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1.
Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences. 2014; 22 (2): 90-101
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-152901

ABSTRACT

The present review discussed the biochemical and physiological changes as well as the different sorts of nutritional deficiencies and health hazards to which the athletes may be exposed in addition to the importance of production and evaluation of innovated functional foods for athletes. Ergogenic substances and phytochemicals of possible impacts on athletes are also discussed. Athletes need special nutrients and bioactive constituents before, during and after exercise to keep on their fitness and performance and to achieve successful results during their games. They also need to be healthy without any sort of nutrients' deficiency. So, it is important to study the necessary nutrients and functional food ingredients for athletes and incorporate them into ideal functional foods to achieve their performance and to keep them in a healthy state. Such functional foods must be evaluated in athletes through following up biochemical, physiological and anthropometric parameters reflecting nutritional status, oxidative stress, antioxidant state, immunity, fitness and performance. Functional foods for athletes differ according to the practiced games. These functional foods must correct any nutrient deficiency in athletes that may occur due to practicing sports. Proper athlete's nutrition is essential for continuity of his/her sports with a good health and without loosing fitness

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343186

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado, walnut, flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant. Six groups of rats were conducted; control healthy, cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids (FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic. FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA. Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in all the studied plants. Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, total protein, catalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction. Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms. All studied nutraceuticals showed complete safety.</p>

3.
Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences. 2011; 19 (2): 67-74
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110556

ABSTRACT

Three supplementary food mixtures high in protein and calories were prepared using different percentage of locally produced cereals and legumes in addition to 10% skimmed milk powder in each formula to be used as therapeutic diets for infants suffering from protein energy malnutrition. These prepared mixtures were undergone chemical, biological and organoleptic evaluation. The data obtained revealed that 100g of each mixture provided 38, 28 and 20 g. protein and 382, 366 and 364 calories in formulae I, II and III respectively. The biological evaluation was carried out in comparison to three locally available food mixtures [Creacon, Gerber and Riri] comparable in protein percentage and casein containing diet as a control group using experimental rats. The data obtained showed that body weight gain increased significantly only in case of rats fed creacon and formula II. The food and protein efficiency ratios for formulae I and II were higher compared to the control which was significant for formula II. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that formula I scored as very good, then comes formula II then at last formula II which were both scored as good


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals, Laboratory , Rats , Diet Therapy
4.
Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences. 2010; 18 (1): 13-20
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105828

ABSTRACT

In the present research, two iron concentrates prepared from fruit and vegetable juices in addition to other plant foods products expected to be rich in iron and nutrients that enhance iron absorption have been chemically and biologically evaluated, Iron and Zn and other mineral and phytochemicals that have been claimed to reduce iron absorption [Ca, polyphenols and lannins] and micronutrients that reported to enhance iron absorption [Vitamin C, toccopherols and carotenoids] have been determined. The efficiency and safety of iron concentrates were evaluated in iron deficiency model of rats. The iron concentrates have been shown to contain variable levels of Fe, Zn, Ca, polyphenols. tannins, vitamin C, toccopherols and carotenoids. The sum of promoters and inhibitors in mixture 1 was higher than that in mixture 2. The two iron concentrates showed improvements of iron status, however mixture 2 [3.5 strawberry: 3.5 pomegranate: 1 blackstrap: 0.5 carrot: 0.5 pumpkin: 1 orange in, addition to 10% lettuce juice] was more efficient than mixture l [4.7 .strawberry 2.7 beetroot: L3carrot: 1.7 guava in addition of 1.3%wheat germ oil and 3.3%lettuce juice]. Iron deficiency anemia induced oxidative stress which was reduced on supplementation of the iron concentrates. Both iron concentrates .showed safety concerning liver and kidney functions


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals, Laboratory , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Plants, Edible , Vegetables , Fruit , Dietary Supplements , Oxidative Stress , Ascorbic Acid , Phenols , Tannins , Calcium , beta Carotene , alpha-Tocopherol , Zinc
5.
Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences. 2010; 18 (4): 139-150
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125949

ABSTRACT

The anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of five plants abundantly growing in Egypt, namely Ipomoea palmate Forsk. [Convolvulaceae], Alstonia scholaris R.Br. [Apocynaceae], Salix subserrata Willd., Salix tetrasperma Roxb, and Populus nigra Linn. [Salicaceae] has been studied. Phytochemical study on selected bioactive extracts was carried out as well as their possible mechanism of action. The results revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts under investigation to different degrees. A chromatographic study of the bioactive lipoidal extracts of A. scholaris and I. palmate was carried out and the results revealed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids [linoleic and linoleic]. Beta-sitosterol and campesterol were present in A. scholaris and I. palmate, respectively. Chromatographic and spectral investigation of the flavonoids in the bioactive aqueous extract of I. palmate revealed the presence of luteolin, quercetin 7-glycosie and apigenin. The anti-inflammatory activity may be due to the presence of these phytochemical constituents


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Ipomoea , Alstonia , Salix , Populus , Plant Extracts , Chromatography , Linoleic Acid , Linolenic Acids , Sitosterols , Phytosterols , Cholesterol/analogs & derivatives , Luteolin , Quercetin , Apigenin , Rats , Mice
6.
Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences. 2009; 17 (1): 45-52
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-111130

