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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773592

ABSTRACT

The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and neuro-blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 μg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antiparkinson Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Death , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Neurons , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Oxidopamine , Toxicity , Paeonia , Chemistry , Parkinsonian Disorders , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812381

ABSTRACT

The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and neuro-blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 μg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antiparkinson Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Death , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Neurons , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Oxidopamine , Toxicity , Paeonia , Chemistry , Parkinsonian Disorders , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism
3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 380-390, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317060

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>In patients with depression, as well as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent.</p><p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study investigates the mood and the working memory performance in patients with depression or schizophrenia and whether acupuncture can improve these.</p><p><b>DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS</b>A pragmatic clinical trial design was used. The study was conducted in a psychiatric clinic. Fifty patients with depression and 50 with schizophrenia were randomly divided into an experimental and a waiting-list group. Additionally, 25 healthy control participants were included. Twelve weeks of individualized acupuncture treatment was used as the clinical intervention.</p><p><b>MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES</b>All patients were tested before (T1) and after (T2) acupuncture treatment on a mood scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II), a simple working memory task (digit span), and a complex working memory task (letter-number sequencing); the healthy controls were tested at T1 only.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Patients with depression scored worse than the others on the BDI-II, and patients with schizophrenia scored worse than the healthy controls. On the digit span, patients with schizophrenia did not differ from healthy controls whereas they scored worse of all on the letter-number sequencing. With respect to the acupuncture findings, first, the present study showed that the use of acupuncture to treat patients with schizophrenia was both practical and safe. Moreover, acupuncture had a positive effect on the BDI-II for the depression group, but acupuncture had no effect on the digit span and on the letter-number sequencing performance for the two clinical groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The clinical improvement in patients with depression after acupuncture treatment was not accompanied by any significant change in a simple working memory task or in a more complex working memory task; the same was true for the patients with schizophrenia.</p><p><b>TRIAL REGISTRATION</b>Dutch Trial Register NTR3132.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Adult , Affect , Depression , Therapeutics , Female , Humans , Male , Memory, Short-Term , Middle Aged , Schizophrenia , Therapeutics
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227384

ABSTRACT

Recently, functional MRI has been used to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of acupuncture and the specificity of acupoint. The group data tend to be regarded as more important than the individual data in the most of previous studies. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the variability of individual data on the group results. A functional MRI (fMRI) of the whole brain was performed in fifteen healthy subjects during placebo and acupuncture stimulations at the ST36 acupoint. After remaining at rest for 30 seconds, the acupuncture was inserted and twisted at the rate of 2 Hz for 45 seconds and then the acupuncture was removed immediately. This process was repeated three times. Individual and group analyses were performed by voxel-based analyses using SPM2 software. Visual inspections of the activation and deactivation maps from individual sessions have shown the large variability across fifteen subjects. This means that the group data reflected the brain activation responses of only a few subjects. We suggest that the individual data should be presented to demonstrate the effect of acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine an estimate factor and grasp the relation of difference for Type A Behavior Pattern(TABP), Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Depression and HIT-6 in the Chronic headache client. METHOD: Data collected by self-reported questionnaires from 38 client in S city who were selected by criteria of IHS, from the 19th of October to 10th of December, 2004. RESULT: 1) Differences between biographical data by TABP was significant by SaSang constitutions, by Stress was significantly influenced by age, and by Depression were significantly influenced health status and SaSang constitutions. 2) Correlations Coefficients among Study Variables were Stress and Depression(r=.494, p=.002) and Depression and HIT-6(r=.432, p=.010).3) In regression analysis, HIT-6 were significantly influenced by Depression and Type A Behavior Pattern(TABP). These variables explained 38% and 34% respectively. CONCLUSION: The result suggest that chronic headache management with psychological aspect, as well as physical aspect should be a focus to enhance the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Constitution and Bylaws , Depression , Hand Strength , Headache Disorders , Humans , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728118

ABSTRACT

We have characterized the aftereffects of impulse activities on the transmission of afferent sensory to the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex of the anesthetized rats (n=22). Following conditioning stimulation (CS, 10 sec, either 5 Hz or 200 Hz) to the receptive field (RF), quantitative determination of the changes of afferent sensory transmission was done by generating post-stimulus time histogram of unit response to the testing stimulation (TS, at 0.5 Hz) to the RF center (RFC) for 60 min. In one group of experiments, CS was delivered to the RF center (RFC). In another group of experiments, CSs were simultaneously given to both RFC and RF outside (RFO, either forepaw or hindpaw). CS of 5 Hz to RFC exerted irreversible facilitation of sensory transmissions evoked by TS. Simultaneous CSs of 5 Hz to RFC and hindpaw RFO exerted reversible suppression of afferent transmission. However, CSs of 5 Hz to RFC and forepaw RFO did not significantly altered afferent sensory transmission to SI cortex neurons. CS of 200 Hz to RFC exerted irreversible suppression of sensory transmissions up to 60 min of experimental period. Simultaneous CSs of 200 Hz to RFC and RFO did not significantly altered afferent sensory transmission to SI cortex neurons. The profiles of CS-induced modulation of afferent sensory transmission were significantly different between two CS conditions. Thus, this study suggests that activity-dependent modulation of afferent transmission from a RF center to the SI cortex may be significantly altered when remote body part was simultaneously activated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Neurons , Rats
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