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1.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jan; 41(1): 92-100
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214478

ABSTRACT

Aim: To develop economically viable integrated fertilizer prescription equation for recommendation of fertilizers in potato on alluvial soils of Eastern India.Methodology: Soil test crop response (STCR) experiments on potato were conducted in alluvial soils of Eastern India during 2016-17 to assess the relationship between yield and availability of plant nutrients for developing fertilizer prescriptions of desired yield targets. The decision on optimum fertilizer doses for varying yield targets were made on the basis of crop nutrient requirement per quintal of potato production, soil efficiency, fertilizer efficiency, and FYM efficiency computed from field experimental data. The optimum fertilizer doses for different yield targets were validated in farmers’ field for economic and environmental benefits as compared to general recommended doses of fertilizers and farmers’ practice. Results: Targeted yield equation for potato for alluvial soil of Eastern India was developed based on soil test values, nutrient requirement and contribution of NPK from soil and fertilizer sources as well as FYM. The prescription based fertilizer application along with FYM increased tuber yield of potato in farmers’ field. Validity of the yield target for 22 and 24 t ha-1 was tested in farmer’s fields and variation in potato yield obtained from targeted yield was 7.6% to 9.8%. Interpretation: Fertilizer prescription equations and ready reckoner developed for potato will be useful in alluvial soils of Eastern India for large scale recommendations and in regions with similar soil and agro-climatic conditions. By following ready reckoner, a farmer can save 61 kg N, 55 kg P2O5 and 44 kg K2O ha-1 over general recommended dose, approximately equal to Rs. 4800/- per hectare.

2.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Mar; 40(2): 245-251
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214588

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the retting of jute (Corchorus olitorius L. and C. capsularis L.) using the endospores of microbial consortium of three strains of Bacillus pumilus with extended shelf-life. Methodology: Endospore and vegetative cells of Bacillus pumilus were tested for viability by introducing them into different temperature, pH, UV radiation and antibiotics. Laboratory, as well as field-trials of jute retting was performed with 6 and 18-months-old endospores and vegetative cells of Bacillus pumilus with estimation of enzymatic activities for comparison of their retting efficiency. Results: Endospores of Bacillus pumilus recorded very high colony forming unit (109 to 108ml-1) compared to their vegetative cells (106 to 104ml-1) after 6 to 18 months of their preservation. Endospores also showed higher resistance to temperature, pH, UV irradiation and antibiotic than their vegetative forms. High colony forming unit and higher release of pectinolytic and xylanolytic enzymes during retting of jute by endospores resulted in complete of jute retting in 10 days with good quality jute fibre compared to talc based formulation. Interpretation: It can be concluded from the study that endospores remained highly efficient in rejuvenating higher CFU and quantitatively larger pool of enzymes to accelerate retting of jute after prolonged preservation. Therefore, the endospores of Bacillus pumilus can be used cost effectively in place of their talc based formulation for higher shelf life of the product, faster retting and better fibre quality of jute.

4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172795

ABSTRACT

Management of high blood cholesterol is the key point for the treatment and prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD). Till 2013, Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) report was the guideline for the physician for blood cholesterol management. The main feature of this guideline was to achieve a particular target cholesterol level by lifestyle modification, dietary changes and lipid-lowering drugs. But the recently released American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines shifted attention to Statin use at high-, moderate- or low-intensity instead of chasing a cholesterol goal. This article reviews the main features of this new guideline comparing to the previous one, where appropriate.

5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172750

ABSTRACT

Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (CCAM) is a relatively rare congenital pulmonary cystic disease. By ultrasonography prenatal diagnosis can be made and most baby born without complication. Some babies need surgery at the first year of life for recurrent respiratory tract infection. Here a case of CCAM in a 10 year old boy is reported who presented with recurrent respiratory tract infection and underwent surgical resection successfully.