ABSTRACT

Two special diets for liver cirrhosis have been formulated [I and II], prepared in bakery form and evaluated in liver cirrhotic rats. Both diets contain protein of high Fisher ratio and oil rich in medium chain triglycerides. Proximate analysis of both formulas and their contents of amino acids and fatty acids were assessed. Special diets were evaluated in cirrhotic rats. Liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by intra-peritoneal injection of CCL[4] [at a dose of 0.2 ml/kg rat body weight/day for 3 consecutive days per week] for 10 weeks. Proximate analysis showed that% fat, protein and carbohydrates in formula I was 29.48, 19.3 and 35.2 and in formula II was 28.73, 19.1 and 38.1. Amino acids profile revealed that branched chain amino acids [BCAA] were 126.2 and 120 mg/g protein in formula I and II respectively. The Fisher ratio of formula I and II was 1.912 and 1.632 respectively. GLC analysis of fatty acids showed that the contents of medium chain fatty acids were 42 and 55.2% of total fatty acids in formula I and II respectively. Feeding cirrhotic rats on either of the special formula showed improved liver function reflected by significant reduction of the activity of transaminases [ALT and AST] and total bilirubin and the significant increase in total protein and albumin in plasma. There was also significant decrease in plasma level of malondialdehyde [MDA] indicating reduction in oxidative stress compared to control cirrhotic rats. Both formulas produced increase in body weight gain compared to control cirrhotic rats. In conclusion, both special formulas in the present study improved liver function and reduced oxidative stress in cirrhotic rats reflecting their potential beneficial use in patients with liver cirrhosis


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Diet Therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Food
7.
Medical Journal of Cairo University [The]. 2003; 71 (Supp. 2): 217-233
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-63822

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to assess the nutritional status of children with chronic and acute diarrhea through both anthropometric and biochemical parameters. It also aimed to investigate whether the body weight and different biochemical parameters may be modified by dietary rehabilitation with either a diet containing skimmed milk [modest amount] and fortified with zinc and vitamin A [diet I] or lactose restricted diet containing chicken meat [diet II]. Both diets contained anti-diarrheal edible plants, in addition to cereals and legumes using honey as a sweetener. The parameters that are determinant of the disease severity including stool frequency and consistency, duration of diarrhea and appetite improvement were also assessed. Dietary rehabilitation of both diets proved to be efficient [with different degrees] in the management of acute and chronic diarrhea and restoration of different biochemical parameters towards normal levels


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Nutritional Status , Retinol-Binding Proteins , Child Nutrition Disorders , Anthropometry , Minerals , Child , Disease Management
10.
Journal of Drug Research of Egypt. 1998; 22 (1-2): 321-339
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-136078

ABSTRACT

The antiarthritic activity of some bioactive extracts of fenugreek seeds and Liquorice roots and the whole coriander fruit powder were tested in rats in which adjuvant arthitis was induced in comparison with two synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. The results of the tested natural agents showed a significant inhibition of the inflammed regions with different degrees. The highest inhibition was due to the petroleum ether extract of fenugreek [67%] followed by the aqueous methanolic extract of liquorice [65%]. Biochemically administration of the natural agents or reference drugs to arthritic rats produced pronounced improvement of the level of certain biochemical parameters reflecting the arthritic state in rate; such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum seromucoids, copper, fibrinogen, albumin and albumin: globulin ratio. Nutritionally arthritic rats lost weight significantly if compared with control normal ones. Administration of urbason retard to arthritic rats produced a significant reduction in body weight and food efficiency ratio if compared to control arthritic, while aqueous methanolic extract of fenugreek produced a significant increase in body weight. No significant changes in total food intake were noticed among the different groups receiving the tested agents


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Treatment Outcome , Plant Extracts , Trigonella/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
11.
Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1997; 38 (4-6): 451-469
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-44562

ABSTRACT

The anti-inflammatory effects of the whole powdered seeds of Nigella sativa L. [Family Ranunculaceae] as well as the successive petroleum and alcoholic extracts were tested in experimental rats. The results revealed a remarked anti-inflammatory activity of the tested natural agents. The results revealed that the whole powdered seeds produced a significant reduction of plasma triglycerides, postprandial blood sugar and body weight gain. The alcoholic extract produced a significant decrease of plasma cholesterol and body weight gain, while the petroleum ether extract reduced plasma cholesterol and postprandial blood sugar significantly and produced a significant increase in body weight gain. Concerning liver and kidney function tests, the three tested natural agents showed complete safety. Chemical composition of the most active extract was carried out. The total fatty acids fraction was methylated and analyzed by GLC. The results revealed the presence of myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, behenic and arachidic acids with a quantitative variation in the petroleum ether extract, which is safe up to 6 g/kg mice body weight according to the acute toxicity test


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Plants , Plant Extracts , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Rats , Mice
12.
Egyptian Journal of Food Science. 1993; 21 (3): 325-32
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-119956

ABSTRACT

The effect of low and high doses of aspirin [50 and 150 mg/kg rat body weight] on protein efficiency ratio, blood hemoglobin, percentage hematocrit and plasma proteins were studied in growing rats fed balanced diet. Results showed that protein efficiency ratio of rats given the high dose was significantly decreased. Blood hemoglobin increased significantly when aspirin was given. Hematocrit was affected significantly by aspirin treatment. Plasma total protein and globulin increased significantly. Albumin/globulin ratio decreased significantly on administration of both aspirin doses


Subject(s)
Nutritional Sciences/drug effects , Blood Proteins/drug effects , Hemoglobins/analysis , Rats
13.
Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences. 1993; 6 (4): 298-301
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-29082
14.
Egyptian Journal of Food Science. 1989; 17 (1-2): 15-22
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-12722

ABSTRACT

The effect of diet containing 65% sucrose and a diet containing 30% butter fat on liver lipid and total proteins were studied in experimental rats. The feeding experiment continued for 40 days, and the results were compared with a control group of rats fed balanced diet. Results showed that both diets produced significant increases of liver triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol and total lipids, however, significant decrease of liver proteins [g/100g] were noticed


Subject(s)
Diet , Sucrose , Fats , Rats
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