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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915511

ABSTRACT

Background@#Muscle cramp is possibly related to peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH), and one of the most debilitating symptoms frequently encountered in patients with liver cirrhosis. We investigated whether pregabalin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid analogue, can suppress neuronal excitability and reduce muscle cramps in cirrhotic patients. @*Methods@#We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which study participants with cirrhosis from a single tertiary center were enrolled. Primary endpoint was the relative change in cramp frequency from the run-in to standard dose treatment phase (4 weeks per each). Secondary endpoints included the responder rate, and the changes in cramp frequency during sleep, pain intensity, health-related quality of life (Liver Disease Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form-36) and electrophysiological measures of PNH. @*Results@#This study was terminated early because of insufficient accrual. 80% (n = 56) of the target number of participants (n = 70) were randomized to pregabalin (n = 29) or placebo (n = 27). Median baseline frequency of muscle cramps (interquartile range) was 5.8 (3.5–10) per week in the pregabalin group and 6.5 (4.0–10) in the placebo group (P = 0.970). The primary analysis showed a significant reduction in cramp frequency with pregabalin compared to placebo (−36% vs. 4.5% for the percentage change, P = 0.010). Secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. Adverse effects with pregabalin were mainly dizziness and lethargy. @*Conclusion@#With multiple problems emerging from premature termination in mind, the results suggested an acceptable safety profile and favorable effect of pregabalin in reducing muscle cramps compared to placebo in cirrhotic patients.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 636-643, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833183

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The alcoholic hepatitis histologic score (AHHS) is a recently developed clinical model for predicting short-term mortality in Caucasian patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The AHHS has not been extensively validated in other ethnic populations. This study validated the AHHS in a Korean patient cohort. @*Methods@#We conducted a pro-spective cohort study of hospitalized Korean patients with AH between January 2010 and August 2017. Histopatho-logical findings were assessed to determine the AHHS in all study subjects. Histopathological risk factors were examined by Cox regression analysis to predict overall survival (OS).Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to assess the diagnostic performance of the AHHS. @*Results@#We recruited a total of 107 patients with biopsy-proven AH. None of the individual AHHS components were associated with 3-month mortality.However, the bilirubinostasis type and fibrosis severity were significantly associated with AH mortality beyond 6 months (all p<0.05, except fibrosis severity for 6-month mortality) and OS (all p<0.05). The modified AHHS classification as a binary variable (<5 vs ≥5) was also associated with OS (haz-ard ratio, 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50 to 5.56;p=0.002), and had higher predictive performance for OS (concordance index [C-index], 0.634; 95% CI, 0.561 to 0.707) than the original AHHS classification (mild vs moderate vs severe: C-index, 0.577; 95% CI, 0.498 to 0.656). This differ-ence was statistically significant (p=0.045). @*Conclusions@#In this prospective Korean AH cohort, the modified AHHS was significantly associated with OS. Therefore, the AHHS might be a useful histological prognosticator for long-term progno-sis in patients with nonsevere AH.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832383

ABSTRACT

Background@#The definition of the high-risk group for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) defined by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists was changed from the criteria composed of five historic/demographic factors (old criteria) to the criteria consisting of 11 factors (new criteria) in 2017. To compare the predictive performances between these two sets of criteria. @*Methods@#This is a secondary analysis of a large prospective cohort study of non-diabetic Korean women with singleton pregnancies designed to examine the risk of GDM in women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Maternal fasting blood was taken at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation and measured for glucose and lipid parameters. GDM was diagnosed by the two-step approach. @*Results@#Among 820 women, 42 (5.1%) were diagnosed with GDM. Using the old criteria, 29.8% (n=244) of women would have been identified as high risk versus 16.0% (n=131) using the new criteria. Of the 42 women who developed GDM, 45.2% (n=19) would have been mislabeled as not high risk by the old criteria versus 50.0% (n=21) using the new criteria (1-sensitivity, 45.2% vs. 50.0%, P>0.05). Among the 778 patients who did not develop GDM, 28.4% (n=221) would have been identified as high risk using the old criteria versus 14.1% (n=110) using the new criteria (1-specificity, 28.4% vs. 14.1%, P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Compared with the old criteria, use of the new criteria would have decreased the number of patients identified as high risk and thus requiring early GDM screening by half (from 244 [29.8%] to 131 [16.0%]).