6.
J Environ Biol ; 2012 Sept; 33(5): 861-866
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148441

ABSTRACT

Tea [Camellia sinensis L. (O.) Kuntze] is an economically important plantation crop of India but is prone to attack by several fungal pathogens. Copper based fungicides are being used for decades to control fungal diseases in tea which may lead to accumulation of copper in the soil. The biochemical responses to increasing concentrations of copper (50 to 700 µM) were investigated in the leaves of two cultivars of tea commonly grown in the Darjeeling hills. Exposure to excess Cu resulted in increased lipid peroxidation (level of TBARS increased from 3.5 µmol g-1 f.wt. in control to 12 µmol g-1 f.wt. in TS-520 plants exposed to 700 mM of Cu), reduced chlorophyll content (from 83.7 µg g-1 f.wt. in control to 22.5 µg g-1 f.wt. in TS-520 plants exposed to 700 µM of Cu), higher levels of phenolic compounds(total phenol content increased from 4.54 mg g-1 f.wt. in control to 5.79 mg g-1 f.wt. in TS-520 plants exposed to 400 µM of Cu) and an increase in peroxidase enzyme levels. Two new peroxidase isozymes (POD1 and POD2) were detected in plants exposed to Cu. In addition, biochemical responses in two tested cultivars, TS-462 and TS-520 differed significantly. TS-520 was found to be more sensitive to increasing concentrations of Cu. Superoxide dismutase activity increased progressively from 2.55 U mg-1 protein in control to 5.59 U mg-1 protein in TS-462 but declined from 4.75 U mg-1 protein in control to 3.33 U mg-1 protein in TS-520 when exposed to Cu concentrations higher than 400 µM. A sharp increase in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (from 0.53 units in control to 2.37 units in plants exposed to 400 µM of Cu) was noticed at the 10th day of exposure in the more tolerant cultivar. On the other hand, catalase levels increased only marginally (from 8.4 to 10.1 units in TS 520 and 8.7 to 10.9 units in TS 462) in both the cultivars. From this study, it appears that Cu exposure led to the production of reactive oxygen species in the leaves resulting in significant lipid peroxidation. Tea plants try to mitigate this oxidative damage through accumulation of phenolic compounds and induction of antioxidant enzymes.

7.
J Environ Biol ; 2012 Sept; 33(5): 837-842
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148437

ABSTRACT

Esterase isozymic variations were documented in the haemolymph of developed multivoltine and bivoltine silkworm breeds during unfavorable seed crop seasons of May – September using α- and β- napthylacetate separately to identify specific and nonspecific esterase having thermotolerant potentiality. Variations existed in the isozyme pattern with three bands (Est-2, 3 and 4) in pure Nistari race and other developed multivoltine and bivoltine breeds. Est-2 and Est-3 were non-specific esterases as they were observed when both α- and β-napthylacetate was used as substrates separately. Est- 4 band was observed only with α-napthylacetate as substrate and was therefore confirmed to be specific α-esterase band in the haemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Zymograms showed that the non-specific esterase band (Est-3) with Rf of 0.43 and specific α-esterase band (Est-4) with Rf of 0.32 predominately withstood a temperature of 70 ± 2oC for a duration of 10 min and were confirmed as thermostable esterases in haemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. This also categorized the presence of thermostable esterases in developed multivoltine and bivoltine breeds of silkworm, even though the qualitative activity was more in the former than the latter. The qualitative presence of thermostable esterases and their activity could be adopted as an indicative biochemical marker in relation to thermotolerance in silkworm.

8.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Jul-Sept; 49(3): 266-271
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144584

ABSTRACT

Context: Antracycline-Cyclophosphamide (AC) along with Paclitaxel/Docetaxel, either in combination or sequential regimens, is showing superior results than Anthracycline-containing regimens. Aims: This study was designed to determine whether adding Paclitaxel to a standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimen AC for breast cancer patients would prolong the time to recurrence and survival. Settings and Design: Randomized, prospective, open-labeled, single-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Fifty stage II breast cancer patients accruing 25 patients in each arm, treated between July 2007 and January 2010, were included in the study. Initial surgical treatment was Modified Radical Mastectomy. Systemic therapy was to have begun within 4-6 weeks of the patient's surgery. In the control arm, all the patients were treated with six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with AC regimen repeated at an interval of 3 weeks. For the study arm, the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy with three cycles of AC regimen followed by three cycles of Paclitaxel, repeated at an interval of 3 weeks. All the patients of both the arms received locoregional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after the entire course of chemotherapy. All the hormone receptor-positive patients received Tamoxifen. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and the Kaplan Meier survival analysis with the log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. Results: Adding Paclitaxel to AC resulted in a statistically significant disease-free survival. The overall survival was also improved significantly. The toxicity profile in both the arms was comparable. Conclusions: In early and node-positive breast cancer, the addition of three cycles of Paclitaxel after completion of three cycles of AC improves the disease-free and overall survival.


