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1.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 93-105, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000807

ABSTRACT

Roseburia faecis, a butyrate-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, was evaluated for its usefulness against repeated water avoidance stress (WAS)-induced irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in a rat model, and the underlying mechanism was explored.We divided the subjects into three groups: one without stress exposure, another subjected to daily 1-hour WAS for 10 days, and a third exposed to the same WAS regimen while also receiving two different R. faecis strains (BBH024 or R22-12-24) via oral gavage for the same 10-day duration. Fecal pellet output (FPO), a toluidine blue assay for mast cell infiltration, and fecal microbiota analyses were conducted using 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities in metabolism was also conducted. FPO and colonic mucosal mast cell counts were significantly higher in the WAS group than in the control group (male, P = 0.004; female, P = 0.027). The administration of both BBH024 (male, P = 0.015; female, P = 0.022) and R22-12-24 (male, P = 0.003; female, P = 0.040) significantly reduced FPO. Submucosal mast cell infiltration in the colon showed a similar pattern in males. In case of fecal microbiota, the WAS with R. faecis group showed increased abundance of the Roseburia genus compared to WAS alone. Moreover, the expression of a gene encoding a D-methionine transport system substrate-binding protein was significantly elevated in the WAS with R. faecis group compared to that in the WAS (male, P = 0.028; female, P = 0.025) group. These results indicate that R. faecis is a useful probiotic for treating IBS and colonic microinflammation.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 894-909, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999801

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#17β-Estradiol (E2) supplementation suppresses MC38 tumor growth by downregulating the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). This study aims to figure out the gut microbiota that respond to anti–PD-L1 and/or estrogen treatment in MC38 colon cancer model. @*Materials and Methods@#A syngeneic colon tumor model was developed by injection of MC38 cells into C57BL/6 background male and female mice. Three days before MC38 cells injection, E2 was supplemented to male mice daily for 1 week. Male and female mice with MC38 tumors (50-100 mm3) were injected with anti–PD-L1 antibody. Fresh feces were collected 26 days after injection of MC38 cells and 16S rRNA metagenomics sequencing of DNA extracted from feces was used to assess gut microbial composition. @*Results@#At the taxonomic family level, Muribaculaceae was enriched only in the MC38 male control group. In male mice, linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis at the species level revealed that the four microorganisms were commonly regulated in single and combination treatment with anti–PD-L1 and/or E2; a decrease in PAC001068_g_uc and PAC001070_s (family Muribaculaceae) and increase in PAC001716_s and PAC001785_s (family Ruminococcaceae). Interestingly, in the anti–PD-L1 plus E2 group, a decrease in opportunistic pathogens (Enterobacteriaceae group) and an increase in commensal bacteria (Lactobacillus murinus group and Parabacteroides goldsteinii) were observed. Furthermore, the abundance of Parabacteroides goldsteinii was increased in both males and females in the anti–PD-L1 group. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that gut microbial changes induced by the pretreatment of estrogen before anti–PD-L1 might contribute to treatment of MC38 colon cancer.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 196-218, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966474

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sex hormones are known to affect the gut microbiota. Previously, we reported that endogenous and exogenous testosterone are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) development and submucosal invasion. In the present study, we investigated whether the gut microbiota is affected by orchiectomy (ORX) and testosterone propionate (TP) administration using an azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced CRC mouse model. @*Materials and Methods@#Gut microbiota was evaluated by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing of stool DNA extracted from feces that were obtained at 13 weeks after AOM injection (from 22-week-old animals) and stored in a gas-generating pouch. @*Results@#The increase in microbial diversity (Chao1 and Phylogenetic Diversity index) and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio upon AOM/DSS treatment in ORX mice was significantly decreased by TP supplementation. The ratio of commensal bacteria to opportunistic pathogens was lower in the TP-administered females and ORX mice than in the AOM/DSS group. Opportunistic pathogens (Mucispirillum schaedleri or Akkermansia muciniphila) were identified only in the TP group. In addition, microbial diversity and F/B ratio were higher in male controls than in female and ORX controls. Flintibacter butyricus, Ruminococcus bromii, and Romboutsia timonensis showed similar changes in the male control group as those in the female and ORX controls. @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, testosterone determines the dysbiosis of gut microbiota, which suggests that it plays a role in the sex-related differences in colorectal carcinogenesis.

