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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245197, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360198

ABSTRACT

Abstract The water quality parameters of a fish pond are essential to be managing properly under control for successful operations of fish culture. Improper management of pond water quality during the juvenile stages can create stressful conditions to produce various harmful diseases, which may decrease the fish quality and results in low profits. The present study was aimed to monitored important water quality parameters of nursery ponds of Labeo rohita culturing in Bannu fish hatchery. The study duration was 75 days extends from 10th June to 24th August 2019 for the successful culture of this specie which can play a significant role in breeding season. Furthermore, the concentration of some heavy metals like copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in pond water and fry stages of this species was also determined. The data obtained from all water quality parameters were analyzed expressed as range, mean and standard deviation using MS Excel 2013. The obtained results of 75 days study revealed that the water pH & temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total dissolved oxygen (DO) of pond water samples were found within a tolerable limit except salinity and dissolved ammonia concentration were not permissible for fish growth. The average concentration of heavy metals in pond water exhibited descending order Fe>Ni>Mn>Zn>Cd>Ni, which was found in acceptable ranges. Whereas, the average values of heavy metals in fry stages were in the order of Zn>Fe>Ni>Cu>Cd>Mn, and found within the recommended values of WHO/FAO. Thus, it was concluded from this study that good water quality is a precondition, maintaining balanced levels of water quality parameters is fundamental for both the health and growth of fish culture which is quite necessary for assuring increased fish productivity. It is recommended to monitor and assess water quality parameters on a routine basis for promoting healthy fish culture.


Resumo Os parâmetros de qualidade da água de um viveiro de peixes são essenciais para um manejo adequado e sob controle para operações bem-sucedidas de piscicultura. O manejo inadequado da qualidade da água do tanque durante os estágios juvenis pode criar condições estressantes para a produção de várias doenças nocivas, o que pode diminuir a qualidade do peixe e resultar em baixos lucros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo monitorar importantes parâmetros de qualidade da água de viveiros de cultivo de Labeo rohita em incubadora de peixes Bannu. A duração do estudo foi de 75 dias, estendendo-se de 10 de junho a 24 de agosto de 2019 para o sucesso do cultivo dessa espécie que pode desempenhar papel significativo na época de reprodução. Além disso, a concentração de alguns metais pesados como cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), manganês (Mn), ferro (Fe), cádmio (Cd) e zinco (Zn) na água do tanque e estágios de fritura dessa espécie também foram determinados. Os dados obtidos de todos os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram analisados expressos como faixa, média e desvio padrão usando o MS Excel 2013. Os resultados obtidos de 75 dias de estudo revelaram que o pH e temperatura da água, condutividade elétrica, sólidos totais dissolvidos (TDS) e total de oxigênio dissolvido (OD) das amostras de água do lago foram encontrados dentro de um limite tolerável, exceto salinidade e concentração de amônia dissolvida não eram permitidas para o crescimento dos peixes. A concentração média de metais pesados ​​na água da lagoa apresentou ordem decrescente Fe > Ni > Mn > Zn > Cd > Ni, que foi encontrada em faixas aceitáveis. Já os valores médios dos metais pesados ​​nos estágios de fritura foram da ordem de Zn > Fe > Ni > Cu > Cd > Mn, e encontrados dentro dos valores recomendados pela OMS/FAO. Assim, concluiu-se deste estudo que a boa qualidade da água é uma condição prévia, manter níveis equilibrados dos parâmetros de qualidade da água é fundamental para a saúde e crescimento da piscicultura, o que é bastante necessário para garantir o aumento da produtividade piscícola. Recomendam-se monitorar e avaliar os parâmetros de qualidade da água em uma base rotineira para promover a piscicultura saudável.

