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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe our experiences with a fully equipped high-end digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system within a hybrid operating room (OR). METHODS: A single-plane DSA system with 3-dimensional rotational angiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and real-time navigation software was used in our hybrid OR. Between April 2014 and January 2018, 191 sessions of cerebrovascular procedures were performed in our hybrid OR. After the retrospective review of all cases, the procedures were categorized into three subcategorical procedures : combined endovascular and surgical procedure, complementary rescue procedure during intervention and surgery, and frameless stereotaxic operation. RESULTS: Forty-nine of 191 procedures were performed using hybrid techniques. Four cases of blood blister aneurysms and a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm were treated using bypass surgery and endovascular trapping. Eight cases of ruptured aneurysm with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were treated by partial embolization and surgical clipping. Six cases of ruptured arteriovenous malformation with ICH were treated by Onyx embolization of nidus and subsequent surgical removal of nidus and ICH. Two (5.4%) of the 37 cases of pre-mature rupture during clipping were secured by endovascular coil embolization. In one (0.8%) complicated case of 103 intra-arterial thrombectomy procedures, emergency surgical embolectomy with bypass surgery was performed. In 27 cases of ICH, frameless stereotaxic hematoma aspiration was performed using XperGuide® system (Philips Medical Systems, Best, the Netherlands). All procedures were performed in single sessions without any procedural complications. CONCLUSION: Hybrid OR with a fully equipped DSA system could provide precise and safe treatment strategies for cerebrovascular diseases. Especially, we could suggest a strategy to cope flexibly in complex lesions or unexpected situations in hybrid OR. CBCT with real-time navigation software could augment the usefulness of hybrid OR.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Arteries , Arteriovenous Malformations , Blister , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Embolectomy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Emergencies , Hematoma , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Operating Rooms , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Surgical Instruments , Thrombectomy
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788751

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe our experiences with a fully equipped high-end digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system within a hybrid operating room (OR).METHODS: A single-plane DSA system with 3-dimensional rotational angiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and real-time navigation software was used in our hybrid OR. Between April 2014 and January 2018, 191 sessions of cerebrovascular procedures were performed in our hybrid OR. After the retrospective review of all cases, the procedures were categorized into three subcategorical procedures : combined endovascular and surgical procedure, complementary rescue procedure during intervention and surgery, and frameless stereotaxic operation.RESULTS: Forty-nine of 191 procedures were performed using hybrid techniques. Four cases of blood blister aneurysms and a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm were treated using bypass surgery and endovascular trapping. Eight cases of ruptured aneurysm with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were treated by partial embolization and surgical clipping. Six cases of ruptured arteriovenous malformation with ICH were treated by Onyx embolization of nidus and subsequent surgical removal of nidus and ICH. Two (5.4%) of the 37 cases of pre-mature rupture during clipping were secured by endovascular coil embolization. In one (0.8%) complicated case of 103 intra-arterial thrombectomy procedures, emergency surgical embolectomy with bypass surgery was performed. In 27 cases of ICH, frameless stereotaxic hematoma aspiration was performed using XperGuide® system (Philips Medical Systems, Best, the Netherlands). All procedures were performed in single sessions without any procedural complications.CONCLUSION: Hybrid OR with a fully equipped DSA system could provide precise and safe treatment strategies for cerebrovascular diseases. Especially, we could suggest a strategy to cope flexibly in complex lesions or unexpected situations in hybrid OR. CBCT with real-time navigation software could augment the usefulness of hybrid OR.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Arteries , Arteriovenous Malformations , Blister , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Embolectomy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Emergencies , Hematoma , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Operating Rooms , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Surgical Instruments , Thrombectomy
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205811