4.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 41-53, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899045

ABSTRACT

Colon tumors develop more frequently in male than in female. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays differential roles in the stage of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 on colitis-associated tumorigenesis using Nrf2 knockout (KO) female mice. Azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 KO female mice were sacrificed at week 2 and 16 after AOM injection. Severity of colitis, tumor incidence, and levels of inflammatory mediators were evaluated in AOM/DSS-treated WT and Nrf2 KO mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR, Western blot abnalysis, and ELISA were performed in colon tissues. At week 2, AOM/DSS-induced colon tissue damages were significantly greater in Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. At week 16, tumor numbers (> 2 mm size) were significantly lower in both the proximal and distal colon in Nrf2 KO compared to WT. The overall incidences of adenoma/cancer of the proximal colon and submucosal invasive cancer of the distal colon were reduced by Nrf2 KO. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB-related mediators (i.e., iNOS and COX-2) and Nrf2-related antioxidants (i.e., heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit) were significantly lower in the Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Interestingly, the protein level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) was higher in AOM/DSS-treated Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Our results support the oncogenic effect of Nrf2 in the later stage of carcinogenesis and upregulation of tumor suppressor 15-PGDH might contribute to the repression of colitis-associated tumorigenesis in Nrf2 KO female mice.

5.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 277-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914840

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota interacts with the host gut environment, which is influenced by such factors as sex, age, and host diet. These factors induce changes in the microbial composition. The aim of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiome of Fisher-344 (F344) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), depending on their age and sex. Fecal microbiomes from 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old, and 2-year-old both male and female rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans) were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states, and enterotype (E) assessment. Moreover, the effect of an HFD on colonic epithelial cells was measured using real-time quantitative PCR. Alpha diversity decreased in the HFD group regardless of age and sex. Based on the enterotype clustering of the whole fecal microbiome, clusters from male rats were divided into E1 and E2 enterotypes, while clusters from female rats were divided into E1, E2, and E3 enterotypes. The female E3 group showed a significantly high abundance in the Ruminococcus genus and expression of Tlr2 mRNA, which may reflect compensation to the HFD. Moreover, the female E3 group showed a lower ratio of opportunistic pathogenic strains to commensal strains compared to the female E2 group. Administration of an HFD influenced the rat fecal microbiota in all assessed age groups, which could be further differentiated by sex. In particular, female rats showed a compensatory enterotype response to an HFD compared to male rats.

6.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 134-146, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874858

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The gut microbiota regulates intestinal immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Multiple factors affect the gut microbiota, including age, sex, diet, and use of drugs. In addition, information on gut microbiota differs depending on the samples.The aim of this study is to investigate whether changes in cecal microbiota depend on aging. @*Methods@#Gut microbiota in cecal contents of 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old and 2-year-old male Fischer-344 rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans in terms of age) were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA metagenome sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology.Moreover, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level in cecum and inflammation related factors were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#Alpha and beta diversity did not change significantly with age. At the family level, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, which produce SCFAs, showed significant change in 31-week-old rats: Lachnospiraceae significantly increased at 31 weeks of age, compared to other age groups, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. Butyrate levels in cecum were significantly increased in 31-week-old rats, and the expression of inflammation related genes was increased followed aging. Especially, EU622775_s and EU622773_s, which were highly abundance species in 31-week-old rats, showed significant relationship with butyrate concentration. Enzymes required for producing butyrate—acetyl-CoA transferase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and butyrate kinase—were not predicted by PICRUSt. @*Conclusions@#Major bacterial taxa in the cecal lumen, such as Lachnospiraceae, well-known SCFAs-producing family, changed in 31-week-old rats.Moreover, unknown species EU622775_s and EU622773_s showed strong association with cecal butyrate level at 31 weeks of age.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 53-60, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874567

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Favorable outcomes of potassium-competitive acid blocker (PCAB)-containing eradication therapy have been reported. In fact, tegoprazan, a recently developed PCAB, was presumed to show good eradication efficacy even for resistant Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to investigate the anti-H. pylori efficacy of tegoprazan compared with that of vonoprazan. @*Methods@#A total of 220 resistant clinical H. pylori isolates were utilized. The anti-H. pylori efficacy of PCABs was determined by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in combination with vonoprazan or tegoprazan by the agar dilution method. The impact of the mutations responsible for resistance development, such as 23S rRNA, gyrA, rdxA, frxA, and pbp1 mutations, was also analyzed. @*Results@#H. pylori growth was significantly inhibited in a medium containing 1 μg/mL clarithromy-cin with tegoprazan (128 μg/mL). The MICs of clarithromycin (46.3%), fluoroquinolone (46.7%), metronidazole (55.6%), and amoxicillin (34.5%) against resistant H. pylori isolates improved after tegoprazan administration. Tegoprazan demonstrated more frequent susceptibility acquisitionwith metronidazole than with vonoprazan (20.6% vs 4.7%, p=0.014). However, there were nosignificant differences depending on the mutational status of each antimicrobial agent. @*Conclusions@#Tegoprazan administration may improve the susceptibility of antimicrobial-resistant H. pylori, independent of acid suppression.