2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-9, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1280973

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the applications of 3d printing /additive manufacturing (AM) in dental education & clinical dentistry and elaborate various 3d printing technologies, its benefits, limitations and future scope. Methods: Research papers on the application of 3d printing in dentistry were searched in Scopus and Pubmed and studied using bibliometric analysis. This review briefly describes various types of 3d printing technologies with their accuracy, use of different materials for 3d printing and their respective dental applications. It also discusses various steps used to create 3D printed dental model using this technology. Furthermore, the application of this technology in dental education and various clinical procedures are discussed. Results: 3d printing is an innovative technology making a paradigm shift towards treatment customization. It helps in customized production of dental implants, surgical guides, anatomic models etc. using computer-aided design (CAD) data. This technology coupled with state-of-the-art imaging techniques and CAD software has enabled, especially oral surgeons to precisely plan and execute complex surgeries with relative ease, high accuracy and lesser time. 3d printing is also being utilized in other disciplines of dentistry to prepare aligners, crown and bridge, endodontic guides, periodontal surgery guides, surgical models for treatment planning and patient education. Alongside its possibilities have also been explored in preclinical skills in operative, endodontics etc (AU)


Objetivo: Avaliar as aplicações da impressão 3D/manufatura aditiva (AM) na educação odontológica e odontologia clínica, e elaborar várias tecnologias de impressão 3D, seus benefícios, limitações e escopo futuro. Métodos: Artigos de pesquisa sobre a aplicação da impressão 3D em odontologia foram pesquisados no Scopus e no Pubmed e estudados por meio de análise bibliométrica. Esta revisão descreve resumidamente vários tipos de tecnologias de impressão 3D a partir da sua precisão, uso de diferentes materiais para impressão 3D e suas respectivas aplicações odontológicas. Ele também discute várias etapas usadas para criar um modelo dentário 3D impresso usando essa tecnologia. Além disso, a aplicação desta tecnologia na educação odontológica e vários procedimentos clínicos são discutidos. Resultados:a impressão 3D é uma tecnologia inovadora que está mudando o paradigma em direção à personalização do tratamento. Ele ajuda na produção personalizada de implantes dentários, guias cirúrgicos, modelos anatômicos etc. usando dados de design auxiliado por computador (CAD). Essa tecnologia, combinada com técnicas de imagem de última geração e software CAD, permitiu, especialmente aos cirurgiões orais, planejar e executar cirurgias complexas com relativa facilidade, alta precisão e menor tempo. A impressão 3D também está sendo utilizada em outras disciplinas da odontologia para preparar alinhadores, coroas e pontes, guias endodônticos, guias de cirurgia periodontal, modelos cirúrgicos para planejamento de tratamento e educação do paciente. Ao lado de suas possibilidades também foram exploradas em habilidades pré-clínicas em cirurgia, endodontia etc (AU)


Subject(s)
Surgery, Oral , Endodontics , Printing, Three-Dimensional
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913963

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Considering the cross-protection reported for bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on viral respiratory infections, it has been proposed that it could reduce the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The objective of the current study is to investigate the association between the severity of COVID-19 with prior BCG vaccination in adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. @*Materials and Methods@#Adult patients (18 years or above) with positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction admitted in July 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were classified into non-severe, severe, and critical diseases. History of prior BCG vaccination and the presence of a BCG vaccination scar were recorded. @*Results@#Out of 103 patients, 64 patients with prior history of BCG vaccinations were compared with 39 patients without BCG vaccination in childhood. The median age was 55 years and 64 years in BCG vaccinated & non-BCG vaccinated patients (p-value=0.002). There was male predominance in both groups and frequent comorbid illnesses were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Severe COVID-19 was found in 91 patients (88.3%) followed by non-severe disease and critical diseases i.e., 7 (6.8%) and 5 (4.9%) patients, respectively. No association of prior BCG vaccination with disease severity of COVID-19 was found in this study and mortality was 8.7%. Out of nine patients who expired only 2 (22.2%) had a prior history of BCG vaccination (p-value=0.01). Secondary infections were present in 26 patients and the majority had pneumonia. @*Conclusion@#The BCG vaccine has no impact on the severity of COVID-19 but could have a protective role with a low mortality rate in already infected patients.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212718