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 5-6, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719261

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Aging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761757

ABSTRACT

To analyze the clinical and endoscopic features of colonic anisakiasis. A retrospective chart review of 20 patients with colonic anisakiasis, who were diagnosed by colonoscopy at 8 hospitals between January 2002 and December 2011, was performed. Patients’ mean age was 53.6±10.74 years. Seventy percent patients were men. Acute abdominal pain was a common symptom that mostly developed within 48 hr after the ingestion of raw fish, and which lasted for 1–28 days. Sixty percent patients had ingested raw fish before the diagnosis of colonic anisakiasis and 40% patients were incidentally found to have colonic anisakiasis during the screening colonoscopies. Leukocytosis and eosinophilia were each found in 20% of the patients. In all patients who underwent colonoscopy, the worms were removed with biopsy forceps, except in 1 case, and a definite diagnosis of anisakiasis was made. In some cases of colonic anisakiasis, colonoscopy may be helpful in the diagnosis and treatment to avoid surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Anisakiasis , Biopsy , Colon , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Eating , Eosinophilia , Humans , Korea , Leukocytosis , Male , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Instruments
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Submucosal tumors of the esophagus are rare lesions among all esophageal neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of esophageal submucosal tumors treated by surgical approach. METHODS: We analyzed the clinicopathologic and endoscopic ultrasonographic features of 18 esophageal submucosal tumors which were treated by surgical approach at Boramae Medical Center and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from January 2005 to June 2012. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.9 years old and male to female ratio was 2.6:1. Asymptomatic patients were most common (77.8%). In endoscopic ultrasonographic finding, the majority tumor arouse in the middle (55.6%) and lower (44.4%) esophagus, and appeared as hypoechoic lesion (72.2%) in the 4th layer (83.3%). The most common indication for surgical approach was unclear biological behavior of the tumor. Minimally-invasive technique using thoracoscopy was applied for the enucleation (83.3%). The mean diameter of the tumor was 5.4 cm, and the final diagnosis was leiomyoma (89.9%) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (11.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Leiomyoma was the most common submucosal tumor in esophagus. However, endoscopic ultrasonography was not able to differentiate between leiomyoma and gastrointesinal stromal tumor. For more accurate diagnosis and treatment, minimally-invasive approaches may be suitable for the surgical enucleation of indicated esophageal submucosal tumor.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagus/pathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/diagnosis , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Leiomyoma/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thoracoscopy
7.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 183-187, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70556

ABSTRACT

We herein report a case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the gallbladder confirmed by laparoscopic surgery. A 60-year-old male was HBsAg-positive. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 2.5 x 2.5 cm enhancing polypoid mass in the gallbladder and multiple masses in liver segments 4 and 5 that enhanced in the arterial phase and washed out in the delayed phase. Liver biopsy findings showed only poorly differentiated morphology. A laparoscopic operation was performed for diagnosis of the masses because curative resection seemed impossible to perform, which showed unusual findings of either hepatocelluar carcinoma or gallbladder cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic liver biopsy and cholecystectomy were performed. The final pathologic results of the masses showed large cell NEC of the gallbladder with liver metastasis. Central bisegmentectomy and extensive lymph node dissection were ultimately performed. The patient was still alive 16 months after diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Cholecystectomy , Gallbladder , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Humans , Laparoscopy , Liver , Lymph Node Excision , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer and second leading cause of cancer death overall. Recently, there has been an emphasis on primary screening for colorectal cancer with colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to address clinical characteristics and incidence of colonic polyps according to location. METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2010, 6,417 total colonoscopic examinations were performed at Boramae Hospital in Seoul, Korea. We reviewed these patients retrospectively. The distal colon was defined as the rectosigmoid junction. RESULTS: Overall, 1,972 patients (31.3%) had one of more colorectal polyps. Total of 4,445 patients were excluded from this study because of combined advanced colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or familial adenomatous polyposis. Patients who had only proximal polyps were 633 (32.1%), 530 patients (26.9%) had both proximal and distal polyps, and 809 patients (41.0%) had polyps only in the rectosigmoid region. The prevalence of the proximal polyps in patients with rectosigmoid polyps was found to be significantly related to the male gender and elderly patients. However, the prevalence of the proximal colonic polyps was not related to the size and number of rectosigmoid polyps. In 530 patients with both rectosigmoid and proximal colonic polyps, the characteristics of proximal colonic polyps as size and number were similar to those of rectosigmoid polyps. Advanced proximal adenomas without distal polyps were found in 25 (29.4%) patients whom were associated with size and pathology. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend total colonoscopic examination in all patients regardless of the size and number, especially in elderly males.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/epidemiology , Adenoma, Villous/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Early detection of polyp is important for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). There have been few studies to investigate the relationship between colorectal adenoma and family history of CRC (FHCRC) in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between colorectal adenoma and FHCRC. METHODS: Between March 2009 and September 2010, 225 patients with adenomatous polyps were included. Their medical records with clinical history and size, numbers, histology of polyps were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining using Bcl-2, Bax, p-AKT, NF-kappaB, and beta-catenin antibodies were performed. We compared the histology of adenoma and expression of immunohistochemical staining according to the existence of FHCRC. RESULTS: The incidence of colorectal adenoma increased in case of FHCRC (p=0.029). In patients with FHCRC, the mean age of patients was 49 years old and younger than patients without FHCRC. In addition in patients with FHCRC, the incidence of advanced adenoma was significantly higher than in patients without FHCRC (p=0.001). The expression of Bax was significantly lower in patients with FHCRC than without FHCRC (p=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: There was a tendency for polyp to develop in their younger ages and to be more advanced adenomas in patients with FHCRC. The low expression of Bax, tumor suppressor gene, might be associated with the development of polyps in patient with FHCRC. Therefore, patients with FHCRC may be better to start screening colonoscopy earlier than patient without FHCRC.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/diagnosis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Family Health , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , beta Catenin/metabolism
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179474

