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1.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 26(1): 102334, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364544

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be vertically transmitted from mother to fetus. We evaluated knowledge about HCV vertical transmission in female blood donors who became pregnant following detection of HCV in their donated blood. Methods This was a retrospective descriptive study of females seen at a single blood bank in Sao Paulo, Brazil who were diagnosed with HCV infection in their donated blood. HCV-infected donors who subsequently became pregnant were invited to participate through letters or phone calls. Individuals who agreed to participate were interviewed by questionnaire to evaluate their knowledge on HCV vertical transmission. Results Among 282 HCV-positive female blood donors, 69 reported becoming pregnant after their HCV diagnosis in donated blood. While 24 of these women were successful treated for their infection prior to becoming pregnant, 45 (65.2%) were at risk for vertical HCV transmission either because they had never been treated for HCV, were pregnant before treatment or became pregnant after unsuccessful treatment. Of the 59 women who responded to the question of whether they were informed about the risk of HCV vertical transmission, 58 (98.3%) reported never receiving this information either after obtaining their blood donation results or during their pregnancy. Conclusion The lack of knowledge of HCV-infected women on the possibility for mother-to-child transmission of this virus highlights the critical need to improve communication about pregnancy-related risks between health professionals and HCV-infected women of childbearing age.

2.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360790

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study aimed to establish a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling of benznidazole (BZD) in Brazilian patients with chronic Chagas disease. This was part of a Brazilian prospective cohort study with eight patients diagnosed with Chagas disease during the beginning of BZD treatment up to the 60th day. On the 15th day of treatment, a blood sampling was collected and analyzed. A one-compartment PK model was developed using Pmetrics. Patients with an average age of 50.3 (SD: 6.2) years old, 6 female patients and 2 males, 70.2 kg (14.2), receiving a 5 mg/Kg/day dose were included. PK parameters estimated for CL, V and Ka were 6.27 L/h, 38.97 L and 1.66 h-1, respectively. This is the first study to establish a population pharmacokinetic modeling of BZD in Brazilian patients with chronic Chagas disease. Therefore, further studies are needed to obtain the complete characterization of BZD pharmacokinetics.

3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 248-256, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153000

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento As características histopatológicas da doença de Chagas (DCC) são: presença de miocardite, destruição das fibras cardíacas e fibrose miocárdica. A Galectina-3 (Gal-3) é um biomarcador envolvido no mecanismo de fibrose e inflamação que pode ser útil para a estratificação de indivíduos com DCC por risco. Objetivos Nosso objetivo foi avaliar se níveis elevados de Gal-3 estão associados a formas graves de cardiomiopatia chagásica (CC) e são preditivos de mortalidade. Métodos Estudamos doadores de sangue (DS) positivos para anti-T. cruzi: não-CC-DS (187 DS sem CC com eletrocardiograma [ECG] e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo [FEVE] normais); CC-Não-Dis-DS (46 DS com CC e apresentando ECG anormal, mas FEVE normal); e 153 controles negativos correspondentes. Esta amostra foi composta por 97 pacientes com CC grave (CC-Dis). Usamos as correlações de Kruskall-Wallis e Spearman para testar a hipótese de associações, assumindo um p bicaudal <0,05 como significativo. Resultados O nível de Gal-3 foi de 12,3 ng/mL para não-CC-DS, 12,0 ng/mL para CC-Não-Dis-DS, 13,8 ng/mL para controles e 15,4 ng/mL para CC-Dis. FEVE <50 foi associada a níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (p=0,0001). Em nosso modelo de regressão linear ajustado, encontramos associação entre os níveis de Gal-3 e os parâmetros do ecocardiograma em indivíduos positivos para T. cruzi. Nos pacientes CC-Dis, encontramos uma associação significativa de níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (≥15,3 ng/mL) e morte ou transplante cardíaco em acompanhamento de cinco anos (Hazard ratio - HR 3,11; IC95% 1,21- 8,04; p=0,019). Conclusões Em pacientes com CC, níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 estiveram significativamente associados a formas graves da doença e maior taxa de mortalidade em longo prazo, o que significa que pode ser um meio efetivo para identificar pacientes de alto risco. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Abstract Background The histopathological characteristics of Chagas disease (ChD) are: presence of myocarditis, destruction of heart fibers, and myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker involved in the mechanism of fibrosis and inflammation that may be useful for risk stratification of individuals with ChD. Objectives We sought to evaluate whether high Gal-3 levels are associated with severe forms of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) and whether they are predictive of mortality. Methods We studied anti-T. cruzi positive blood donors (BD): Non-CC-BD (187 BD without CC with normal electrocardiogram [ECG] and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]); CC-Non-Dys-BD (46 BD with CC with abnormal ECG but normal LVEF); and 153 matched serum-negative controls. This cohort was composed of 97 patients with severe CC (CC-Dys). We used Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman's correlation to test hypothesis of associations, assuming a two-tailed p<0.05 as significant. Results The Gal-3 level was 12.3 ng/mL for Non-CC-BD, 12.0 ng/mL for CC-Non-Dys-BD, 13.8 ng/mL for controls, and 15.4 ng/mL for CC-Dys. LVEF<50 was associated with higher Gal-3 levels (p=0.0001). In our linear regression adjusted model, we found association between Gal-3 levels and echocardiogram parameters in T. cruzi-seropositive subjects. In CC-Dys patients, we found a significant association of higher Gal-3 levels (≥15.3 ng/mL) and subsequent death or heart transplantation in a 5-year follow-up (Hazard ratio - HR 3.11; 95%CI 1.21-8.04; p=0.019). Conclusions In ChD patients, higher Gal-3 levels were significantly associated with severe forms of the disease and more long-term mortality, which means it may be a useful means to identify high-risk patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Chagas Disease , Stroke Volume , Biomarkers , Ventricular Function, Left , Galectin 3
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 41, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1280610