8.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 41-53, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891341

ABSTRACT

Colon tumors develop more frequently in male than in female. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays differential roles in the stage of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 on colitis-associated tumorigenesis using Nrf2 knockout (KO) female mice. Azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 KO female mice were sacrificed at week 2 and 16 after AOM injection. Severity of colitis, tumor incidence, and levels of inflammatory mediators were evaluated in AOM/DSS-treated WT and Nrf2 KO mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR, Western blot abnalysis, and ELISA were performed in colon tissues. At week 2, AOM/DSS-induced colon tissue damages were significantly greater in Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. At week 16, tumor numbers (> 2 mm size) were significantly lower in both the proximal and distal colon in Nrf2 KO compared to WT. The overall incidences of adenoma/cancer of the proximal colon and submucosal invasive cancer of the distal colon were reduced by Nrf2 KO. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB-related mediators (i.e., iNOS and COX-2) and Nrf2-related antioxidants (i.e., heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit) were significantly lower in the Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Interestingly, the protein level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) was higher in AOM/DSS-treated Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Our results support the oncogenic effect of Nrf2 in the later stage of carcinogenesis and upregulation of tumor suppressor 15-PGDH might contribute to the repression of colitis-associated tumorigenesis in Nrf2 KO female mice.

9.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 106-116, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833845

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Emerging evidence shows that the mechanism of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with neurotrophic factors and tight junction proteins (TJPs). It is known that there are sex differences in the pathophysiology of IBS. The aim of the present study is to determine expression levels of neurotrophic factors, TJPs, and cytokines according to IBS subtype and sex. @*Methods@#From 59 IBS (33 IBS-constipation, 21 IBS-diarrhea, and 5 IBS-mixed) and 36 control patients, colonic mucosa mRNA expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and various TJPs were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blot was performed to determine levels of zonular occludens-1 (ZO-1). Serum levels of cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#TRPV1, GDNF, and NGF mRNA levels were significantly increased in those with IBS-constipation compared to those in controls (all P < 0.05). However, they showed no significant difference between those with IBS-diarrhea and controls. Expression level of TRPV1 correlated with that of GDNF (r = 0.741, P < 0.001) and NGF (r = 0.935, P < 0.001). ZO-1 RNA expression levels were lower (P = 0.021) in female IBS-diarrhea than those in controls, although they showed no significant differences between male IBS-diarrhea and controls. Serum IL-1β levels in female IBS were significantly higher than those of male IBS, especially in IBS-constipation (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that neurotrophic factors and IL-1β are closely related to IBS-constipation and that decrease of ZO-1 is an important factor in female with IBS-diarrhea.