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic abdominal pain is a common disorder both in general practice and in hospitals. Although patients with this type of pain may have undergone numerous diagnostic workups, including surgery, their pain remains a challenge to all known diagnostic and treatment methods. Laparoscopy can identify abnormal findings and improve the outcome in patients with chronic abdominal pain, as it allows surgeons to see and treat many abdominal conditions that cannot be diagnosed otherwise.Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted from August 2016 to September 2017 in the Surgery Department of Vinayaka Missions Kirupananda Variyar Medical College, Salem. 50 patients with abdominal pain for 3 months and above were included in the study. Detailed history was recorded from patients and thorough clinical examination was performed. The findings were recorded in the proforma.Results: The most common laparoscopy finding among the study subjects was dense adhesions (26%) followed by abdominal TB (18%) and mesenteric lymphadenopathy (16%). 88% of the study subjects had a total relief of their abdominal pain and 6% of the patients felt that the pain was reduced and for the remaining 6% the pain was still persistent.Conclusions: The efficacy of diagnostic laparoscopy was 90% in the current study. Laparoscopy has an effective diagnostic role in evaluating patients with chronic abdominal pain, in whom conventional methods of investigations have failed to elicit a certain cause. The therapeutic value of diagnostic laparoscopy is also accepted, well-appreciated, and it cannot be underestimated.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919354

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) from the decidua basalis (DBMSCs) of the human placenta have important functions that make them potential candidates for cellular therapy. Previously, we showed that DBMSC functions do not change significantly in a high oxidative stress environment, which was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and immune cells. Here, we studied the consequences of glucose, another oxidative stress inducer, on the phenotypic and functional changes in DBMSCs. @*Methods@#DBMSCs were exposed to a high level of glucose, and its effect on DBMSC phenotypic and functional properties was determined. DBMSC expression of oxidative stress and immune molecules after exposure to glucose were also identified. @*Results@#Conditioning of DBMSCs with glucose improved their adhesion and invasion. Glucose also increased DBMSC expression of genes with survival, proliferation, migration, invasion, anti-inflammatory, anti-chemoattractant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, DBMSC expression of B7H4, an inhibitor of T cell proliferation was also enhanced by glucose. Interestingly, glucose modulated DBMSC expression of genes involved in insulin secretion and prevention of diabetes. @*Conclusion@#These data show the potentially beneficial effects of glucose on DBMSC functions. Preconditioning of DBMSCs with glucose may therefore be a rational strategy for increasing their therapeutic potential by enhancing their engraftment efficiency. In addition, glucose may program DBMSCs into insulin producing cells with ability to counteract inflammation and infection associated with diabetes. However, future in vitro and in vivo studies are essential to investigate the findings of this study further.

6.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2019 May; 15(3): 631-637
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213396

ABSTRACT

Background: According to Darwin's theory of evolution, complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors. Dollo's law of irreversibility states that evolution is irreversible. However, cancer cells tend to follow anti-Dollo's law. Unfavorable conditions such as hypoxia, acidic pH and low nutrients cause the cancer cells to switch their lifestyle atavistically in order to survive. They start behaving like a unicellular organism. There is a switch from normal metabolism to Warburg effect and finally cannibalism. Cannibalism is a cell eating cell phenomenon. It is defined as a large cell enclosing a smaller one within its cytoplasm and is known by odd names such as “bird's eye cells” or “signet ring cells.” Smaller tumor cells are found in the cytoplasm of larger tumor cells with crescent-shaped nucleus. Cannibalistic cells (CCs) are a feature of aggressive tumors. These cell types are vulnerable to metastasis. Aim: The aim of this study is to identify CCs in various histological grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to relate them with the pattern of invasion, lymphocytic response (LR), and mitotic figures (Mfs). The purpose of the article is to establish it as a marker of aggressiveness and metastasis and as an evidence of de-evolution and retroversion of multicellularity. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five histologically confirmed cases of OSCC were studied. Pattern of invasion, LR, number of CCs, and Mfs were recorded on 5 μ hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. ANOVA and t-test were applied; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: CCs were more in sections with patchy LR, increased Mfs, and grade IV pattern of invasion. Conclusion: With increase in dedifferentiation, tumor cells start behaving like unicellular organisms with cell eating cell characteristics

7.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2019; 29 (1): 84-86
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-202910