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of post mortem laboratory analysis in identifying the causes of hemorrhagic fever and/or neuroinvasive disease in deaths by arbovirus infection. METHODS Retrospective cross-sectional study based on the differential analysis and final outcome obtained in patients whose samples underwent laboratory testing for arboviruses at the Pathology Center of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS Of the 1355 adults clinically diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever and/or neuroinvasive disease, the most commonly attributed cause of death and the most common final outcome was dengue fever. Almost half of the samples tested negative on all laboratory tests conducted. CONCLUSION The failure to identify the causative agent in a great number of cases highlights a gap in the diagnosis of deaths of unknown etiology. Additional immunohistochemical and molecular assessments need to be added to the post-mortem protocol if all laboratory evaluations performed fail to identify a causative agent. While part of our findings may be due to technical issues related to sample fixation, better information availability when making the initial diagnosis is crucial. Including molecular approaches might lead to a significant advancement in diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Dengue/diagnosis , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
5.
Clinics ; 75: e2209, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age<18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034); pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008); hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006); and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels >50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels >1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p<0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p<0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p<0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p<0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98; 95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86; p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85; 95%CI=1.34-211.80; p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00; 95%CI=6.39-526.79; p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Vomiting/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190423, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Despite efforts to mitigate the impact of dengue virus (DENV) epidemics, the virus remains a public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Most DENV cases in the Americas between January and July 2019 were reported in Brazil. São Paulo State in the southeast of Brazil has reported nearly half of all DENV infections in the country. OBJECTIVES To understand the origin and dynamics of the 2019 DENV outbreak. METHODS Here using portable nanopore sequencing we generated20 new DENV genome sequences from viremic patients with suspected dengue infection residing in two of the most-affected municipalities of São Paulo State, Araraquara and São José do Rio Preto. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis with 1,630 global DENV strains to better understand the evolutionary history of the DENV lineages that currently circulate in the region. FINDINGS The new outbreak strains were classified as DENV2 genotype III (American/Asian genotype). Our analysis shows that the 2019 outbreak is the result of a novel DENV lineage that was recently introduced to Brazil from the Caribbean region. Dating phylogeographic analysis suggests that DENV2-III BR-4 was introduced to Brazil in or around early 2014, possibly from the Caribbean region. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our study describes the early detection of a newly introduced and rapidly-expanding DENV2 virus lineage in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Variation , Genomics , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil , RNA, Viral/genetics , Genotype
8.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 62: e30, 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1363953