Subject(s)
Anthracyclines/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Protocols , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Paclitaxel/administration & dosage , Taxoids/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172683

ABSTRACT

A unilateral double testicle is a rare anomaly characterized by migration of one testicle towards the opposite inguinal canal. The commonest erratic development is the more or less incomplete descent of the testicle along the normal route of descent, which is known as cryptorchidism. In ectopia of the testicles, as opposed to cryptorchidism, the displaced testicle does not descend along the usual route but as it migrates downwards it moves into an entirely abnormal position. Usually the migrating testicle remains on its own side of the body but may end up in an unusual position e.g. in the superficial tissue of the inguinal region above the external ring, in the area of the base of the penis, in the upper part of the thigh, in the region of perineum or in the pelvic cavity. In this case, the right and left testicles were found to descend together on the right side, whereas the left side of the scrotum was entirely empty. The case was treated with 'Bilateral Transeptal Subdartos Orchidopexy'. The case reported here is evidently one of extreme rarity as there are about 148 reported cases since the first described by Von Lenhossek in1886.

10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-171541

ABSTRACT

Background: The relative contribution of insulin secretion and sensitivity in the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) vary from population to population due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease. The study was undertaken to evaluate insulin secretory capacity and sensitivity in a Bangladeshi Type 2 diabetic population and to explore the association of some of the anthropometric and biochemical factors known to modulate B-cell function and insulin action. Methods: Ninety one T2DM subjects and 32 age-matched controls were studied for their fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipids, HbA1c (by HPLC), leptin and C-peptide (ELISA). Insulin secretion (HOMA B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA S) were calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results: Both insulin secretion and sensitivity were significantly reduced in diabetic as compared to control (HOMA B%, geometric mean±SD, 35.65±1.75 vs. 96.29±1.50, p<0.001; HOMA S%, 68.66±1.71 vs. 104.951.63, p<0.001). However, B-cell dysfunction was predominant than insulin resistance in predicting T2DM as the discriminate function coefficient for HOMA B (1.098) was greater than that for HOMA S (0.821). In T2DM, HOMA B had positive correlation with BMI (r=0.368, p<0.001) and HOMA S was inversely correlated to BMI (r=-0.261, p<0.01), WHR (r=-0.258, p<0.01) and plasma TG (r=-0.233, p<0.001). On multiple regression analysis HOMA B and HOMA S were found to be inversely associated to FPG (p<0.001) and leptin (p<0.05) in T2DM. Conclusions: Both insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance are present in Bangladeshi T2DM subjects, but B-cell failure seems to be the predominant abnormality. BMI, plasma glucose, insulin and leptin are the major determinants of insulin secretory capacity and generalized as well as central obesity, plasma glucose, triglycerides, insulin and leptin are among the major determinants of insulin sensitivity in this population.

11.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 May; 29(3): 407-10
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113492

ABSTRACT

Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a common tea (Camellia sinensis) pathogen, usually does not sporulate or sporulates poorly in common media, which makes spore production difficult. In this study the effects of culture media, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and light on mycelial growth and sporulation were evaluated. Among several carbon sources tested, glucose and sucrose were found superior for growth. Potassium nitrate supplemented media showed maximum growth amongst the tested inorganic nitrogen sources while peptone produced maximum growth among the tested organic nitrogen sources. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium was found to be the most suitable for mycelial growth and sporulation of L. theobromae. The fungus grow at temperatures ranging from 40 to 36 degrees C, with optimum growth at 28 degrees C and no growth was noted at 40 degrees C. There was no significant effect of different light period on growth of L. theobromae, but light enhanced sporulation. The fungus grow at pH 3.0-8.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 6.0. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium with pH 6.0 was the most suitable for production of conidia of L. theobromae at 28 degrees C. Hence this media may be recommended for inoculum production for further studies.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/growth & development , Carbon , Culture Media , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mycelium/growth & development , Nitrogen , Spores, Fungal , Temperature
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-17302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Diarrhoeal disease outbreaks are causes of major public health emergencies in India. We carried out investigation of two cholera outbreaks, for identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phage typing and molecular characterization of isolated Vibrio cholerae O1, and to suggest prevention and control measures. METHODS: A total of 22 rectal swabs and 20 stool samples were collected from the two outbreak sites. The V. cholerae isolates were serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility determined. Pulsed- field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to identify the clonality of the V. cholerae strains which elucidated better understanding of the epidemiology of the cholera outbreaks. RESULTS: Both the outbreaks were caused by V. cholerae O1 (one was caused by serotype Ogawa and the other by serotype Inaba). Clinically the cases presented with profuse watery diarrhoea and dehydration. All the tested V. cholerae isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, gentamycin and azithromycin but resistance for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, and furazolidone. PFGE pattern of the isolates from the two outbreaks revealed that they were clonal in origin. Stoppage of the source of water contamination and chlorination of drinking water resulted in terminating the two outbreaks. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The two diarrhoeal outbreaks were caused by V. cholerae O1 (Inaba/Ogawa). Such outbreaks are frequently seen in cholera endemic areas in many parts of the world. Vaccination is an attractive disease (cholera) prevention strategy although long-term measures like improvement of sanitation and personal hygiene, and provision of safe water supply are important, but require time and are expensive.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophage Typing , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera Vaccines/metabolism , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Susceptibility , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Humans , India , Public Health , Time Factors , Vibrio cholerae/metabolism
15.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2003 Sep; 101(9): 532, 534, 536
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-97825