ABSTRACT

A 3-year child is discussed who presented with dyskinesia, large head size, developmental delay, and recurrent infections necessitating multiple hospital admissions. The diagnosis was not made at initial presentation or even after multiple hospital admissions. An organic acidemia was suspected, based on raised ammonia and lactate levels and metabolic acidosis and the diagnosis of glutaric aciduria Type 1 was established by finding markedly elevated levels of glutaric acid and its specific metabolites on urine organic acids analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in the setting of specific clinical features. Further supporting evidence was provided by CT scan brain showing subdural hygroma along left cerebral hemisphere causing gyral flattening and widening of sylvian fissure

8.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2019; 25 (5): 331-340
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-206776

ABSTRACT

Background: Implementation of infection control standards in blood banks is important to prevent transmission of blood-borne infections such as HIV, hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. No study from Pakistan evaluated the infection control practices in the blood banks of Pakistan.


Aims: This study aimed to evaluate infection control practices with reference to safe blood supply, staff safety and waste disposal practices in blood banks of Karachi, Pakistan.


Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Infection control practices of all blood banks working in Karachi were determined through a structured questionnaire followed by an educational intervention. Mean scores for overall infection control practices and specific practices regarding safe blood supply, staff safety and waste disposal were calculated and compared with different factors using statistical tools.


Results: Patient safety scores of 49 (92.5%) blood banks were within the satisfactory range but staff safety and waste disposal scores of only 26 (49.1%) and 4 (7.5%) blood banks were satisfactory. Significantly lower infection control (IC) scores were observed for stand-alone blood banks and those working in the absence of a haematologist (P-value < 0.001). Availability of written standard operating procedures (SOPs) and IC guidelines correlated positively (P-value < 0.001) with mean IC scores.


Conclusions: Blood banks in Karachi lack implementation of IC standards particularly with reference to staff safety and waste management and disposal. Sindh blood transfusion authority (SBTA) should take measures to increase IC compliance within blood banks

10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 29-36, july. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045993

ABSTRACT

Background: Recombinant DNA technology enables us to produce proteins with desired properties and insubstantial amount for industrial applications. Endo-1, 4-ß-glucanases (Egl) is one of the major enzyme involved in degradation of cellulose, an important component of plant cell wall. The present study was aimed at enhancing the production of endo-1, 4-ß-glucanases (Egl) of Bacillus halodurans in Escherichia coli. Results: A putative Egl gene of Bacillus Halodurans was expressed in E. coli by cloning in pET 22b (+). On induction with isopropyl-b-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside, the enzyme expression reached upto ~20% of the cell protein producing 29.2 mg/liter culture. An increase in cell density to 12 in auto-inducing LB medium (absorbance at 600 nm) enhanced ß-glucanase production up to 5.4 fold. The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 39 KDa, which is nearly the same as the calculated value. Protein sequence was analyzed by CDD, Pfam, I TASSER, COACH, PROCHECK Servers and putative amino acids involved in the formation of catalytic, substrate and metal binding domains were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ß-glucanases of B. halodurans was performed and position of Egl among other members of the genus Bacillus producing endo-glucanases was determined. Temperature and pH optima of the enzyme were found to be 60°C and 8.0, respectively, under the assay conditions. Conclusion: Production of endo-1, 4 ß-glucanase enzymes from B. halodurans increased several folds when cloned in pET vector and expressed in E. coli. To our knowledge, this is the first report of high-level expression and characterization of an endo-1, 4 ß-glucanases from B. halodurans.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/enzymology , Cellulases/biosynthesis , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Gene Expression , Cell Wall/enzymology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cloning, Molecular , Cellulases/isolation & purification , Cellulases/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Plant Cells/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis
11.
Indian J Cancer ; 2018 Jan; 55(1): 111-114
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-190330

ABSTRACT

Aim: There were delays reported by patients in chemotherapy administration in daycare oncology. Therefore, we decided to audit all processes which are involved in chemotherapy administration. The objective was to improve our service by decreasing the time between admission and initiation of chemotherapy and identify the reasons for delays. Materials and Methods: The audit was conducted in three parts. In Review I, audit tool was developed and information documented of 109 patients receiving chemotherapy at daycare center from April 14 to May 13, 2015. Five processes were assessed out of which delay in initial assessment by the nurse was the only factor identified leading to delay in chemotherapy. Review II was done from March 1 to 31, 2016 of 208 patients after increasing the number of nurses and Review III from June 7 to August 25, 2016 of 287 patients by dividing the initial assessment process at two different areas to decrease delay in initial assessment. Results: Seventy-two percent of patients had their initial assessment done within 15 min of arrival in daycare in the first audit. In the second part of audit this percentage decreased to 55%, and finally, in the third part of the audit, percentage was improved and increased to 75% after separating initial assessment process into two areas (P < 0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). Conclusion: After separating initial assessment process into two different areas, delays in chemotherapy administration were reduced.