ABSTRACT

Clopidogrel, a thienopyridine derivative, is an anti-platelet agent that acts as an antagonist of the platelet adenosine diphosphate receptor and considered for essential prophylaxis for intracoronary stent thrombosis in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Clopidogrel is considered as safe as aspirin but a few cases of severe hematologic adverse reactions associated with clopidogrel had been reported such as neutropenia, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, and thrombocytopenia. We report a rare case of neutropenia induced by clopidogrel in chronic renal failure in a patient who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate , Anemia, Aplastic , Aspirin , Blood Platelets , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Myocardial Ischemia , Neutropenia , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic , Pyridines , Stents , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Ticlopidine
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158694

ABSTRACT

Arterial bleeding after pancreaticoduodenectomy is a very serious complication with high mortality. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is essential. In particular, early detection and immediate embolization can be effectively used for the delayed massive bleeding that occurs from a pseudoaneurysmal rupture. However, sometimes intermittent bleeding or a vessel spasm can cause the bleeding focus to remain unidentified in spite of repeated angiography. We experienced a case of successful embolization with superselection by endoscopic hemoclipping in a patient who underwent pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, and the patient's bleeding focus was not found after repeated angiography. Endoscopic hemoclip application can be useful for localizing a pseudoaneurysmal rupture in patients with pancreaticoduodenectomy.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, False , Angiography , Early Diagnosis , Glycosaminoglycans , Hemorrhage , Humans , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Pylorus , Rupture , Spasm
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 309-314, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174771

ABSTRACT

(AECOPD). While critically ill patients requiring admission need proper antibiotic treatment for the causative pathogen, little is known about the bacterial etiology of AECOPD in Korea. We therefore studied the bacterial etiology of hospitalized patients with COPD in our institution. METHODS: The study enrolled 149 patients who were admitted to the hospital in Sungnam with the diagnosis of AECOPD between July 1, 2004 and June 1, 2007. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and results of sputum cultures. RESULTS: Of the 149 subjects with sputum collected, 51% (76 cases) had positive bacterial cultures [age 70.7+/- 9.2 years (mean+/- SD); 116 males] of sputum. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 cases, 30.4%) was the organism cultured in sputum most commonly, followed by Streptococcus pneumonia (15 cases, 18.9%), Acinetobacter sp. (9 cases, 11.4%), and Klebsiella pneumonia (7 cases, 8.9%). Patients whose FEV1 was 50% (17/96 vs. 4/53, respectively, p=0.002). Patients taking systemic steroids also had a higher rate of sputum culture of P. aeruginosa (85.7%). CONCLUSIONS: P. aeruginosa was the pathogen most commonly isolated in hospitalized patients with COPD. This species should be considered when physicians select empirical antibiotics to treat patients with AECOPD.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Infections , Critical Illness , Humans , Klebsiella , Korea , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Steroids , Streptococcus
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