ABSTRACT

We conducted the genome sequencing and analysis of the first confirmed COVID-19 infections in Brazil. Rapid sequencing coupled with phylogenetic analyses in the context of travel history corroborate multiple independent importations from Italy and local spread during the initial stage of COVID-19 transmission in Brazil. (AU)


Subject(s)
Brazil , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/transmission
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 152-157, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-988204

ABSTRACT

Background: Galectin-3 is the designation given to the protein that binds to ß-galactosides, expressed by activated macrophages and described as a cardiac fibrosis mediator. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), myocardial fibrosis is an independent predictor of adverse outcome; however, the association between Galectin-3 and myocardial fibrosis has not been studied in this cardiopathy. Objective: To evaluate the association of Galectin-3 and the presence of myocardial fibrosis in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: Galectin-3 was measured in automated equipment using the Elisa technique in 100 participants divided into two groups: 50 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 50 healthy control subjects. All patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent magnetic nuclear resonance with the late enhancement technique to investigate myocardial fibrosis. For the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Galectin-3 levels were low and did not show significant differences between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the control group,10.3 ± 3.1 ng/dL and 11.3 ± 2.6 ng/dL (p = 0.12) respectively. Myocardial fibrosis was a common finding and was identified in 84% (42/50) of patients with HCM, but no differences were observed between Galectin-3 levels when comparing patients with and without fibrosis, 10.3 ± 2.4 ng/dL and 10.1 ± 2.1 ng/dL (p = 0.59). Conclusion: The results did not show an association between Galectin-3 and myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, suggesting that non-inflammatory mechanisms of myocardial fibrosis formation and cardiac remodeling are involved in this cardiopathy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Galectin 3 , Endomyocardial Fibrosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180574, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040626

ABSTRACT

Human sapoviruses (HSaV) are considered important causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. However, knowledge of the genetic characteristics of the whole genome of HSaV in Brazil is limited. Here we report the complete genome sequences of six HSaVs GI.2 and two GI.3 strains obtained from children with acute gastroenteritis in the Northern region of Brazil. Next generation sequencing was used to obtain the full genome and molecular characterization of the genome was performed. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome was also performed. Only one complete HSaV GI.2 genome characterization in the country precedes that of the present study. This is the first complete genome sequence of genotype GI.3 in Brazil. The data obtained in this investigation can contribute to the augmentation of the database on the molecular diversity of HSaVs strains circulating in Brazil, and to the improvement of current typing protocols.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Sapovirus/genetics , Gastroenteritis/virology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Acute Disease , Sequence Analysis, DNA , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Genotype
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190160, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040614

ABSTRACT

Human enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequences of one EV-C99 strain and one E29 strain obtained from children suffering from acute gastroenteritis, without symptoms of enteroviral syndromes. This is the first report of EV-C99 in South America, and the second E29 genome described worldwide. Continuous surveillance on EVs is vital to provide further understanding of the circulation of new or rare EV serotypes in the country. The present study also highlights the capacity of EVs to remain in silent circulation in populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Enterovirus C, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Enterovirus B, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus C, Human/isolation & purification , Feces/virology
12.
Clinics ; 74: e1198, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiota is associated with obesity and weight loss after bariatric surgery and has been related to its changing pattern. Exactly how the bacterial population affects weight loss and the results of surgery remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the intestinal microbiota of superobese patients before and after gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). METHOD: DNA fragments for the microbiota obtained from stool samples collected from nine superobese patients before and after bariatric surgery were sequenced using Ion Torrent. RESULTS: We observed that with a mean follow-up of 15 months, patients achieved 55.9% excess weight loss (EWL). A significant population reduction in the Proteobacteria phylum (11 to 2%, p=0.0025) was observed after surgery, while no difference was seen in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Further analyses performed with two specific individuals with divergent clinical outcomes showed a change in the pattern between them, with a significant increase in Firmicutes and a decrease in Bacteroidetes in the patient with less weight loss (%EWL 50.79 vs. 61.85). CONCLUSIONS: RYGB affects the microbiota of superobese patients, with a significant reduction in Proteobacteria in patients with different weight loss, showing that different bacteria may contribute to the process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/microbiology , Weight Loss , Bariatric Surgery , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Feces/microbiology
13.
Rev. APS ; 21(3): 345-354, 01/07/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-981796

