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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206293

ABSTRACT

Anabaena sp. are the dominant cyanobacterial species on terracotta monuments of Bishnupur which exposed to high solar radiation, ultraviolet and in a desiccated condition in most part of the year. In the present study three Anabaena species were isolated from crust samples and its antibacterial activities were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli. We observed good antibacterial activity in ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of Anabaena sp. (VBCCA 052002) which having highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli respectively. We have validated the antibacterial assay by using resazurin based antimicrobial assay in microtiter plates and calculated the MIC value of ethyl acetate extract of Anabaena sp. (VBCCA 052002) which is found to be 100 µg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus and 150 µg/ml against Salmonella typhimurium.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198694

ABSTRACT

Background: The frequent surgical interventions of thoracic spine are more common due to a wide array oftraumatic, degenerative and neoplastic diseases. For successful surgical management of these conditions, adetailed anatomical knowledge of the thoracic vertebrae is required.Aim: The aim of this study was to present a morphometric reference database for Pedicle morphometry of typicalthoracic vertebrae in Indian population.Material and methods: The study was conducted on 120 dry human typical (T2-T8) thoracic vertebrae selectedfrom the bone bank of the Department of Anatomy, SGT Medical College Hospital and research institute, Gurugram.Linear measurements of the vertebrae were taken with the help of digital Vernier caliper .Statistical Analysis:Mean and standard deviation of the morphometric parameters taken into account were analyzed. The comparisonof morphometric dimensions of the right and left sides was performed using Student’s t-test and p-value wascalculated.Results: The morphometric analysis of the thoracic vertebrae demonstrated that the Pedicle height (PH) was10.35 ± 1.22 mm and Pedicle Width (PW) was 5.65±2.06mm.Conclusion: The results provide a comprehensive database for more accurate modelling and design of vertebralbody implants and instrumentations for Indian population.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198678

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this present study was to observe the morphological variations of glenoid process ofadult human scapulae by subjective evaluation, because morphologic variants of adult glenoid process play animportant role in various shoulder joint pathologies especially dislocations with fractures of the glenoid cavitywhich is also quite common.Materialsand Methods: Two hundred sixty adult dry scapulae (127 right & 133 left) from the osteology museumof department of Anatomy, belonging to Indian population of unknown sex & age were obtained for the morphologicpattern of glenoid cavity by subjective evaluation. We have examined the presence of notch in the glenoidprocess of each scapulae& according to the presence of notch, we evaluated the bones for the morphologicalclassification as pear; inverted comma & oval shaped glenoid process. Our observations were compared withother osteological studies performed on different other population groups.Results: Out of total 260 scapulae, 187 bones showed notch in the margin of the glenoid cavity.Most of the boneswithout a notch were termed as oval shaped (73 scapulae) glenoid & rest of the bones were of pear shapedvariety. Among the pear shaped glenoid, 113 scapulae showed pear shaped cavity with slight notch; 71 scapulaeshowed an inverted comma shaped glenoid. Not only the basic morphology, we have also reported some of thescapulae with special morphologic features like a very prominent infraglenoid tubercle; presence of foramen inthe glenoid cavity &highly special nodular glenoid cavity.Conclusions: Though glenoid cavities showed highly variable morphological pictures, but the clinicians shouldbe well versed with the normal appearance & anatomic variants of glenoid cavities on dry bones, so that they caninterpret its morphology on radiographs and MRI scans. Our results of this subjective evaluation may be of helpas baseline data for theclinicians especially for the orthopaedic surgeons for the diagnosis &treatment modalitiesof shoulder dislocations & fracture.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207281

ABSTRACT

Background: Epithelial cancers are the most common ovarian malignancy accounting for 90% of all type of ovarian cancer. Objective of this study was to evaluate the surgical morbidity and to study clinical outcomes of 3 cycles versus 6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Methods: A total 30 women with diagnosis of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer were randomly divided equally to receive either 3 cycles (Group 1) or 6 cycles (Group 2) of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. End points noted were duration of surgery, extent of surgery, perioperative complications and length of stay.Results: Both groups had comparable demographic profile. Surgery was more difficult in early IDS group with lesser percentage of patients achieving minimum intended surgery in early IDS (61.53% versus 80. 47%) peri-operative complications were seen more commonly in early IDS group compared to late IDS group (26.66% versus 69.2%). However mean duration of surgery was similar in both groups. Mean duration of stay in hospital was 5.4 days in late IDS group and 7.6 days in early IDS group. The mean follow-up period in late IDS was 7 months and in early IDS was 5 months. Survival in both groups when patients were followed up till the end of study period (12 months) was similar (p=0.186).Conclusions: Authors conclude that late IDS may be used as a treatment option in the high-risk group of patients. Though there was no significant difference at 6 months follow up, higher percent of women were disease free in late IDS.