12.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 31 (1): 45-50
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-191388

ABSTRACT

Telfairia occidentalis possesses high antioxidant activity. However, the antioxidant components of the plant have not yet been identified. This study was undertaken to identify the phenolics in the leaf of the plant. Extract and fractions of the leaf of the plant were analysed using the HPLC and GCMS. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid [22.19microg/mg], catechin [29.17microg/mg], caffeic acid [9.17microg/mg], ferulic acid [0.94microg/mg], sinapic acid [1.91 microg/mg] and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid [43.86 microg/mg] in the aqueous extract. Phenolics fraction contained gallic acid [0.88 microg/mg], catechin [2.70microg/mg], caffeic acid [7.92microg/mg], ferulic acid [2.72microg/mg], benzoic acid [6.36microg/mg], pcoumaric acid [1.48microg/mg], quercetin [12.00microg/mg]. Only caffeic acid [2.50microg/mg], ferulic acid [0.44microg/mg] and quercetin [8.50microg/mg] were detected in the flavonoid fraction. While GCMS analysis showed the presence of methylparaben; ethylparaben; benzoic acid; 4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-, methyl ester; 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy; phenol, 5-methoxy-2-[methoxymethyl]-; phenol, 5-methoxy-2, 3- dimethyl; and phenol, 2-[2-benzothiazolyl]-. This study is the first to reveal the identity of some phenolics components of the leaf of Telfairia occidentalis

13.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2018; 28 (1): 48-51
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-193006

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the patient demographics and outcome analysis in paediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] patients. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Hematology/Oncology Unit of The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from January 2012 till December 2014


Methodology: Demographics including age, gender, histopathology, stage and outcome data, in biopsy proven NHL patients were analyzed. Burkitts/B Cell and Diffuse Large B Cell lymphoma patients were treated with MCP 842 Protocol while T/B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma [LL] patients were treated with EURO-LB 02 protocol


Results: Ninety-one patients were treated during the study period at CHL. Data was insufficient in 18 patients, so they were excluded from the study. Patients included were 73. Males were 53 [72.6%]. Thirty-seven [50.7%] were 5-10 years of age, and 22 [30.1%] 10-16 years old. Abdominal mass was the commonest presentation seen in 32 [43.8%], lymphadenopathy in 27 [37%], intussusception in 5 [6.8%], while intestinal obstruction, obstructive uropathy, nasopharyngeal mass, gastric mass, primary bone lymphoma, pericardial effusion, jaw swelling, cheek swelling and paraspinal mass present in one [1%] each. Histopathological subtypes consist of Burkitt's lymphoma [BL] in 32 [43.8%], B cell NHL in 10 [13.7%], lymphoblastic lymphoma [LL] in 26 [35.6%], diffuse large B cell lymphoma [DLBCL] in 2 [2.8%], and anaplastic large cell lymphoma [ALCL] in 1 [1.4%]. Sixty-seven [91%] presented in stage III, and six [8.4%] in stage IV. Forty-eight [65.8%] patients had completed treatment and are well to date, 16 [21.9%] died, 5 [6.8%] left against medical advice [LAMA], and 4 [5.5%] patients relapsed


Conclusion: Burkitt's lymphoma was the commonest type of NHL seen in this cohort that predominantly presented with an abdominal mass. Children usually presented in advanced stage with delayed diagnosis. Better supportive care can improve the prognosis significantly. Training of pediatricians is equally important along with increasing parental/family knowledge about the disease symptoms so that they can seek early medical care, and earlier diagnosis is possible

14.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2018; 28 (6): 488-489
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-198294