10.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 173-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota is closely associated with development and exacerbation of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate differences in gut microbiota depending on sex and changes of gut microbiota during IBD developments. METHODS: 16s rRNA metagenomic sequencing was performed for fecal materials from 8-week-old wild type (WT) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice of both sexes. Diversity indices, relative abundance of microbiota, and linear discriminant analysis effect size were examined to compare microbial communities between groups. Clustering of groups was performed by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Functional capabilities of microbiota were estimated using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. RESULTS: PCoA and UPGMA tree analysis of beta-diversity demonstrated significant differences in gut microbiota between male and female groups of WT mice, but not of IL-10 KO mice. Firmicutes to Bacteroides ratio was higher in male group than that in female group in both WT mice and IL-10 KO mice. Phylum Proteobacteria significantly increased in female IL-10 KO mice than that in female WT mice. At species level, Lactobacillus murinus, Bacteroides acidifaciens, and Helicobacter hepaticus significantly increased in IL-10 KO mice than in WT mice. The relative abundance of beta-glucuronidase (K01195) was higher in female IL-10 KO mice than that in female WT mice by PICRUSt. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that microbiota-host interactions might differ between sexes during development of IBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Bacteroides , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genome , Glucuronidase , Helicobacter hepaticus , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-10 , Lactobacillus , Metagenomics , Methods , Microbiota , Proteobacteria , Sequence Analysis , Sex Characteristics , Trees
11.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 20-25, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-fat diet is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders related to an inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-fat diet for intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations which are related to inflammation-associated colon cancer risk. METHODS: Both male and female rats of 6, 31, 74 and 104-week of age were fed chow diet or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured weekly during the feeding period. Intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography from luminal contents of ileum and cecum. RESULTS: Male rats showed greater weight change than female rats in every age. Calorie-adjusted food intake was also higher in male rats compared to female rats. Male rats showed similar intake of food in every age while 31-week old female rats showed increased intake, which was decreased at 74-week and 104-week of age. The ileal acetic acid concentration was increased in male rats fed high-fat diet, while female rats fed high-fat diet showed no significant change in the ileal acetic acid level. On the other hand, butyric acid almost disappeared in high-fat diet fed rats regardless of sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-fat diet increases the intestinal acetic acid concentration while reducing the butyric acid concentration which may account for increased risk of inflammation-associated colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Acetic Acid , Body Weight , Butyric Acid , Cecum , Chromatography, Liquid , Colonic Neoplasms , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Eating , Hand , Ileum , Phenobarbital
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 632-648, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study demonstrates that estradiol downregulates inflammation and inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) development in azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AOM/DSS-treated male and female mice were sacrificed at weeks 2, 10, and 16, to assess estrogen effects on colitis and carcinogenesis. Macroscopic and histologic severity of colitis and Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were evaluated, to measure inflammatory mediators and cytokines. RESULTS: Compared with AOM/DSS-treated male mice (M-AOM/DSS group), AOM/DSS-treated male mice with estradiol administration (M-AOM/DSS+estr group) displayed at week 2 significantly decreased severity of colitis. At weeks 10 and 16, AOM/DSS-treated female mice (F-AOM/DSS group) and the M-AOM/DSS+estr group showed significantly lower tumor multiplicity compared with the M-AOM/DSS group. At week 2, F-AOM/DSS group had a lower level of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression and higher level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, compared to the M-AOM/DSS group. At week 2, expression levels of NF-κB and its related mediators decreased in the M-AOM/DSS+estr group, while levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2-related anti-oxidant enzymes increased. In addition, estradiol significantly increased Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome expressions in AOM/DSS-treated male mice. In contrast, at weeks 10 and 16, Nrf2 and its-related anti-oxidant enzymes and NLRP3 inflammasome were highly expressed in M-AOM/DSS group and in F-AOM/DSS group, who developed cancer. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that estradiol inhibits the initiation of CRC by regulating Nrf2-related pathways. Moreover, these imply the dual role of Nrf2 and NLRP3 inflammasome, including promotion of tumor progression upon tumor initiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Blotting, Western , Carcinogenesis , Colitis , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cytokines , Estradiol , Estrogens , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , NF-kappa B , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sex Characteristics , Sodium
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 682-693, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis. This dysfunction is caused by increased permeability and the loss of tight junctions in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol treatment reduces colonic permeability, tight junction disruption, and inflammation in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colon cancer mouse model. METHODS: The effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated in ICR male mice 4 weeks after AOM/DSS treatment. Histological damage was scored by hematoxylin and eosin staining and the levels of the colonic mucosal cytokine myeloperoxidase (MPO) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To evaluate the effects of E2 on intestinal permeability, tight junctions, and inflammation, we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the expression levels of mucin 2 (MUC2) and mucin 4 (MUC4) were measured as target genes for intestinal permeability, whereas zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), occludin (OCLN), and claudin 4 (CLDN4) served as target genes for the tight junctions. RESULTS: The colitis-mediated induced damage score and MPO activity were reduced by E2 treatment (p < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression levels of intestinal barrier-related molecules (i.e., MUC2, ZO-1, OCLN, and CLDN4) were decreased by AOM/DSS-treatment; furthermore, this inhibition was rescued by E2 supplementation. The mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes (i.e., KLF4, NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) was increased by AOM/DSS-treatment and ameliorated by E2. CONCLUSIONS: E2 acts through the estrogen receptor β signaling pathway to elicit anti-inflammatory effects on intestinal barrier by inducing the expression of MUC2 and tight junction molecules and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Azoxymethane , Blotting, Western , Claudin-4 , Colitis , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Epithelial Cells , Estradiol , Estrogens , Hematoxylin , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mucin-2 , Mucin-4 , Occludin , Permeability , Peroxidase , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sodium , Tight Junctions
14.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 70-76, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota contributes to intestinal and immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Distribution of the gut microbiota differs according to the location in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the microbiota properties change with age, evidence for the regional difference of gut microbiota has been restricted to the young. The aim of this study is to compare the gut microbiota between terminal ileum and cecum of old rats. METHODS: We analyzed gut microbiome of luminal contents from ileum and cecum of 74-week-old and 2-year-old rats (corresponding to 60-year and 80-year-old of human age) by metagenome sequencing of 16S rRNA. RESULTS: Inter-individual variation (beta diversity) of microbiota was higher in ileum than in cecum. Conversely, alpha diversity of microbiota composition was higher in cecum than in ileum. Lactobacillaceae were more abundant in ileum compared to cecum while Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were more enriched in cecum. The proportions of Deltaproteobacteria were increased in cecal microbiota of 2-year-old rats compared to 74-week-old rats. CONCLUSIONS: Major regional distinctions of microbiota between ileum and cecum of old rats appear consistent with those of young rats. Age-related alterations of gut microbiota in old rats seem to occur in minor compositions.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child, Preschool , Humans , Rats , Aging , Cecum , Deltaproteobacteria , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract , Homeostasis , Ileum , Lactobacillaceae , Metagenome , Microbiota , Phenobarbital
15.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 267-267, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113431