5.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Nov; 40(6): 1145-1150
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214450

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to isolate, characterize and identify pathogenic bacteria from bacterial leaf spot infected grape vineyards of Maharashtra. Methodology: Collected diseased samples were subjected to isolation. All isolates were further subjected to different morphological and biochemical characterization. These isolates were also used to standardize inoculation methods to study host range and test pathogenicity to confirm infectivity. Genomic DNA was isolated from bacteria for phylogeneitc analysis using 16 rDNA. Results: The disease is characterized by water soaked, angular leaf spot which later turns to irregular, dark brown to black necrotic region on the leaf surface. Microbial studies confirmed that it is a Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium with white, mucoid, glistening and convex circular colonies on artificial medium. Pathogenicity test was performed to confirm virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene exhibited more than 99% similarity with other Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola. The bacterium was found resistant to vancomycin, peniciliin and oxacillin antibiotics. The bacterium is also capable of infecting Mangifera indica and Citrus limon along with eight weed species.

6.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2019 Mar; 71(2): 54-59
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196518

ABSTRACT

In view of the high burden of latency of tuberculosis (TB) in India, tackling latent TB in the right way is a menace. All latent TB’s infection (LTBI) are treated in countries having low burden such as the United States. However, this approach cannot be implemented in high burden countries like India until concrete evidence or consensus by experts on this subject is made. There are very specific risk groups where these patients are to be treated as far as current evidence-based medicine is concerned. Hence, the need to develop a document was felt, through which the treatment of LTBI becomes homogeneous by each and every physician who is practicing and treating TB. The last attempt to review the topic was made in 2015, after which there have been many changes and update in this subject.

7.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Mar; 40(2): 252-257
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214589

ABSTRACT

Aim: Effect of gamma irradiation on genomic disorder in sesame are scanty. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mutagenic effects of gamma rays on different parameters in two popular cultivars of sesame, Roma and Tilottama. Methodology: Seeds of these two cultivars were irradiated with five doses of gamma rays: (250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 Gy) at BARC, Trombay and were sown (along with the un-irradiated control) during March 2015 in a split plot design with 3 replications keeping row to row and plant to plant distance at 30 cm and 10 cm, respectively to determine mutagen sensitivity with regard to pollen fertility (%), germination (%) and seedling height (cm), root-shoot length (cm), plant survival (%) at maturity in M1 generation. To study mutability, four to five capsules from each M1 plants in all the treatments were collected separately to give rise the M2 generation. Individual plant progeny rows were sown in M2 during March 2016. ID50 was determined by probit analysis for germination, shoot-root length and plant survival. Since the dose requirement for pollen fertility is very high, ID30 was calculated instead of ID50 value. Results: It was observed that with increasing doses of gamma rays, the response of all characters decreased significantly and followed a linear relationship in both varieties. The root system was more profound to gamma rays than the shoot. Chlorophyll mutations showed independent response to different doses of gamma rays as they occurred in random. The mutability of genotype Roma induced with different doses of gamma rays was higher than that of Tilottama. Interpretation: Due to saturation in the mutational actions, response of characters decreased with increase in gamma ray doses but magnitudes of effect differed between genotypes. The cultivar Tilottama was found to be more sensitive than Roma.

8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2019 Mar; 37(1): 105-108
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198845

ABSTRACT

Historical specimens collected from hospitalized children were tested for the following 13 viruses: influenza A and B; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); parainfluenza viruses 1� human metapneumovirus; rhinovirus; coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1 and Adenovirus using monoplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). They were retested using TaqMan Array Card (TAC), a micro-fluidic system, capable of simultaneous multi-pathogen testing, to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity against monoplex rRT-PCR. TAC showed high sensitivity (71%�0%) and specificity (98%�0%) for these viruses in comparison to monoplex rRT-PCR. Multi-specimen detection with high sensitivity and specificity makes TAC a potentially useful tool for both surveillance and outbreak investigations.

