.910, 0.916, 0.914, 0.942, 0.948) The sagittal diameter, transverse diameter and height of the S1 followed the linear growth pattern (R 2=0.905, 0.911, 0.922) and the area and volume followed the quadratic polynomial growth pattern (R 2=0.930, 0.964) during 23 to 39 weeks. Conclusions:The growth and development of C4, T6, L3 and S1 COC of fetus in the second-third trimester has a good correlation with gestational age. The growth of fetal vertebral COC in the early stage is slow, but with the growth of gestational age, the growth rate of vertebral bodies accelerates.

2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 665-671, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) brings health issues for both mothers and offspring, and GDM prevention is as important as GDM management. It was shown that a history of GDM was significantly associated with a higher maternal risk for GDM recurrence. The incidence of GDM recurrence was unclear because of the incidence of second-child was low before 2016 in China. We aim to investigate the prevalence of GDM recurrence and its associated high-risk factors which may be useful for the prediction of GDM recurrence in China.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted which enrolled participants who underwent regular prenatal examination and delivered twice in the same hospital of 18 research centers. All participants were enrolled from January 2018 to October 2018, where they delivered the second baby during this period. A total of 6204 women were enrolled in this study, and 1002 women with a history of GDM were analyzed further. All participants enrolled in the study had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) result at 24 to 28 weeks and were diagnosed as GDM in the first pregnancy according to the OGTT value (when any one of the following values is met or exceeded to the 75-g OGTT: 0 h [fasting], ≥5.10 mmol/L; 1 h, ≥10.00 mmol/L; and 2 h, ≥8.50 mmol/L). The prevalence of GDM recurrence and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus were calculated, and its related risk factors were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In 6204 participants, there are 1002 women (1002/6204,16.15%) with a history of GDM and 5202 women (5202/6204, 83.85%) without a history of GDM. There are significant differences in age (32.43 ± 4.03 years vs. 33.00 ± 3.34 years vs. 32.19 ± 3.37 years, P  < 0.001), pregnancy interval (4.06 ± 1.44 years vs. 3.52 ± 1.43 years vs. 3.38 ± 1.35 years, P  = 0.004), prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) (27.40 ± 4.62 kg/m2vs. 23.50 ± 3.52 kg/m2vs. 22.55 ± 3.47 kg/m2, P < 0.001), history of delivered macrosomia (22.7% vs. 11.0% vs. 6.2%, P < 0.001) among the development of diabetes mellitus (DM), recurrence of GDM, and normal women. Moreover, it seems so important in the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism in the first pregnancy to the recurrence of GDM and the development of DM. There are significant differences in OGTT levels of the first pregnancy such as area under the curve of OGTT value (18.31 ± 1.90 mmol/L vs. 16.27 ± 1.93 mmol/L vs. 15.55 ± 1.92 mmol/L, P < 0.001), OGTT fasting value (5.43 ± 0.48 mmol/L vs. 5.16 ± 0.49 mmol/L vs. 5.02 ± 0.47 mmol/L, P < 0.001), OGTT 1-hour value (10.93 ± 1.34 mmol/L vs. 9.69 ± 1.53 mmol/L vs. 9.15 ± 1.58 mmol/L, P < 0.001), OGTT 2-hour value (9.30 ± 1.66 mmol/L vs. 8.01 ± 1.32 mmol/L vs. 7.79 ± 1.38 mmol/L, P < 0.001), incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L) (31.3% vs. 14.6% vs. 8.8%, P < 0.001), and incidence of two or more abnormal OGTT values (68.8% vs. 39.7% vs. 23.9%, P < 0.001) among the three groups. Using multivariate analysis, the factors, such as age (1.07 [1.02-1.12], P = 0.006), prepregnancy BMI (1.07 [1.02, 1.12], P  = 0.003), and area under the curve of OGTT in the first pregnancy (1.14 [1.02, 1.26], P  = 0.02), have an effect on maternal GDM recurrence; the factors, such as age (1.28 [1.01-1.61], P  = 0.04), pre-pregnancy BMI (1.26 [1.04, 1.53], P = 0.02), and area under the curve of OGTT in the first pregnancy (1.65 [1.04, 2.62], P = 0.03), have an effect on maternal DM developed further.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The history of GDM was significantly associated with a higher maternal risk for GDM recurrence during follow-up after the first pregnancy. The associated risk factors for GDM recurrence or development of DM include age, high pre-pregnancy BMI, history of delivered macrosomia, the OGTT level in the first pregnancy, such as the high area under the curve of OGTT, IFG, and two or more abnormal OGTT values. To prevent GDM recurrence, women with a history of GDM should do the preconception counseling before preparing next pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose/metabolism , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational , Fetal Macrosomia , Glucose Intolerance , Retrospective Studies
3.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 872-877, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824792