ABSTRACT

A 21-year-old female presented with acute epidural hemorrhage (EDH) on the left temporal region associated with skull fracture after traffic accident. She was neurologically deteriorated at four-hour after an admission, and follow-up computed tomography revealed increased amount of EDH. Under the general anesthesia, emergency craniotomy was performed. During the surgery, massive bleeding from the base of middle cranial fossa was observed. However, we could not identify an origin of bleeding and foramen spinosum due to brain swelling and obscured surgical field. Consequently, her systolic blood pressure was dropped to 60 mm Hg with >110 beat/min of heart rate. Therefore, we decided to perform an intraoperative angiography after gauze packing into the middle cranial fossa. Intraoperative angiography showed a large pseudoaneurysm with massive contrast leakage of the middle meningeal artery (MMA). Intraoperative endovascular embolization of the pseudoaneurysm and MMA by using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was done. After that, her vital sign became stable, and we could complete the operation after the achievement of adequate hemostasis. Intraoperative angiography and endovascular embolization of MMA was effective in achieving adequate hemostasis in case with brisk bleeding from the middle cranial fossa could not be controlled in an open surgical field.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Anesthesia, General , Aneurysm, False , Angiography , Blood Pressure , Brain Edema , Cranial Fossa, Middle , Craniotomy , Emergencies , Enbucrilate , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Rate , Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Humans , Meningeal Arteries , Skull Fractures , Vital Signs , Young Adult
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), pain and/or paresthesia disappeared or decreased in a month after endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR). However, subpopulation of patients showed delayed improvement following ECTR. We analyzed the delayed improvement hands to investigate the characteristics of those patients and to determine the predictable factors of delayed improvement. METHODS: Single-portal ECTRs were performed in 1194 hands of 793 CTS patients from 2002 to 2011. Five-hundred seventy hands with minimal 1-year postoperative follow-up were included. We divided the 545 satisfied hands into early (group A) and delayed (group B) groups according to improvement period of 1 month. Demographic data, clinical severity and electrodiagnostic abnormality were compared between groups. RESULTS: Group A included 510 hands and group B included 35 hands. In group B, 11 hands improved in 2 months, 15 hands in 3 months and 9 hands in 6 months, respectively. In group A/B, according to clinical severity, 60/1 hands were graded to I, 345/24 hands to II, 105/10 hands to III. In group A/B, based on electrodiagnostic abnormality, 57/3 hands were classified to mild, 221/11 hands to moderate and 222/21 hands to severe group. Statistical analysis between groups did not reach significance but electrodiagnostic or clinical severity had a tendency to affect the delayed response. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to predict the factors contributing to postoperatively-delayed response in subpopulation of CTS patients. However, we recommend that postoperative observation for at least 6 months is necessary in patients without symptomatic improvement.