ABSTRACT

Leptospirosis is characterised by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations varying from inapparent infection to fulminant fatal disease. Severe leptospirosis characterised by profound jaundice is referred to as Weil's disease. In the present study 20 patients of leptospirosis, of which 7 belonged to Weil's disease, were diagnosed based on the demonstration of IgM antileptospira antibody and supported by clinical correlation and appropriate biochemical markers. Overall, the male and female ratio was 17:3 and the same ratio for the Weil's disease was 6:1. The most common presentation involved fever, malaise and myalgia. Conjunctival congestion was found in 75% of the cases and jaundice was encountered in 90% of the cases. The prognosis of all these patients, including that of Weil's disease was excellent. Early recognition and initiation of antibiotic therapy were found to be important.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Hepatomegaly/microbiology , Humans , Jaundice/microbiology , Leptospirosis/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/complications , Prospective Studies
16.
Indian J Lepr ; 2003 Jan-Mar; 75(1): 1-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-54462

ABSTRACT

A study was undertaken to estimate the magnitude of the problem of relapse and to identify factors responsible for relapse in leprosy units that were delivering MDT in Purulia District of West Bengal. From records patients were classified as "Relapse" or "Not relapse". "Not relapse" patients were selected by simple random sampling from the Surveillance Register and were matched according to age, sex, and the leprosy control unit. 128 cases ("Relapse") and 128 controls ("Not relapse") were interviewed in the clinic using a pre-tested questionnaire. Details of methods to identify and confirm relapse were circulated to all reporting units for ensuring uniformity and reliability. NGOs covered 42% of the population, while the State Government covered the remaining. The patients had been followed up after completion of treatment for a period of two years in PB leprosy and for five years in MB leprosy. The study revealed that the relapse rate was 1.71/1000 person-years for original PB cases and 0.76/1000 person-years for original MB cases. The study also showed that history of contact with an active leprosy patient and irregular treatment led more PB cases to relapse than control cases. All patients with an initial BI of 3+ relapsed with a BI of 1+ or 2+.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , India , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium leprae , National Health Programs , Organizations , Population Surveillance , Recurrence , Risk Factors
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-65408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With induction of the Indian Army to heights over 5,000 meters above sea level, complications of long-term stay at extreme altitude have come to light. We describe our experience with patients developing portal system thrombosis. METHODS: Clinical data were collected over 2 years on patients hospitalized for thrombotic complications from high-altitude (HAA) and non-high altitude (non-HAA) areas. Site of thrombosis was confirmed by imaging or at surgery. Patients were investigated for conditions that predispose to venous thrombosis. RESULTS: Ten cases of portal system thrombosis were seen during the period; of these, 9 (mean age 28 [SD 3.9] years; all men) were from HAA. Mean duration of residence in HAA was 12.4 (4.9) months; two were smokers and six drank 7-22 g alcohol/day at least 5 times a week. The first symptom was abdominal pain; this was later complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding (n=5), fever (7), vomiting (7), and weight loss (5). Average time between onset of first symptom and reaching a tertiary-care hospital was 9.5 (4.7) days. Clinical examination showed ascites (8 cases), splenomegaly (7), and hepatomegaly (6). Mean hemoglobin level at admission was 15.8 (3.4) g/dL. Ascites was hemorrhagic; five cases also had large splenic hematoma. The site of thrombosis was splenic vein (7 cases), portal vein (6), and superior (4) and inferior (1) mesenteric vein. None of 5 patients investigated had any prothrombotic condition. Endoscopic/ sonographic evidence of development of collaterals appeared as early as 12-20 days after onset of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Residence in HAA for extended periods is a risk factor for development of portal system thrombosis. Persistent pain in abdomen in such individuals should raise the possibility of portal system thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Altitude , Budd-Chiari Syndrome/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Contrast Media , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Military Personnel , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Risk Assessment , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler
18.
Indian J Public Health ; 2001 Jul-Sep; 45(3): 88-92
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-109023