ABSTRACT

Classical homocystinuria, also known as cystathionine beta synthase deficiency, is a rare disorder of methionine metabolism, leading to an abnormal accumulation of homocysteine and its metabolites in blood and urine. A young child with homocystinuria is discussed, who presented with behavioral abnormalities, involuntary movement, mental retardation, and decreased vision since birth. The diagnosis of homocystinuria was not made at initial presentation. Subtle phenotypic features with developmental delay and MRI brain finding of bilateral medially dislocated lens, eventually provided the first indication at five years of age. Laboratory screening with plasma amino acid profile by ion exchange chromatography [IEC] showed elevated homocystine and methionine, and low cystine in plasma in the absence of vitamin B12, and folate deficiency; giving the diagnosis of classical homocysteinuria

15.
PJMR-Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. 2018; 57 (2): 48-49
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-198475
16.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 31 (3): 747-754
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-198657

ABSTRACT

Pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR-gamma] agonist, is a therapeutic drug for diabetes. Present study investigated the interaction between PPAR-gamma and alpha adrenoceptors in modulating vasopressor responses to Angiotensin II [Ang II] and adrenergic agonists, in diabetic and non-diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats [SHRs]. Diabetes was induced with an i.p injection of streptozotocin [40 mg/kg] in two groups [STZ-CON, STZ-PIO], whereas two groups remained non diabetic [ND-CO, ND-PIO]. One diabetic and non-diabetic group received Pioglitazone [10mg/kg] orally for 21 days. On day 28, the animals were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone [60mg/kg] and prepared for measurement of systemic haemodynamics. Basal mean arterial pressure of STZ-CON was higher than NDCON, whereas following pioglitazone treatment, MAP was lower compared to respective controls. MAP responses to i.v administration of NA, PE, ME and ANG II were significantly lower in diabetic SHRs: STZ-CON vs. ND-CON [35%]. Pioglitazone significantly decreased responses to NA, PE, ME and ANG II in ND-PIO versus ND-CON by 63%. Responses to NA and ANG II were significantly attenuated in STZ-PIO vs. ND-PIO [40%]. PPAR-gamma regulates systemic hemodynamic in diabetic model and cross-talk relationship exists between PPAR-gamma and alpha1-adrenoceptors, ANG II in systemic vasculature of SHRs

17.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2018; 28 (9): 667-671
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-199487

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of bilirubin interference on plasma amino acid analysis by Ion Exchange Chromatography [IEC]


Study Design: Cross-sectional [method validation] study


Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from August 2016 to July 2017


Methodology: Twenty non-icteric samples from paediatric patients were collected in lithium heparin tubes and analysed for amino acids on IEC-based BiochromeR 30+ Analyzer [Harvard Biosciences UK]. Baseline bilirubin levels were noted. Samples were spiked with neonatal bilirubin standard with concentration of 488.4 Mu mol/L [SpinreactR-Spain] at final concentrations of 50, 150 and 230 Mu mol/L and re-analysed for amino acids at these three concentrations


Results: Among the 20 selected patients with normal amino acid profiles, 12 [60%] were males. Majority [55%] were in age group of 1-5 years. Significant difference was observed for Arginine [p = 0.01], Histidine [p = 0.001], Isoleucine [p = 0.01], Leucine [p = 0.007], Lysine [p = 0.005], Ornithine [p = 0.03] and Phenylalanine [p = 0.02]. Mean rank of these amino acids showed decreasing trend with the increase of bilirubin concentration, and pronounced interference was identified at bilirubin level of 50 Mu mol/L. No difference was observed for alanine, citrulline, glutamic acid, glycine, methionine, proline, threonine, tyrosine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cystine, valine and tryptophan


Conclusion: Bilirubin significantly interferes with certain amino acid levels when analysis is carried out by ion exchange chromatography. A close follow-up of such patients with other biochemical tests and a repeat amino acid analysis, after jaundice is settled, is recommended to confidently rule out any possible inherited metabolic disorder in these patients

18.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2018; 48 (3): 529-534
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-201877