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: conhecer o manejo de pacientes com Doença de Chagas (DC) por médicos da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) de regiões endêmicas. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 104 médicos da APS de 39 municípios das regiões norte de Minas Gerais e Vale do Jequitinhonha. Foram abordados perfil sociodemográfico, formação acadêmica e prática clínica, por meio de questionário autoaplicado. Resultados: os médicos apresentaram idade média de 33(±9,88) anos, 4(±7,26) anos de atuação na APS, 49% relataram que a graduação não ofereceu formação suficiente em DC. Embora quase 90% tivessem experiência com atendimento de pacientes com DC crônica e 57% com DC aguda, apenas 9% relataram sentir-se totalmente seguros para esses atendimentos e 33% relataram não conhecer o Benzonidazol, único antitripanossômico disponível. Contribuindo para esse quadro, após a graduação, somente 13,3% receberam alguma informação ou treinamento relativo à DC e quase metade recebeu esse treinamento há mais de 4 anos. Há insegurança, desconhecimento e carência de capacitações sobre DC entre profissionais médicos da APS de localidades endêmicas.


Objective: to understand the management of patients with Chagas Disease (CD) by Primary Health Care (PHC) doctors in endemic regions. Methods: cross-sectional study with 104 PHC doctors in 39 municipalities in the northern regions of Minas Gerais and Jequitinhonha Valley. Socio-demographic profile, academic training, and clinical practice were covered through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: the physicians had a mean age of 33 (± 9.88) years, 4 (± 7.26) years experience in the PHC system, and 49% reported that their undergraduate studies did not offer enough training on CD. Although almost 90% had experience with the care of patients with chronic CD and 57% with acute CD, only 9% reported feeling completely secure about these services and 33% reported not knowing about benznidazole, the only antitrypanosomal available. Contributing to this situation, after graduation, only 13.3% received any information or training on CD and almost half received this training more than four years ago. There is insecurity, ignorance, and lack of training on CD among PHC medical professionals in endemic locations.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Professional Training , Primary Health Care , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Education, Continuing
14.
Clinics ; 73: e166, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of Burkholderia cepacia complex colonization in cystic fibrosis patients undergoing lung transplantation. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed clinical data and respiratory tract samples (sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage) collected from suppurative lung disease patients between January 2008 and November 2013. We also subtyped different Burkholderia cepacia complex genotypes via DNA sequencing using primers against the recA gene in samples collected between January 2012 and November 2013. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2013, 34 lung transplants were performed on cystic fibrosis patients at our center. Burkholderia cepacia complex was detected in 13 of the 34 (38.2%) patients. Seven of the 13 (53%) strains were subjected to genotype analysis, from which three strains of B. metallica and four strains of B. cenocepacia were identified. The mortality rate was 1/13 (7.6%), and this death was not related to B. cepacia infection. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that colonization by B. cepacia complex and even B. cenocepacia in patients with cystic fibrosis should not be considered an absolute contraindication to lung transplantation in Brazilian centers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Burkholderia cepacia/isolation & purification , Burkholderia Infections/etiology , Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology , Phylogeny , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Lung Transplantation/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Burkholderia Infections/mortality , Cystic Fibrosis/surgery , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Cystic Fibrosis/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Contraindications, Procedure , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
15.
Comun. ciênc. saúde ; 28(1): 96-101, jan. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-972639