9.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Jan; 40(1): 61-68
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214626

ABSTRACT

Aim: The objective of the study was to analyse and to identify the groundwater prospect zones (GWPZ) by developing groundwater potential zone map for Kadiri watershed of Anantapur district in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methodology: Nine thematic layers were generated, i.e., geology, geomorphology, soil texture, soil depth, drainage density, slope, rainfall, lineament density and land use land cover of the study area, and based on multi criteria analysis (MCA) method revised ratings and weights were computed from interrelationship among the influencing layers. Integration of all thematic layers was done through weighted overlay technique (WOT) for developing groundwater potential zone map of the study area using GIS software. Results: Five groundwater potential zones (GWPZ) were identified in the study area ranging from very poor to very good. According to the classification of GWPZ, 7.14% (36.95 sq.km) and 39.88 % (206.31 sq.km) of the study area falls under 'very good' and 'good' groundwater potential zone whereas 30.81 % of study area, i.e., 159.35 sq.km accounts for moderate groundwater prospect. It was also observed that 17.77% (91.9 sq.km) and 4.40% (22.77 sq.km) accounts for 'poor' and 'very poor' groundwater potential zone in the study area, respectively. The major portion of good groundwater potential zone was found in the eastern part of the study area. Interpretation: The research outcome of the present study on status of groundwater availability will be helpful to the stake holders, local administration and policy makers in framing the guidelines for better planning, utilization and rejuvenation of depleting groundwater resources for sustainable development in the study area.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195638

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Respiratory tract infections are common among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims which pose a public health risk of spread of respiratory infections. Influenza has been reported from Indian Hajj and Umrah returning pilgrims, but data on other respiratory pathogens are sparse in India. Here we report the presence of common respiratory viral pathogens in returning Hajj and Umrah pilgrims suffering from acute respiratory illness (ARI) in 2014-2015. Methods: Respiratory specimens (nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) were collected from 300 consenting pilgrims with ARI in the past one week and tested for influenza and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other respiratory viruses using in-house standardized quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical features among the pathogen positive and negative patients were compared. The patients received symptomatic treatment and antivirals where appropriate and were followed telephonically to collect data on illness outcome. Results: Ninety seven (32.3%) of the 300 participants were tested positive for any virus, most common being influenza viruses (n=33, 11%). Other respiratory viruses that were detected included human coronaviruses [n=26, 8.7%; OC43 (n=19, 6.3%) and C229E (n=7, 2.3%)], rhinovirus (n=20, 6%), adenoviruses (n=8, 2.6%), parainfluenza viruses (n=7, 2.3%), respiratory syncytial virus (n=3, 1%) and bocaviruses (n=2, 0.6%). Clinical features observed in pathogen positive and pathogen negative patients did not differ significantly. Eighteen influenza positive patients were treated with oseltamivir. Interpretation & conclusions: Pilgrims returning from mass gatherings are often afflicted with respiratory pathogens with a potential to facilitate transmission of respiratory pathogens across international borders. The study reinforces the need for better infection prevention and control measures such as vaccination, health education on cough etiquette and hand hygiene.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-187675

ABSTRACT

Background: To review the clinical and histological aspect of IDEM tumors with functional outcome after surgery of all radiologically diagnosed cases of IDEM. Methods: 12 cases of IDEM tumors, which had been surgically treated and studied in terms of clinical features as pain by VAS, functional score by Nuricks grading, in preoperative and postoperative period. The correlation of histopathology and tumor size in terms of clinical features and outcome was done. Results: Most common diagnosis was schwannoma (83.3%) and rest 2 patients were meningiomas(16.7%), distribution - 3(25%) dorsal, 5(41.6%) lumbar, 2(16.6%) cervical, 1(8%) cervico-dorsal and 1(8%) dorso-lumbar and average percentage of the intradural space occupied by tumor was 77.02%. Average age was 40 years. Meningioma was common in 55 to 60 yr age all female; schwannoma the mean age was 37 year. The most common symptoms were local pain, tingling and numbness, motor weakness which were observed in all the cases. All patients improved postoperatively. VAS score and Nurick grade inproved in all. Conclusion: Most common pathology was schwannoma then meningioma. All the tumors excised through the posterior approach. The postoperative recovery was good in all the cases regardless of any condition. Therefore, aggressive surgical excision is recommended even for cases with a long duration of symptoms or a severe neurologic deficit.