ABSTRACT

There is an error in a grant number in Acknowledgements.

16.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 115-125, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastric microbiota along with Helicobacter pylori (HP) plays a key role in gastric disease. The aim of our study is to investigate the difference of human gastric microbiota between antrum and body according to disease (control vs. gastric cancer) and HP status. METHODS: Each antrum and body biopsy was collected from 12 subjects at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Gastric microbiota was analyzed by bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twelve subjects consisted of HP-negative control (n = 2), HP-negative cancer (n = 2), HP-positive control (n = 3), and HP-positive cancer (n = 5). The analysis was focused on non-HP urease-producing bacteria (UB) and non-HP nitrosating or nitroreducing bacteria (NB) between antrum and body. RESULTS: Gastric body samples showed higher diversity compared to gastric antrum mucosa samples but there was no significant difference. The mean of operational taxonomic units was higher in HP(−) cancer than HP(+) cancer (antrum, 273.5 vs. 228.2, P = 0.439; body, 585.5 vs. 183.2, P = 0.053). The number of non-HP UB and non-HP NB was higher in HP(−) cancer groups than the others. These differences were more pronounced in the body (P = 0.051 and P = 0.081, respectively). Analysis of overlap of non-HP UB and non-HP NB revealed the higher composition of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, S. parasanguinis, and S. oralis in HP(−) cancer groups than the others, only in the body (P = 0.030) but not in the antrum (P = 0.123). CONCLUSIONS: Higher diversity and higher composition of S. pseudopneumoniae, S. parasanguinis, and S. oralis in HP(−) cancer group than the other groups in the body suggest that analysis of microbiota from body mucosa could be beneficial to identify a role of non-HP bacteria in the gastric carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Biopsy , Carcinogenesis , Genes, rRNA , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Microbiota , Mucous Membrane , Pyloric Antrum , Seoul , Stomach Diseases , Streptococcus
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 243-252, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of açaí against azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colorectal cancer development. METHODS: The effect of açaí on tumorigenesis was assessed by evaluating tumor incidence, multiplicity and invasiveness in the mouse colon. The levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) and cleaved-caspase-3 were assessed by immunoblotting. RESULTS: Administration of pellets containing 5% açaí powder reduced the incidences of both colonic adenoma and cancer (adenoma, 23.1% vs 76.9%, respectively, p=0.006; cancer, 15.4% vs 76.9%, respectively, p=0.002). In the açaí-treated mice, the MPO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the colon were significantly down-regulated. Açaí inhibited PCNA and Bcl-2 expression and increased Bad and cleaved-caspase-3 expression. In vitro studies demonstrated that açaí treatment reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and COX-2 in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Açaí demonstrated protective effects against AOM/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis, which suggests that the intake of açaí may be beneficial for the prevention of human colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Adenoma , Azoxymethane , Carcinogenesis , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fruit , Immunoblotting , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Macrophages , Necrosis , Peroxidase , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Sodium
18.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 592-605, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuronal degeneration and changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are important mechanisms of age-related constipation. This study aims to compare the distribution of ICCs and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with regard to age-related changes between the ascending colon (AC) and descending colon (DC) in 6-, 31-, and 74-week old and 2-year old male Fischer-344 rats. METHODS: The amount of fecal pellet and the bead expulsion times were measured. Fat proportion in the muscle layer of the colon was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression were analyzed with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Isovolumetric contractile measurements and electrical field stimulation were used to assess smooth muscle contractility. RESULTS: Colon transit and bead expulsion slowed with senescence. Fat in the muscle layer accumulated with age in the AC, but not in the DC. The proportion of KIT-immunoreactive ICCs in the submucosal and myenteric plexus was higher in the DC than in the AC, and it