ABSTRACT

A study was carried out based upon the data available from National Leprosy Eradication Program of Purulia district in West Bengal. The result showed that the disease was in a declining trend up to the year 1998 and was inclining during the year 1998-1999 due to more case detection through MLEC-I, then followed by declining trend during the year 2000 as it was observed by MLEC-II. Single skin lesion rate was higher, MB rate was same and reduced deformity rate indicates early detection of cases due to better awareness of the community about the disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Humans , India/epidemiology , Leprosy/diagnosis , Male , Pilot Projects , Prevalence
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-124433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding is defined as hemorrhage orginating distal to the ligament of Treitz. Its diagnosis is difficult, often requiring endoscopy, angiography and isotope scans. METHODS: All patients with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding seen in three gastroenterology centers of Armed Forces during an 11 year period between 1988 and 1999 were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: A total of 91 patients with massive lower gastro intestinal bleeding were seen during 11 years. The mean age of the patients was 38.9 years and 64 were males. Aetiological diagnosis was: Non-specific ulcers--11, Ileal tuberculosis--8, NSAID enteropathy--8, Enteric fever--7, Meckel's diverticulum--7, Polyps--6, Ulcerative colitis--5, Carcinoma colon--5, Colonic diverticulosis--5, No cause found--5, Polyposis coli--5, Jejunal diverticulae--3, Angiodysplasia colon--3, Radiation colitis--3, Ischaemic colitis--3, Ileal tumor--2, Ileal angiodysplasia--2, Intestinal Lymphoma--2, Bechet's syndrome--1. Bleeding stopped on conservative therapy in 18 patients (including 5 where no diagnosis could be made). Diagnosis was made in 36 patients on fiber-optic colonoscopy done during active bleeding. Remaining patients were subjected to emergency laparotomy and diagnosis was obvious on inspection of abdominal contents in 25 cases. The diagnosis was finally made in remaining 12 cases by intraoperative endoscopic examination through an ileotomy. Four patients died, only one of them due to rebleed after surgery from an additional lesion. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with experience in Western countries, massive lower gastro-intestinal hemorrhage in India affects younger patients, has different causes and carries a lower mortality. Colonoscopy is useful in making diagnosis during active lower intestinal bleeding in about one-third cases. Exploratory laparotomy and Intra-operative endoscopy are complimentary to above examination and can make the diagnosis in most of the remaining cases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Colonoscopy , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , India , Intestine, Large/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sigmoidoscopy
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-118221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge about the medical problems of long term stay at high (> 3000 m) and extreme (> 5000 m) altitudes, as these areas are generally considered uninhabitable. METHODS: Prospectively collected clinical records of all patients hospitalized at Command Hospital, Western Command between November 1998 and February 2000 were reviewed to identify thrombotic complications among patients from high and extreme altitude areas as well as those from non-high altitude areas who were < 45 years of age. RESULTS: Of 20,257 hospital admissions during the study period, 1692 were from high and extreme altitude areas. Forty-six patients from these areas had thrombosis-related diseases compared to 17 from non-high altitude areas (odds ratio: 30.49; 95% CI: 17.06-51.67; p < 0.001). The mean (SD) age of all patients with thrombotic complications was 32 (8) years and all were men. The mean duration of stay at high and extreme altitudes of such patients was 10.2 (5.6) months. Only 25 were smokers (mean 5.2 pack-years) and 39 consumed alcohol (mean 54 ml/day). Apart from frostbite in 5, no other medical condition was noted in these patients. The vascular events were deep vein thrombosis (20), pulmonary thromboembolism (6), stroke (15), thrombosis of the abdominal veins (8), and retinal artery and peripheral arterial thrombosis (1 each). The presenting complaint in all patients with thrombosis of the abdominal veins was poorly localized pain in the upper abdomen followed by ascites (6/8). Five of these patients also had a large spontaneous splenic haematoma. None of the patients investigated was found to have a procoagulant disorder. CONCLUSION: Long term stay at high and extreme altitudes is associated with a 30 times higher risk of spontaneous vascular thrombosis. Veins are common sites of such thrombotic events. We also encountered thrombosis of the portal, splenic and superior mesenteric veins in our patients who had stayed at high and extreme altitudes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Altitude , Hospitals, Military , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Male , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler
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