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (S.pyogenes) in the third trimester to improve clinical awareness of this disease.Methods A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of two patients with STSS caused by S.pyogenes in Jinan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital and nine reported cases of healthy pregnant women infected with S.pyogenes at 28-42 gestational weeks with detailed data retrieved from Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and PubMed database from January 1997 to December 2018.Results The two cases admitted to our hospital were both multiparas,with onset in winter and no specific symptoms in early stage.Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was developed in both cases on admission.In one case,the fetal heart rate was reduced and disappeared soon after admission.The other patient was diagnosed as stillbirth on admission.Both patients died and blood culture revealed infection of group A streptococcus.Nine previous cases were reported in one Chinese and five English articles.No high-risk pregnancy or premature rupture of membranes was reported in these 11 cases.Among the 11 cases,ten were positive for S.pyogenes indicated by blood or tissue culture and one was positive for streptococcal toxin.Ten cases had high fever and three presented with respiratory symptoms in early stage.Abdominal pain and watery diarrhea were common symptoms and all patients developed multiple organ dysfunction and DIC.Cases occurred in winter or spring were more common.Nine women died within 36 h after the onset of fulminant symptoms.Only two survived and hospitalized for 90 d and 25 d,respectively,after emergent cesarean section indicated by reduced fetal heart rate.Unfortunately,both neonates died after birth.For the babies,there were seven intrauterine fetal deaths,one stillbirth and three live births,but only one survived (whose mother developed respiratory cardiac arrest 90 min after delivery).Conclusions STSS caused by S.pyogenes in pregnant women exacerbates rapidly with a high mortality.Early identification of clinical manifestations and rapid progress of the disease are crucial for early diagnosis and treatment,which may help improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

4.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 872-877, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800051

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the clinical characteristics of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) in the third trimester to improve clinical awareness of this disease.@*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of two patients with STSS caused by S. pyogenes in Jinan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital and nine reported cases of healthy pregnant women infected with S. pyogenes at 28-42 gestational weeks with detailed data retrieved from Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and PubMed database from January 1997 to December 2018.@*Results@#The two cases admitted to our hospital were both multiparas, with onset in winter and no specific symptoms in early stage. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was developed in both cases on admission. In one case, the fetal heart rate was reduced and disappeared soon after admission. The other patient was diagnosed as stillbirth on admission. Both patients died and blood culture revealed infection of group A streptococcus. Nine previous cases were reported in one Chinese and five English articles. No high-risk pregnancy or premature rupture of membranes was reported in these 11 cases. Among the 11 cases, ten were positive for S. pyogenes indicated by blood or tissue culture and one was positive for streptococcal toxin. Ten cases had high fever and three presented with respiratory symptoms in early stage. Abdominal pain and watery diarrhea were common symptoms and all patients developed multiple organ dysfunction and DIC. Cases occurred in winter or spring were more common. Nine women died within 36 h after the onset of fulminant symptoms. Only two survived and hospitalized for 90 d and 25 d, respectively, after emergent cesarean section indicated by reduced fetal heart rate. Unfortunately, both neonates died after birth. For the babies, there were seven intrauterine fetal deaths, one stillbirth and three live births, but only one survived (whose mother developed respiratory cardiac arrest 90 min after delivery).@*Conclusions@#STSS caused by S. pyogenes in pregnant women exacerbates rapidly with a high mortality. Early identification of clinical manifestations and rapid progress of the disease are crucial for early diagnosis and treatment, which may help improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

5.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 119-124, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707905

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the advantages of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in depiction of normal fetal vertebra and vertebral anomalies.Methods This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from every participant, Fifty-eight pregnant women (gestation age 22 to 39 weeks, average 29 ± 3 weeks) who were suspected of carrying babies with vertebral anomalies by ultrasound screening underwent 1.5 T fetal spine MRI[including half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo(HASTE),true fast imaging with steady-state(True FISP) and SWI sequences]. MR images were reviewed for their quality by two radiologists independently. The image scores in HASTE, True FISP and SWI were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Three segments (cervical, thoracic and lumbosacral segments, respectively) of 15 fetuses were, at random, collected to compare among HASTE,True FISP and SWI and then evaluated by ANOVA analysis.The diagnostic accuracy of the three sequences among 32 cases with follow-up results was calculated respectively and compared by using Chi-square test. Results There was statistical differences among three sequences(χ2=50.685,P<0.05).The scores of SWI was higher than that of True FISP, and the scores of True FISP was higher than that of HASTE in the evaluation of the fetal vertebra(P all<0.05).The differences among cervical,thoracic and lumbosacral segments on True FISP and HASTE showed significant difference statistically (P all<0.05), also the image quality of cervical segment could not meet the requirement of clinical diagnosis. The image quality of SWI was favorable clinically and no statistical difference among three segments was found(P>0.05).A total of 32 fetal vertebral anomalies were identified by follow-up after birth including hemivertebra (n=14), fusion of vertebrae (n=1), butterfly vertebra (n=1), multiple vertebral malformations(n=9),spinal bifida(n=5),caudal regression syndrome(n=2).The diagnostic accuracy of SWI, True FISP and HASTE was 93.75% (30/32), 56.25% (18/32) and 37.50% (12/32) respectively.The diagnostic accuracy of SWI was the best compared to that of True-FISP and HASTE(χ2=10.083,20.017;P<0.01). Conclusion SWI proved to be the optimal technique in depiction of fetal vertebra and vertebral anomalies than True FISP and HASTE,especially in depiction of cervical vertebra.

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