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: 1- Padronizar a genotipagem em larga escala para determinação de antígenos eritrocitários e plaquetários pela plataforma de OpenArray®em doadores de sangue. 2- Elaboração de software para registro destes doadores, com interface com o equipamento de genotipagem. METODOLOGIA: Extração automatizada de DNA e genotipagem através demicroarranjos líquidos (OpenArray®) para 32 alelos codificantes de antígenos eritrocitários e plaquetários. RESULTADOS: Foi realizada a genotipagem de 5487 doadores para os antígenos propostos, de forma completamente interfaceada e automatizada. O ensaio customizado de Open Array® mostrou-se acurado e de rápida execução. Elaborou-se software próprio para interfaceamento dos resultados da genotipagem e busca dos genótipos. CONCLUSÃO: Padronizou-se estratégia efetiva para rastreamento de doadores de sangue com fenótipos raros. A automação de todas as etapas experimentais e o interfaceamento completo dos dados minimizaram os erros humanos e aumentaram a rapidez do processo descrito, que pode ser aplicado como estratégia de genotipagem de doadores de todo o Estado de São Paulo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Software , Genotype , Antigens , Genetic Variation
16.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 40, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the HCV cascade of care and to identify the factors associated with loss or absence to follow-up of patients identified as infected with hepatitis C through blood donation. METHODS Blood donors from 1994 to 2012, identified with positive anti- HCV by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot tests were invited to participate in the study, through letters or phone calls. Patients who agreed to participate were interviewed and their blood samples were collected for further testing. The following variables were investigated: demographic data, data on comorbidities and history concerning monitoring of hepatitis C. Multiple regression analysis by Poisson regression model was used to investigate the factors associated with non-referral for consultation or loss of follow-up. RESULTS Of the 2,952 HCV-infected blood donors, 22.8% agreed to participate: 394 (58.2%) male, median age 48 years old and 364 (53.8%) Caucasian. Of the 676 participants, 39.7% did not receive proper follow-up or treatment after diagnosis: 45 patients referred not to be aware they were infected, 61 did not seek medical attention and 163 started a follow-up program, but were non-adherent. The main reasons for inadequate follow-up were not understanding the need for medical care (71%) and health care access difficulties (14%). The variables showing a significant association with inadequate follow-up after multiple regression analysis were male gender (PR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.15–1.71), age under or equal to 50 years (PR = 1.36; 95%CI 1.12–1.65) and non-Caucasians (PR = 1.53; 95%CI 1.27–1.84). CONCLUSIONS About 40.0% of patients did not receive appropriate follow-up. These data reinforce the need to establish strong links between primary care and reference centers and the need to improve access to specialists and treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/therapy , Risk Factors
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 713-720, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829676

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease currently affects 5.7 million people in Latin America and is emerging in non-endemic countries. There is no consensus concerning the efficacy of trypanocidal therapy for patients with the chronic form of the disease. We evaluated cardiac function and sociodemographic, clinical, and serologic characteristics of a group of asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive former blood donors, and compared the effects of benznidazole treatment applied for different lengths of time. METHODS: Blood donors who screened positive for T. cruzi between 1998 and 2002 were recruited 10 years later for follow-up (n = 244); 46 individuals had received treatment. Three subjects had terminated treatment prematurely. The remaining 43 individuals were divided into two groups: individuals who had received benznidazole therapy for 50-60 days (n = 28; BT ≤60 group) or more than 60 days (n = 15; BT >60). Serologic assays, biochemical tests, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and clinical examinations were performed on all participants. Parasite loads were determined by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Parasitemia was significantly reduced in the BT ≤60 and BT >60 groups compared with the untreated group. There were no differences in epidemiologic profiles or clinical, biochemical, electrocardiographic, or echocardiographic data between any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite elimination or significant reduction in parasitemia in patients with chronic Chagas disease who received benznidazole, there was no clinical difference between those who were treated for >60 days and those treated for a shorter duration. Furthermore, the adverse effects of benznidazole appear to be less severe than previous reports would suggest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Donors , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Parasitemia/parasitology , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Clinical Protocols , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Asymptomatic Infections , Parasite Load , Middle Aged
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(5): 473-478, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764496