declined with age, especially in the AC. In contrast, the proportion of NOS-immunoreactive neurons in the myenteric plexus was higher in the AC than in the DC, and both decreased in older rats. Nitric oxide levels declined with age in the DC. Muscle strip experiments showed that the inhibitory response mediated by nitric oxide in the circular direction of the DC was reduced in 2-year old rats. CONCLUSION: The AC and DC differ in their distribution of ICCs and nNOS, and age-related loss of nitrergic neurons more severely affects the DC than the AC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Aging , Blotting, Western , Colon , Colon, Ascending , Colon, Descending , Constipation , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Immunohistochemistry , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Muscle, Smooth , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitrergic Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Proto-Oncogenes , Rats, Inbred F344
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 504-511, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Concerns that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) diminish the efficacy of clopidogrel could hamper the appropriate prescription of PPIs. We evaluated the influence of pantoprazole on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel compared with ranitidine, which is regarded as safe, after stratification of the population according to the presence of a cytochrome (CYP) 2C19 polymorphism in Korea. METHODS: Forty patients who underwent dual antiplatelet therapy were randomized to receive pantoprazole (n=20) or ranitidine (n=20). Platelet aggregation was evaluated by impedance aggregometry at baseline (D0) and 8 days after acid-lowering treatments (D9). CYP2C19 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: After co-treatment, the percentage of clopidogrel low-response was 11.1% (2/18) in the pantoprazole group and 10.5% (2/19) in the ranitidine group (p=0.954). The impedance values with adenosine diphosphate stimulus after acid-lowering treatments did not significantly differ between the two groups. In a multiple regression analysis, only ST-elevation myocardial infarction was marginally associated with a reduced antiplatelet effect (odds ratio, 12.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 173.78). However, pantoprazole use did not affect the antiplatelet effect after correction for the CYP2C19 polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that pantoprazole does not increase platelet aggregation in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02733640).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine Diphosphate , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochromes , Drug Interactions , Electric Impedance , Korea , Myocardial Infarction , Platelet Aggregation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Prescriptions , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Ranitidine
20.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 694-704, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was aimed at evaluating differences in the effects of repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) on colonic movement, mucosal mast cell counts, cytokine levels, and visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) in rats of both sexes. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into stress and no-stress groups. Rats in the stress group were exposed to rWAS (1 hr/day) for 10 days. Mucosal mast cells were immunohistochemically stained with anti-mast cell tryptase antibody and counted. The colonic mucosal cytokine levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The VMR to CRD (visceral analgesia) was assessed by using a barostat and noninvasive manometry. RESULTS: The mean number of fecal pellets in the rWAS group increased significantly as compared with that in the no-stress group in both sexes. After adjustment for body weight, the female rats had a significantly higher pellet output than the male rats. The mucosal mast cell count of the female rWAS group was higher than that of the male rWAS group (13.0 ± 0.9 vs 8.8 ± 0.6; P < 0.001). The colonic mucosal interleukin-1β level was also higher only in the female rats of the rWAS group than in those of the no-stress group. On days 10 and 11, a decrease in VMR to CRD was observed at 40 and 60 mmHg in both sexes of the rWAS group, without a sex-based difference. CONCLUSIONS: The colonic response to stress appeared to be more sensitive in the female rats than in the male rats. However, stress-induced visceral analgesia had no sex-related difference and the underlying mechanism needs to be further evaluated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Analgesia , Body Weight , Colon , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Manometry , Mast Cells , Rats, Wistar , Sex Characteristics , Tryptases , Water
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