Subject(s)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Decompression, Surgical , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , Paresthesia
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) include headache, altered mental status, visual disturbances, and seizures. Typical radiological features include edema of the parieto-occipital lobes. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical and radiological findings in patients diagnosed with PRES. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with PRES between January 2006 and December 2012 were retrospectively included in this study. We reviewed demographic and clinical characteristics, and radiological findings. RESULTS: We identified 16 patients with PRES. The most common clinical presentation was seizure (n = 12, 75%). Clinical recovery occurred in all patients within days (mean, 5.7 +/- 4.6 days). Comorbid conditions included hypertension (n = 4, 25%), cytotoxic medications (n = 3, 18.8%), sepsis (n = 4, 25%), malignancy (n = 4, 25%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1, 6.3%), autoimmune disorders (n = 1, 6.3%) and eclampsia (n = 1, 6.3%). The most commonly involved location was the parieto-occipital lobe (n = 13, 81.3%). Atypical radiological findings included significant basal ganglia involvement in 4 episodes; brainstem in 3, cerebellum in 2, and thalamus in 3. Eleven patients (68.8%) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. Of those, 9 patients (81.8%) had hypo- or isointensity on diffusion-weighted imaging. On the apparent diffusion coefficient map, 10 patients (90.9%) had hyperintensity, and the other had normal values. CONCLUSION: We suggest that PRES may occur in patients with complex systemic conditions. The prognosis of PRES is usually benign. Physicians should be aware of certain atypical radiological findings to avoid a delayed diagnosis of PRES, as delayed diagnosis and treatment can result in permanent neurological sequlae.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia , Brain Stem , Cerebellum , Delayed Diagnosis , Diffusion , Eclampsia , Edema , Female , Headache , Humans , Hypertension , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Sepsis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thalamus
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) include headache, altered mental status, visual disturbances, and seizures. Typical radiological features include edema of the parieto-occipital lobes. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical and radiological findings in patients diagnosed with PRES. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with PRES between January 2006 and December 2012 were retrospectively included in this study. We reviewed demographic and clinical characteristics, and radiological findings. RESULTS: We identified 16 patients with PRES. The most common clinical presentation was seizure (n = 12, 75%). Clinical recovery occurred in all patients within days (mean, 5.7 +/- 4.6 days). Comorbid conditions included hypertension (n = 4, 25%), cytotoxic medications (n = 3, 18.8%), sepsis (n = 4, 25%), malignancy (n = 4, 25%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1, 6.3%), autoimmune disorders (n = 1, 6.3%) and eclampsia (n = 1, 6.3%). The most commonly involved location was the parieto-occipital lobe (n = 13, 81.3%). Atypical radiological findings included significant basal ganglia involvement in 4 episodes; brainstem in 3, cerebellum in 2, and thalamus in 3. Eleven patients (68.8%) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. Of those, 9 patients (81.8%) had hypo- or isointensity on diffusion-weighted imaging. On the apparent diffusion coefficient map, 10 patients (90.9%) had hyperintensity, and the other had normal values. CONCLUSION: We suggest that PRES may occur in patients with complex systemic conditions. The prognosis of PRES is usually benign. Physicians should be aware of certain atypical radiological findings to avoid a delayed diagnosis of PRES, as delayed diagnosis and treatment can result in permanent neurological sequlae.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia , Brain Stem , Cerebellum , Delayed Diagnosis , Diffusion , Eclampsia , Edema , Female , Headache , Humans , Hypertension , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Sepsis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thalamus
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the posterior cranial fossa in patients with symptomatic Chiari malformation type I (CMI) compared to a control group. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological data from 12 symptomatic patients with CMI and 24 healthy control subjects. The structures of the brain and skull base were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The length of the clivus had significantly decreased in the CMI group than in the control group (p=0.000). The angle between the clivus and the McRae line (p<0.024), as the angle between the supraocciput and the McRae line (p<0.021), and the angle between the tentorium and a line connecting the internal occipital protuberance to the opisthion (p<0.009) were significantly larger in the CMI group than in the control group. The mean vertical length of the cerebellar hemisphere (p<0.003) and the mean length of the coronal and sagittal superoinferior aspects of the cerebellum (p<0.05) were longer in the CMI group than in the control group, while the mean length of the axial anteroposterior aspect of the cerebellum (p<0.001) was significantly shorter in the CMI group relative to control subjects. CONCLUSION: We elucidate the transformation of the posterior cranial fossa into the narrow funnel shape. The sufficient cephalocaudal extension of the craniectomy of the posterior cranial fossa has more decompression effect than other type extension of the craniectomy in CMI patients.