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: It is recognized that hepatitis C virus subtypes (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c and 3a) originated in Africa and Asia and spread worldwide exponentially during the Second World War (1940) through the transfusion of contaminated blood products, invasive medical and dental procedures, and intravenous drug use. The entry of hepatitis C virus subtypes into different regions occurred at distinct times, presenting exponential growth rates of larger or smaller spread. Our study estimated the growth and spread of the most prevalent subtypes currently circulating in São Paulo.METHODS:A total of 465 non-structural region 5B sequences of hepatitis C virus covering a 14-year time-span were used to reconstruct the population history and estimate the population dynamics and Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor of genotypes using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach implemented in BEAST (Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling tree software/program).RESULTS:Evolutionary analysis demonstrated that the different hepatitis C virus subtypes had distinct growth patterns. The introduction of hepatitis C virus-1a and -3a were estimated to be circa 1979 and 1967, respectively, whereas hepatitis C virus-1b appears to have a more ancient entry, circa 1923. Hepatitis C virus-1b phylogenies suggest that different lineages circulate in São Paulo, and four well-supported groups (i.e., G1, G2, G3 and G4) were identified. Hepatitis C virus-1a presented the highest growth rate (r = 0.4), but its spread became less marked after the 2000s. Hepatitis C virus-3a grew exponentially until the 1990s and had an intermediate growth rate (r = 0.32). An evident exponential growth (r = 0.26) was found for hepatitis C virus-1b between 1980 and the mid-1990s.CONCLUSIONS:After an initial period of exponential growth, the expansion of the three main subtypes began to decrease. Hepatitis C virus-1b presented inflated genetic diversity, and its transmission may have been sustained by different generations and transmission routes other than blood transfusion. Hepatitis C virus-1a and -3a showed no group stratification, most likely due to their recent entry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Brazil/epidemiology , Genotype , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence
19.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 37(5): 320-323, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Experimental data have shown that the transfusion of older red blood cell units causes alloimmunization, but the clinical applicability of this statement has never been properly assessed in non-sickle cell patients. It has been hypothesized that older units have higher numbers of cytokines, increasing the risk of alloimmunization related to antigen-presenting events. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between the transfusion of older red blood cell units subjected to bedside leukodepletion and alloimmunization.METHODS: All patients submitted to transfusions of bedside leukodepletion red blood cell units proven to have become alloimmunized in one oncologic service between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. A control group was formed by matching patients without alloimmunization in terms of number of transfusions and medical specialty. The median age of transfused units, the percentage of transfused red blood cell units >14 days of storage in relation to fresher red cell units (≤14 days of storage) and the mean age of transfused units older than 14 days were compared between the groups.RESULTS: Alloimmunized and control groups were homogeneous regarding the most relevant clinical variables (age, gender, type of oncological disease) and inflammatory background (C-reactive protein and Karnofsky scale). The median age of transfused red blood cell units, the ratio of older units transfused compared to fresher units and the mean age of transfused units older than 14 days did not differ between alloimmunized and control patients (17 vs. 17; 68/32 vs. 63.2/36.8 and 21.8 ± 7.0 vs. 21.04 ± 7.9; respectively).CONCLUSION: The transfusion of older red blood cell units subjected to bedside leukodepletion is not a key risk factor for alloimmunization. Strategies of providing fresh red cell units aiming to avoid alloimmunization are thus not justified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Antigens , Autoimmunity
20.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 37(5): 306-315, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Deferral of blood donors due to low hematocrit and iron depletion is commonly reported in blood banks worldwide. This study evaluated the risk factors for low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a large Brazilian blood center.METHOD: A case-control study of 400 deferred donors due to low hematocrit and 456 eligible whole blood donors was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Participants were interviewed about selected risk factors for anemia, and additional laboratory tests, including serum ferritin, were performed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between predictors and deferral due to low hematocrit in the studied population and iron depletion in women.RESULTS: Donors taking aspirins or iron supplementation, those who reported stomachache, black tarry stools or hematochezia, and women having more than one menstrual period/month were more likely to be deferred. Risk factors for iron depletion were repeat donation and being deferred at the hematocrit screening. Smoking and lack of menstruation were protective against iron depletion.CONCLUSION: This study found some unusual risk factors related to gastrointestinal losses that were associated with deferral of donors due to low hematocrit. Knowledge of the risk factors can help blood banks design algorithms to improve donor notification and referral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Donors , Risk Factors , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Ferritins
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