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Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 May; 53(5): 249-255
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158441


Viral gene oncotherapy, targeted killing of cancer cells by viral genes, is an emerging non-infectious therapeutic cancer treatment modality. Chemo and radiotherapy in cancer treatment is limited due to their genotoxic side effects on healthy cells and need of functional p53, which is mutated in most of the cancers. VP3 (apoptin) of chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) and NS1 (Non structural protein 1) of Canine Parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) have been proven to have oncolytic potential in our laboratory. To evaluate oncolytic potential of VP3 and NS1 together these genes needed to be cloned in a bicistronic vector. In this study, both these genes were cloned and characterized for expression of their gene products and its apoptotic potential. The expression of VP3 and NS1 was studied by confocal microscopy and flowcytometry. Expression of VP3 and NS1 in pVIVO.VP3.NS1 transfected HeLa cells in comparison to mock transfected cells indicated that the double gene construct expresses both the products. This was further confirmed by flowcytometry where there was increase in cells expressing VP3 and NS1 in pVIVO.VP3.NS1 transfected group in comparison with the mock control group. The apoptotic inducing potential of this characterized pVIVO.VP3.NS1 was evaluated in human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) by DNA fragmentation assay, TUNEL assay and Hoechst staning. This double construct was observed to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells.

Apoptosis , Cell Cycle/analysis , Cell Cycle/genetics , DNA Fragmentation , Flow Cytometry/methods , Genes, Viral/genetics , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , /genetics
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Feb; 51(2): 116-123
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147574


Viral gene oncotherapy is emerging as a biotherapeutic cancer treatment modality based on targeted killing of cancer cells by viral genes. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has the property to cause selective oncolysis of tumor cells sparing normal cells. NDV has a single stranded negative sense RNA genome, which is 15,186 nucleotide long and consists of six genes, which codes for eight proteins. NDV like other paramyxoviruses has the ability to generate multiple proteins from the P gene. P protein is encoded by an unedited transcript of the P gene, whereas the V and W protein are the results of RNA editing event in which one and two G residues are inserted at a conserved editing site within the P gene mRNA resulting in V and W transcripts, respectively. Although NDV is known to cause oncolysis by triggering apoptosis, the role of different viral proteins in selective oncolysis is still unclear. P gene edited products are known for its anti-apoptotic property in homologous host. In the present study, NDV P gene and its RNA edited products were amplified, cloned, sequenced and in vitro expression was done in HeLa cells. Further constructs were assayed for their apoptosis inducing ability in HeLa cells. Preliminary study suggested that P, V and W proteins are not apoptotic to HeLa cells.

Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Annexin A5/metabolism , Base Sequence , Chickens , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genes, Viral/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144784


Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. In spite of achieving significant successes in medical sciences in the past few decades, the number of deaths due to cancer remains unchecked. The conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have limited therapeutic index and a plethora of treatment related side effects. This situation has provided an impetus for search of novel therapeutic strategies that can selectively destroy the tumour cells, leaving the normal cells unharmed. Viral oncotherapy is such a promising treatment modality that offers unique opportunity for tumour targeting. Numerous viruses with inherent anti-cancer activity have been identified and are in different phases of clinical trials. In the era of modern biotechnology and with better understanding of cancer biology and virology, it has become feasible to engineer the oncolytic viruses (OVs) to increase their tumour selectivity and enhance their oncolytic activity. In this review, the mechanisms by which oncolytic viruses kill the tumour cells have been discussed as also the development made in virotherapy for cancer treatment with emphasis on their tumour specific targeting.

Apoptosis , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Oncolytic Viruses/pathogenicity , Oncolytic Viruses/metabolism , Oncolytic Virotherapy/methods
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2011 Sept; 49(9): 654-659
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145174


Parvoviruses are small, 260-Å-diameter, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses with a genome of approximately 5 kb. Non structural protein, (NS-1) is especially relevant, being both essential for virus replication and the main factor responsible for virus pathogenicity and cytotoxicity. This protein has also been reported to possess the property of killing of transformed cells. The present study was carried out to clone, characterize and express the NS-1 gene of canine parvovirus. NS-1 complete CDS 2020bp was amplified, cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+), sequenced and characterized by in vitro expression analysis. Functional activity of recombinant construct, pcDNA.cpv.NS-1, was evaluated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry for the expression of NS-1 specific mRNA and NS-1 protein, respectively, in transfected HeLa cells. This recombinant plasmid may serve as an important tool to evaluate the apoptotic potential of NS-1 protein of canine parvovirus in cultured HeLa cells.

Indian J Exp Biol ; 2011 Feb; 49(2): 140-145
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145108


Newcastle disease (ND) is highly contagious, economically important viral disease affecting most of avian species worldwide. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has single stranded negative sense RNA genome which encodes for six structural and two non-structural proteins. Envelope glycoproteins i.e. hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion (F), elicit protective immune response. In this study, HN and F genes of velogenic (virulent) strain were amplified and cloned at multiple cloning sites A and B, respectively into pIRES bicistronic vector for use as bivalent DNA vaccine against ND. The recombinant plasmid was characterized for its orientation by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR. Expression of HN and F genes was assessed in transfected Vero cells at RNA level using RT-PCR in total RNA as well as protein level using IFAT, IPT and western blot using NDV specific antiserum. All these experiments confirmed that HN and F genes cloned in recombinant are functionally active. The recombinant construct is being evaluated as DNA vaccine against ND.

Indian J Exp Biol ; 2010 Dec; 48(12): 1175-1180
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145079


Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), a multifunctional cytokine can enhance immune responses when administered along with DNA vaccine. Aim of the present study was to clone and express the chicken GMCSF cytokine for use as ‘genetic adjuvant’. Chicken GMCSF gene 435bp was amplified using specific primers in which restriction sites of BamHI and HindIII were at forward and reverse primers respectively. The PCR product was cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+) and clones were confirmed by restriction digestion and nucleotide sequencing. Functional activity of recombinant GMCSF was checked by expression of GMCSF specific mRNA in transfected Vero cells by RT-PCR of total RNA isolated from transfected Vero cells. The recombinant plasmid can be used as genetic adjuvant in chicken.