Subject(s)
Arnold-Chiari Malformation , Brain , Cerebellum , Congenital Abnormalities , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Decompression , Decompressive Craniectomy , Embryology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was conducted to analyze the novice neurosurgeon's experience of cervical pedicle screw placement by using the technique with direct exposure of pedicle via para-articular mini-laminotomy. METHODS: Fifteen sawbone models of subaxial spine were used (124 pedicles) to evaluate efficacy of repetitive training improving accuracy of cervical pedicle screw insertion. After that, we retrospectively reviewed 9 consecutive patients presented with traumatic cervical lesion. A total 38 cervical pedicle screws had been inserted. We analyzed the direction and grade of pedicle perforation on the postoperative computed tomography scan, and learning curve by using sawbone model. RESULTS: In sawbone model group, the correct position was found in 102 (82.3%) screws, and the incorrect position in 22 (17.7%) screws. The incidence of incorrect screw position was 26.9% in the initial 9 sawbone model, and 0% after that. Among the 38 screws inserted in 9 patients, the correct position was found in 36 (94.7%) screws, and the incorrect position in a 2 (5.3%) screw. There was no neurovascular complications related with cervical pedicle screw insertion. CONCLUSION: In vitro training to insert pedicle screw by using sawbone models could improve an accuracy of cervical pedicle screw placement by using this technique. Preliminary result revealed that cervical pedicle screw placement would be feasible and provide good clinical results in traumatic cervical lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Laminectomy , Learning Curve , Retrospective Studies , Spine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a problem constantly uppermost in the minds of all surgeons, although the actual rate of occurrence is only 1-5% in general surgery. In neurosurgical fields, there have been a few papers published about efficacy of post-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAMP) to prevent SSI, compared to well known effectiveness of pre-operative antibiotics. Thus, infection rates of short-term PAMP groups and those of long-term PAMP groups were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of PAMP and the efficacy of short-term PAMP compared to long-term PAMP for prevention of SSI. METHODS: Between April 2010 and April 2012, we retrospectively analyzed the data of 35 patients in the aneurysmal neck clipping groups (short-term PAMP group: PAMP for 3 days and fewer, long-term PAMP group: PAMP for 10 days and more) and 79 patients in the microdiscectomy groups (short-term PAMP group: 3 days and fewer, long-term PAMP group: PAMP for 6 days and more). RESULTS: In aneurysmal neck clipping groups, SSI occurred 23.1% of short-term PAMP group and 9.1% of long-term PAMP group (p=0.3370). And in microdiscectomy groups, SSI occurred 6.7% of short-term PAMP group and 4.1% of long-term PAMP group (p=0.9840). CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference between the short-term PAMP group and the long-term PAMP group in terms of SSI, regardless of operation type. We therefore suggest that short-term PAMP usage could be an appropriate therapy for preventing SSI in clean neurosurgical operations.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Humans , Neck , Neurosurgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Wound Infection
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Multidetector-Row computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) is a promising method for detection and surgical planning of intracranial vascular abnormalities. However, there are several problems, such as image degradation due to inevitable patients movement, venous contamination, kissing vessel artifact, demonstration of venous structures mimicking aneurysm and bone artifacts. The purpose of our study is to review our recent experience with false negative or positive cases on MDCTA. METHODS: Between May 2007 and May 2010, 259 consecutive patients, who were diagnosed with intracranial aneurysms or other vascular abnormalities by MDCTA, were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 259 patients, 172 patients who underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which was considered as the standard of reference, were included in the study. Two neuroradiologists and two neurosurgeons evaluated independently and separately all of the MDCTA images. RESULTS: A total 26 cases (15.3%) were revealed abnormal vascular findings on MDCTA. There were 11 false negatives on MDCTA including incomplete scanning range of lesion site (n=3), a blood blister aneurysm (n=1), severe vasospasm (n=4) and bone artifacts (n=3). Also there were 15 false positives on MDCTA; venous contamination over the lesion site (n=6), focal dilation of the bifurcation or branching site of major vessels (n=6) and poor quality of the images due to inevitable patients movement (n=3). CONCLUSIONS: MDCTA is clearly not the total answer for aneurysm diagnosis. We recommend that MDCTA scanning range is planned to encompass the whole intracerebral vasculature. Close attention to image acquisition and interpretation are required to reduce errors in MDCTA of intracranial aneurysms.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Artifacts , Blister , Glycosaminoglycans , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Allelic losses or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at many chromosomal loci have been found in the cells of meningiomas. The objective of this study was to evaluate LOH at several loci of different chromosomes (1p32, 17p13, 7q21, 7q31, and 22q13) in different grades of meningiomas. METHODS: Forty surgical specimens were obtained and classified as benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas. After DNA extraction, ten polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to detect LOH. Medical and surgical records, as well as pathologic findings, were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: LOH at 1p32 was detected in 24%, 60%, and 60% in benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas, respectively. Whereas LOH at 7q21 was found in only one atypical meningioma. LOH at 7q31 was found in one benign meningioma and one atypical meningioma. LOH at 17p13 was detected in 4%, 40%, and 80% in benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas, respectively. LOH at 22q13 was seen in 48%, 60%, and 60% in benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas, respectively. LOH results at 1p32 and 17p13 showed statistically significant differences between benign and non-benign meningiomas. CONCLUSION: LOH at 1p32 and 17p13 showed a strong correlation with tumor progression. On the other hand, LOH at 7q21 and 7q31 may not contribute to the development of the meningiomas.