ABSTRACT

Microsporidia constitutes a diverse group of obligate intracellular pathogens that infect a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. It has been originally recognized as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised patients. Two species of microsporidia, Encephalitozoon bieneusi and Enterocytozoon intestinalis, are known to infect mainly the gastrointestinal tract of humans. The study was based on the examination of stool samples collected from 100 immunocompetent patients complaining of GIT disturbances attending the Parasitology Department laboratory in the Medical Research Institute, Alexandria, Egypt. Freshly collected stool specimens were examined by modified Trichrome stain MTS [Kokoskin hot method] and immunofluorescent monoclonal antibodies [IFA-MAbs]. The results showed that Using MTS, microsporidial spores were detected in 36% of the stool samples examined. Using IFA-MAbs, 60 samples were positive. Microsporidial spores appeared as bright apple green small oval spores with or without vacoule. The agreement between MTS and IFA-MAbs in diagnosing microsporidal infections was moderate. IFA-MAbs differentiated microsporidial infection as 67% E. intestinalis, 6% E. bieneusi and mixed infections in 27% of positive cases

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasion of epithelial cells into the connective tissue brings about massive morphological and architectural changes in the underlying stroma. Myofibroblasts reorganize the stroma to facilitate the movement of tumor cells leading to metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine the number and pattern of distribution of myofibroblasts and the qualitative and quantitative change that they cause in the collagen present in the stroma in various grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: The study was divided into two groups with group I (test group, 65 cases) consisting of 29 cases of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, 25 moderately differentiated SCC, and 11 poorly differentiated SCC, and group II (control group) consisting of 11 cases of normal mucosa. Sections from each sample were stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies, hematoxylin and eosin, and Picrosirius red. Several additional sections from each grade of OSCC were stained with Masson's trichrome to observe the changes in collagen. For the statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test, Tukey's post hoc honest significant difference test, ANOVA, and the chi-square test were used, and p < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: As the tumor stage progressed, an increase in the intensity α-SMA expression was seen, and the network pattern dominated in more dedifferentiated carcinomas. The collagen fibers became thin, loosely packed, and haphazardly aligned with progressing cancer. Additionally, the mean area fraction decreased, and the fibers attained a greenish yellow hue and a weak birefringence when observed using polarizing light microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Myofibroblasts bring about numerous changes in collagen. As cancer progresses, there isincrease in pathological collagen,which enhances the movement of cells within the stroma.


Subject(s)
Actins , Antibodies , Birefringence , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Collagen , Connective Tissue , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Epithelial Cells , Hematoxylin , Microscopy , Mucous Membrane , Myofibroblasts , Neoplasm Metastasis , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-184350

ABSTRACT

Background: Study was conducted to assess awareness of leprosy and its treatment among leprosy patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow (UP), India. Methods: The study was conducted by a qualified interviewer using a 12-point self-prepared questionnaire on 78 leprosy patients turning up at the Dermatology Out-Patient Department of  I.I.M.S & R and Hospital in Lucknow (UP) from January 2015 to June 2016. Results: Around 73% patients had heard about leprosy, while remaining 27% patients were either unaware or not sure. About 33% of the total 78 patients thought leprosy to be a type of infection, 21.7% said it was due to bad blood, 20.5% said it was exclusively a skin disease, 10% attributed it to supernatural phenomenon and rest of the 14%  patients were unsure about its cause. Nearly 43.5% patients believed that they got the disease by coming in direct contact with some infected individual and 25.6% patients believed it to be as a result of some alteration in the blood. About 56.4% patients believed that leprosy was a communicable disease. Only 30.7% patients were confident that leprosy was curable. Approximately 72% patients knew one or more sign/symptom of leprosy. Only 23% patients were well aware of multidrug therapy (MDT) for leprosy while even a further lower percentage had knowledge of its free availability at government hospitals or centres. More than 90% patients did not know about the duration of treatment. Only about 27% patients believed that allopathic medications would be best for curing leprosy while remaining 63% patients were either not sure or believed that alternate medicine (unani, homeopathy or auyurveda) could cure leprosy better. Literacy influenced the answer for many of the questions although in few areas it had less or no effect at all. Conclusion: Awareness of leprosy is still not adequate among the masses. Further steps are needed to ensure that basic knowledge of leprosy, its signs & symptoms, MDT and its availability is conveyed more to the general population by educating them at the grass root level through various literacy programme and other innovative ideas.

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