13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172724
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-168273

ABSTRACT

Background : Blood testing for biochemical markers of Myocardial injury plays an increasingly important role for the evaluation, diagnosis and triage of patients with chest pain. The guidelines for the diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction ((MI) have recently changed and prominently incorporate the results of cardiac marker testing in the clinical definition of MI. We investigated these updated biomarkers and further compare the differing biology and release kinetics of clinically relevant biomarkers. Methods: Biochemical changes that occurred in the blood of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients were investigated. Two hundred and fifty two patients, 180 males and 72 females were included in this study. The mean age was 49.3 ± 9.25 years. Biochemical parameters include serum triglyceride, total protein, albumin , total bilirubin and total cholesterol to albumin ratio were analyzed. Results : Biochemical parameters showed that the increased level of triglyceride and total bilirubin were associated with myocardial infarction. Triglyceride and total bilirubin levels in myocardial infarction patients were 2.3 ±1.4 mmol/ L and 12.3±3.2 μmol/ L respectively, whereas those of healthy controls were 1.7±1.2 mmol/L for triglycerides and 9.7±3.7 μmol/L for bilirubin. On the other hand, serum total protein and albumin concentrations were lower in MI patients compared to those of controls. Total protein level was 65.5 ±3.1 g/L in MI patients and 76.2±5.3 g/L in healthy controls. Albumin levels in both patients and controls were 40.2 ±3.2 g/L and 45.4 ± 4.5 g/L correspondingly. Conclusion : Interestingly, serum total cholesterol level was not significantly different in MI patients compared to controls. In addition, cholesterol/albumin ratio in myocardial infarction patients (0.14 ± 0.04) found to be significantly higher than in healthy controls (0.11± 0.03).

15.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(2): 579-582, jun. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-651833

ABSTRACT

Anatomical variations in the region of axilla and pectoral region are very common. These variations need attention to avoid complications arising during surgeries and diagnostic and interventional invasive procedures in this region such as surgeries for breast carcinoma, venous access during central venous line, pacemaker and cardiac defibrillator implantation etc. During routine cadaveric dissection we had noticed a rare variation of axillary vein and artery. In this case axillary vein, just deep to the inferior border of pectoralis minor was pierced by the lateral thoracic artery, a branch of axillary artery. Perforation of the axillary vein by a branch of the axillary artery is extremely rare variation encountered till now. We report a variation wherein the lateral thoracic artery a branch of the second part of axillary artery was unusually long and perforated the axillary vein, just posterior to the inferior border of pectoralis minor muscle before supplying the structures in the anterolateral chest wall. Histological findings revealed duplication of lumen at the site of perforation through which the lateral thoracic artery was passing and the surrounding area was sealed by the connective tissue. Sound knowledge of anatomy of axillary and pectoral region may help in reducing complications while doing surgical and diagnostic procedure in these regions.


Las variaciones anatómicas en las regiones axilar y pectoral son muy comunes. Estas variaciones necesitan atención para evitar las complicaciones que surgen durante las cirugías y los procedimientos invasivos de diagnóstico e intervención en esta región, tales como cirugía de cáncer mamario, acceso venoso para una vía venosa central, implantación de marcapasos y desfibrilador, etc. Durante una disección de rutina se evidenció una variación poco frecuente de la vena axilar y arteria axilar. Se presenta una variación en que la arteria torácica lateral, rama de la segunda parte de la arteria axilar, inusualmente larga, perforaba la vena axilar, justo por detrás del margen inferior del músculo pectoral menor, antes de irrigar a las estructuras de la pared torácica anterolateral. La histológía reveló la duplicación del lumen en el sitio de perforación a través del cual pasa la arteria torácica lateral, que periféricamente fue sellada por tejido conectivo. La perforación de la vena axilar por una rama de la arteria axilar es una variación que raramente se observa, por eso un buen nivel de conocimientos de la anatomía de las regiones axilar y pectoral puede ayudar a reducir las complicaciones cuando se realizan procedimientos quirúrgicos y de diagnóstico en estas regiones.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Axillary Artery/abnormalities , Axilla/blood supply , Pectoralis Muscles/blood supply , Axillary Vein/abnormalities , Cadaver
16.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 49(1): 89-95
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144557