Subject(s)
DNA , Hand , Loss of Heterozygosity , Meningioma , Microsatellite Repeats , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114538

ABSTRACT

Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system in humans, caused by infection of the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. However, cerebellar involvement is rarely reported. We report of a case of racemose cysticercosis in the cerebellar hemisphere. A 44-year-old man presented with headache and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hydrocephalus and an ill-defined, multicystic cerebellar mass with hypersignal on T2-weighted images, hyposignal on T1-weighted images and rim enhancement after gadolinium injection. The patient underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy and the cyst resection was done through a craniotomy. In surgical field, cysts were conglomerated in a dense collagen capsule that were severely adherent to surrounding cerebellar tissue, and transparent cysts contained white, milky fluid. Histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of cysticercosis. He received antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel after surgery. Racemose cysticercosis is rare in the cerebellar hemisphere but neurocysticercosis should be taken into consideration as a differential diagnosis of multiple cystic lesions in the cerebellum.


Subject(s)
Adult , Central Nervous System , Cerebellum , Collagen , Craniotomy , Cysticercosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Dizziness , Gadolinium , Headache , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurocysticercosis , Parasitic Diseases , Praziquantel , Taenia solium , Ventriculostomy
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Barbiturate coma therapy (BCT) is a useful method to control increased intracranial pressure (IICP) patients. However, the complications such as hypotension and hypokalemia have caused conditions that stopped BCT early. The complications of low dose BCT with Bispectral(TM) index (BIS) monitoring and those of high dose BCT without BIS monitoring have been compared to evaluate the efficacy of low dose BCT with BIS monitoring. METHODS: We analyzed 39 patients with high dose BCT group (21 patients) and low dose BCT group (18 patients). Because BIS value of 40-60 is general anesthesia score, we have adjusted the target dose of thiopental to maintain the BIS score of 40-60. Therefore, dose of thiopental was kept 1.3 to 2.6 mg/kg/hour during low dose BCT. However, high dose BCT consisted of 5 mg/kg/hour without BIS monitoing. RESULTS: The protocol of BCT was successful in 72.2% and 38.1% of low dose and high dose BCT groups, respectively. The complications such as QT prolongation, hypotension and cardiac arrest have caused conditions that stopped BCT early. Hypokalemia showed the highest incidence rate in complications of both BCT. The descent in potassium level were 0.63 +/- 0.26 in low dose group, and 1.31 +/- 0.48 in high dose group. The treatment durations were 4.89 +/- 1.68 days and 3.38 +/- 1.24 days in low dose BCT and high dose BCT, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was proved that low dose BCT showed less severe complications than high dose BCT. Low dose BCT with BIS monitoring provided enough duration of BCT possible to control ICP.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Barbiturates , Coma , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypokalemia , Hypotension , Incidence , Intracranial Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Potassium , Thiopental
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most of the studies that have described surgical procedures for moyamoya disease(MMD) have had the aim to improve the blood flow mainly in the middle cerebral artery(MCA) territory. The purpose of this study is to clarify the good indications for a multiple burrhole operation to treat MMD. METHODS: With the patient under local anesthesia, burrhole trephination with a diameter of 1.5 to 2cm at 3 to 5cm lateral to the midline was performed in a total of 18 hemispheres during 12 procedures. The burrholes were opened in the frontal lobe at 19 sites in 10 patients and in the parietal lobe at 22 sites in 12 patients. Revascularization through multiple burrholes and arachnoid openings was performed in 12 patients who suffered from MMD. RESULTS: As seen on the follow up angiograms, good revascularization was achieved in 27 of 41 burrholes, and mainly from the middle meningeal artery and then from the superficial temporal artery. The moyamoya vessels were decreased in four patients. The neovascularization covered 68.4% of the frontal lobe and 63.5% of the parietal lobe. Compared with the preoperative 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT, 6 patients showed improvement of cerebral blood flow on the postoperative 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT. Transient ischemic attack disappeared in three of the four patients who presented with this symptom, and the preoperative symptoms improved in both of the patients who presented with headache and cerebral infarction. CONCLUSIONS: A multiple burrhole operation is a simple technique. The results of our series suggest that the revascularization obtained for adult MMD patients who underwent a multiple burrhole operation is similar to that obtained with other indirect surgeries, but long term follow up studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, Local , Arachnoid , Cerebral Infarction , Follow-Up Studies , Frontal Lobe , Headache , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Meningeal Arteries , Moyamoya Disease , Parietal Lobe , Temporal Arteries
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the relationship between transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and three-dimensional computerized tomography angiography (3D-CTA) under delayed ischemic neurologic deficit (DIND) with angioplasty following vasospasm. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with DIND following vasospasm who received sequential TCD and CTA were analyzed. On TCD, vasospasm was defined as anterior circulation peak mean velocity>120 cm/s, daily increases of 50cm/s, and a Lindegaard ratio (LR)degrees root 3. On 3D-CTA data were subdivided into local and combined types according to the position where vasospasm occurred, and into mild, moderate, and severe by the blood vessel diameter. RESULTS: Among the 20 consecutive patients with DIND, 13 of them received angioplasty. On TCD, the angioplasty group had more frequent vasospasm and tended to have an LR higher than 3. The mean blood flow velocity of MCA in the angioplasty group was 40 cm/sec higher than the group without angioplasty. On CTA, the angioplasty group showed combined, moderate types more frequently. After 3D-CTA evaluation, TCD sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, analyzed with the index of diminished vessel diameter that was more than moderate, were 92.6%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 50.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: TCD and 3D-CTA could be useful tools for evaluation and management planning of critical patients suspected of having DIND by vasospasm.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Angioplasty , Blood Flow Velocity , Blood Vessels , Glycosaminoglycans , Humans , Neurologic Manifestations , Sensitivity and Specificity , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102023

ABSTRACT

A 57-year-old man presented with weakness in both legs upon awakening after drinking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine did not reveal any intraspinal abnormalities but MRI of the pelvis revealed lesions with abnormal intensities with heterogeneous contrast enhancement in both gluteal muscles. Serum creatine phosphokinase was markedly elevated. A diagnosis of lumbosacral plexopathy, complicating rhabdomyolysis was made. With supportive care he recovered well but mild weakness of the right ankle remained at 6 month-follow-up. Pelvic MRI is a helpful diagnostic tool in localizing rhabdomyolysis. Lumbosacral plexopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of the such cases, presenting with sudden weakness of legs.


Subject(s)
Ankle , Creatine Kinase , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drinking , Humans , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Muscles , Pelvis , Rhabdomyolysis , Spine
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms are fragile and known to have high risks for intraoperative premature rupture and a relatively high associated morbidity. To improve surgical outcomes of DACA aneurysms, we reviewed our surgical strategy and its results postoperatively. METHODS: A total of 845 patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms were operated in our hospital from January 1991 to December 2005. Twenty-three of 845 patients had ruptured DACA aneurysms which were operated on according to our surgical strategy. Our surgical strategy was as follows; early surgery, appropriate releasing of CSF, appropriate surgical approach, using neuronavigating system, securing the bridging veins, using temporary clipping and/or tentative clipping, meticulous manipulation of aneurysm, and using micro-Doppler flow probe. Twenty of 23 patients who had complete medical records were studied retrospectively. We observed the postoperative radiographic findings and checked Glasgow Outcome Scale score sixth months after the operation. RESULTS: Nineteen DACA aneurysms were clipped through a unilateral interhemispheric approach and one DACA aneurysm was clipped through a pterional approach. Postoperative radiographic findings revealed complete clipping of aneurysmal neck without stenosis or occlusion of parent arteries. In two patients, a residual neck of aneurysm was visualized. Seventeen patients showed good recovery, one patient resulted in moderate disability, while 2 patients died. CONCLUSION: With our surgical strategy it was possible to achieve acceptable surgical morbidity and mortality rates in patients with DACA aneurysms. Appropriate use of tentative clipping, temporary clipping and neuro-navigating systems can give great help for safe approach and clipping of DACA aneurysm.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Medical Records , Mortality , Neck , Parents , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Veins
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors present eight cases of immediate post-operative epidural hematomas(EDHs) adjacent to the craniotomy site, describe clinical details of them, and discuss their pathogenesis. METHODS: Medical records of eight cases were retrospectively reviewed and their clinical data, operation records, and radiological findings analyzed. Any risk factors of the EDHs were searched. RESULTS: In 5 of 8 cases, adjacent EDHs developed after craniotomies for the surgical removal of brain tumors. Three cases of adjacent EDHs developed after a pterional approach and neck clipping of a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and a craniotomy for a post-traumatic EDH, respectively. In all eight cases, brain computed tomography (CT) scans checked immediately or a few hours after the surgery, revealed large EDHs adjacent to the