ABSTRACT

Context: According to the first population-based cancer registry from eastern part of India, Kolkata and its surrounding areas have the highest prevalence of lung cancer in India. However, there is very limited data from this part of the country. Aims: The aim of this study is to find out the demographic and clinicoradiological profile of primary bronchogenic carcinoma. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective review of lung cancer cases diagnosed in two tertiary institutes of Kolkata over a period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: We have reviewed the cases with proven histological or cytological diagnosis of primary bronchogenic carcinoma and chi-square test is done to calculate statistical significance. Results: Out of 607 patients, male 489 and female 118, 67.7% are from rural area, 67.2% are smoker and only 9.4% are ≤40 years of age. Smoking is the major risk factor for primary lung cancer (P = 0.000) but no significance could be established with the different histological subtypes (P = 0.207). Though squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most predominant variety (35.1%), adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated type are overrepresented in ≤40 years. SCC occurs at a significantly higher age group (60.84 ± 12.16 years) than other subtypes (P = 0.000). At least 55.2% cases of nonsmall cell lung cancer and 54% of small cell lung cancer presented in very advanced stage. Conclusions: SCC is the most common histological subtype of primary bronchogenic carcinoma. The relatively increased frequency of adenocarcinoma in our study as compared to other studies from India is probably due to higher proportion of nonsmokers.

17.
Indian Pediatr ; 2011 June; 48(6): 488-489
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-168870

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study evaluated the nutritional status of 608 rural tribal children (age 6 to 15 years) from Jampuijala block of West Tripura district, India. Prevalence of stunting, thinness and overweight were 23.7%, 33.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The prevalence of stunting and thinness was found to be higher in boys than in girls.

19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172640

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to find media better than routinely used media in isolation of uropathogens.Three hundred urine samples having pus cells >_ 5/ HPF were enrolled for the study. Comparison of isolation and identification of uropathogens among HiCrome UTI Agar media, 5% Sheep Blood agar & MacConkey agar and CLED agar media were done. Among them 95(31.67%) samples showed single growth, 6 (2%) showed mixed growth and 199 (66.67%) showed no growth. Rate of presumptive identification of organisms in primary culture plate were high in HiCrome UTI agar media. For Escherichia coli, it was 94.20% whereas in CLED agar it was 79.71% and by Blood agar and MacConkey agar media in combination it was 82.61%. All the Enterococcus spp. were identified in HiCrome UTI agar media, 33.33% in CLED agar media but none in Blood agar and MacConkey agar media. Among the mixed growth, 100% organisms were identified on HiCrome UTI Agar media due to distinct colour produced by the different organisms, whereas in one (16.67%) sample (mixed Esch.coli and Pseudomonas spp.) organisms were identified on other three media.

20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172637

ABSTRACT

A prospective study was carried out in 50 burn patients admitted in Burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital over a period of one year from January 2005 to December 2005 to evaluate time-related changes in aerobic bacterial colonization and their sensitivity pattern. Periodic swabs were taken from the burn wound on Day 0, Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 to see the changing pattern of organisms during hospital stay of patients. In the present study burn injury was highest in the age group 11-20 yrs (34%). Male to female ratio was 1.38:1. The mean percentage of burn was 35.79% of total body surface area (TBSA). Fire was the major cause of burn (38%) followed by electric burn (20%). Among the 200 samples, single organism was isolated in 71% samples and mixed organism in 13.5% and no growth in 14.5%. Among single isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa was leading (28%) followed by Escherichia coli (17.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (16%), coagulse negative Staphylococcus (4.5%) and Klebsiella (2%). Among mixed growth Pseudomonas aeruginosa was still leading (11%) follow by E. coli (9.5%) Staphylococcus (5.5%), Proteus (1%) and Klebsiella (0.5%).There were time -related changes in bacterial isolation from burn wound during hospital stay of patients. On admission 42% of the isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus and only 6% each Pseudomonas aerunginosa and E. coli were isolated. No growth was found in 28%. samples. These findings were gradually changing with time and on day 21 Staphylococcus aureus were only 4% whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 40% and E. coli 28%. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed that pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. It was most sensitive to Imipenem (98.72%) followed by Aztreonam (33.44%), Ceftazidime (38.32%) and Gentamicin (19.23%). E. coli was also found most sensitive to Imipenem (98.15%) followed by Gentamicin (38.95%), Chloramphenicol (37.1%), Ciprofloxacin (35.25%) and ceftraixone (29.70%). Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to Vancomycin followed by Amoxiclav and Oxacillin (53.43% each), Gentamicin (44.70%) and Cloxacillin (39.52%). It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics without waiting for culture results, thus improving overall infection related morbidity and mortality.

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