previous craniotomy site, but there was no EDH beneath the previous craniotomy flap. After emergent surgical removal of the EDHs, 7 cases demonstrated good clinical outcomes, with one case yielding a poor result. CONCLUSION: Rapid drainage of a large volume of cerebrospinal fluid or intra-operative severe brain collapse may separate the dura from the calvarium and cause postoperative EDH adjacent to the previous craniotomy site. A high-pressure suction drain left in the epidural space may contribute to the pathogenesis. After the craniotomy for brain tumors or intracranial aneurysms, when remarkable brain collapse occurs, an immediate postoperative brain CT is mandatory to detect and adequately manage such unexpected events as adjacent EDHs.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Craniotomy , Drainage , Epidural Space , Hematoma , Intracranial Aneurysm , Medical Records , Neck , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Skull , Suction , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67813

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is still debate about the diagnostic efficacy of digital infrared thermographic imaging(DITI), nevertheless, it has been used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS). We performed comparative study between patient and control groups to investigate the diagnostic value of DITI in CTS. METHODS: We studied 27 patients with electrodiagnostically-proven CTS and 18 symptom-free volunteers as a control. We measured thermal difference on DITI in the corresponding regions of the hands and forearms. We statistically analyzed the thermal data using a t-test. RESULTS: The average thermal difference in the diagnosed patient group ranged from 0.0303 degrees C to 0.2856 degrees C, while that in control group ranged from 0.0611 degrees C to 0.2878 degrees C. In the CTS patient group, thermal difference between each 2nd finger was higher than that of other regions. However, there was no statistical significance between patient and control groups. CONCLUSION: We found that the diagnostic value of DITI in CTS was not sufficient. There should be a reconsideration of the usefulness of DITI in CTS.


Subject(s)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Diagnosis , Fingers , Forearm , Hand , Humans , Thermography , Volunteers
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The retrospective study is undertaken to report clinical results of anterior cervical interbody fusion with an intradiscal cage with an integrated plate (PCB cervical plating system). METHODS: 38 patients underwent anterior cervical interbody fusion with PCB cervical plating system and followed 6~24 months. The authors investigated overall surgical results; clinical outcome, fusion rate, change of interspace height & lordotic angle, and complications. RESULTS: No complication was observed during the operation. Clinical improvement was identified in 34 cases (89.5%). Bone fusion observed in 44 out of 49 sites (90.7%). After operation, the interspace height increased from 5.4+/-1.3 mm to 7.8+/-1.5 mm and maintained 7.4+/-1.1 mm and, interspace angle went up from 4.2+/-0.7 degrees to 4.8+/-1.1 degrees and maintained 4.6+/-0.9 degrees. The loosening of screw was observed in 6 cases, one of which had reoperation because of the expulsion of the device accompanied. CONCLUSION: PCB cervical plating system could restore interbody height and lordosis in anterior cervical interbody fusion. But, if the insertion of the spacer is not precise, the frequencies of hardware failure are relatively high. It is considered necessary for the operator to be careful in the procedure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Lordosis , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies
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