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2.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1991 Jul; 35(3): 170-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107577

ABSTRACT

In lactating rats consuming a commercial diet adequate in calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D, the effect of supplementation of 3000 IU and 7,500 IU of vitamin D3 on the lactational performance of the dams and soft tissue and skeletal growth in the pups has been investigated. On 28th day of age, the pups in the supplemented groups were significantly heavier than in the control group. Study of the indices of cellular growth in the liver and gastrocnemius muscle revealed that the increase in the soft tissue weight was due to a significant increase in protein, RNA and DNA contents (cellular hyperplasia) without any change in protein/DNA ratio (cell size). In the tibia, compared to controls, the dry bone weight and ash weight were more in the supplemented groups, but ash weight/dry bone weight ratio was not altered. The improvement in the neonatal growth was most probably due to the greater milk yield observed in the dams in supplemented groups and not due to any anabolic effect in the pups since direct administration of 500 IU or 1,000 IU of vitamin D3 in 10 day old pups did not increase their body weight.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn/growth & development , Animals, Suckling/growth & development , Body Weight/drug effects , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Eating/drug effects , Female , Lactation/drug effects , Milk/drug effects , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains
3.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1991 Apr; 35(2): 117-20
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107130

ABSTRACT

Female rats were fed low protein diet (10% casein) either as such or supplemented with 3% leucine during pregnancy and lactation. Changes in litter size and the survival rate, growth and protein status of the pups were noted. The milk yield and hepatic and mammary gland protein status of the mothers were also studied. Feeding low protein diet reduced litter size, increased their mortality and resulted in poor growth of the pups. It also resulted in poor hepatic and mammary gland protein status of the mothers, as well as reduced their milk yield. On adding 3% leucine to 10% casein in the diet, the changes observed in the low protein group, did not alter in any manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Suckling/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , Caseins/administration & dosage , DNA/metabolism , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Female , Lactation/metabolism , Leucine/pharmacology , Litter Size , Liver/anatomy & histology , Male , Mammary Glands, Animal/metabolism , Organ Size/drug effects , Pregnancy , Protein Deficiency/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Rats
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-19216

ABSTRACT

The effect of aluminium phosphide (AlP) which is a systemic poison on the adrenal cortex was studied in 30 patients of AlP poisoning. A significant rise in the plasma cortisol level (greater than 1048 nmol/l) was observed in the twenty patients. Mortality was 50 per cent. Autopsy study could be undertaken only in 10 patients. Histopathology showed mild to moderate changes. In the rest (10 patients), the adrenal cortex was critically involved and the cortisol level failed to rise beyond normal levels (less than 690 nmol/l). The histopathology revealed severe changes (complete lipid depletion, haemorrhage, necrosis etc.) and all these patients died. In the critically ill patients, the cortisol levels remained low because of severe adreno-cortical involvement. The changes in the adrenal cortex could be due to shock or to cellular toxic effect of phosphine. The histopathological changes in various viscera showed congestion, edema and cellular infiltration. In the heart, there were patchy areas of necrosis, while the liver showed fatty changes and the lungs showed, in addition areas of gray/red hepatization. There was no adrenal apoplexy or extensive haemorrhage that could explain shock in these patients. Cardiogenic shock could not be confirmed due to lack of facilities for haemodynamic monitoring, but there was histopathological evidence in support of cardiovascular shock.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex/pathology , Adult , Aluminum Compounds , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Middle Aged , Phosphines/poisoning
6.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1988 Apr-Jun; 32(2): 126-31
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106184

ABSTRACT

Plasma cortisol and urinary excretion of water, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium have been studied in the rat after application of heat stress. There was a significant increase in plasma cortisol level after exposure to heat. During heat stress complete cessation of urine formation was observed. In the next 30 min there was statistically significant increase in the urinary excretion of water, sodium and calcium but not of potassium and magnesium. Urinary calcium/magnesium ratio was also significantly elevated. The increase in urinary water and electrolyte excretion seemed to be mediated through prostaglandins since it could be abolished by administration of indomethacin prior to the application of heat stress. On the basis of these results, the possible role of heat stress in the genesis of urolithiasis has been discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Water/metabolism , Electrolytes/metabolism , Female , Hot Temperature , Hydrocortisone/blood , Rats , Stress, Physiological/metabolism , Urinary Calculi/etiology , Urine
7.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1988 Jan-Mar; 32(1): 41-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-108893

ABSTRACT

In the present study effect of dietary restriction with and without leucine supplementation was observed on body and liver weights, and liver protein status, in adult rats. Animals were fed on two diets ad lib or were on 50 per cent and 25 per cent intakes. Dietary restriction resulted in loss of body and liver weights, hepatic protein, free-alpha-amino nitrogen and RNA contents and liver cell size (liver weight/DNA ratio). When compared with the control group, the decrease in these parameters was more in the dietary restricted leucine supplemented group. However, hepatic DNA content was not changed with the change in dietary regimen. The results suggest that leucine supplementation with dietary restriction may be more harmful for the animal than dietary restriction alone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fasting , Leucine/pharmacology , Liver/metabolism , Male , Organ Size , Proteins/metabolism , Rats
9.
Indian J Lepr ; 1988 Jan; 60(1): 17-20
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55467

ABSTRACT

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was studied in 25 patients having different types of leprosy and 25 healthy volunteer as control. There was definite rise of ADA activity in BL (72.9 +/- 6.85), LL (56.7 +/- 3.35) and BT (39.1 +/- 8.28) which was statistically significant when compared to ADA activity in healthy control (9.7 +/- 0.53).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase/blood , Humans , Leprosy/enzymology , Leprosy, Borderline/enzymology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/enzymology , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/enzymology , Nucleoside Deaminases/blood , Random Allocation
10.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1987 Jul-Sep; 31(3): 218-23
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106178

ABSTRACT

Plasma Cortisol and urinary excretion of water, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium have been studied in the rat after application of 2 types of neurogenic stress:--(a) tight rubber band tourniquet and (b) electric shock. Plasma cortisol levels increased significantly after application of either type of stress. During both type of stress, there was statistically significant increase in the urinary excretion of water, sodium and calcium but not of potassium and magnesium. Urinary calcium/magnesium ratio was also significantly elevated. The results suggest that stress may be one of the factors involved in the genesis of urolithiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electrolytes/urine , Electroshock , Female , Hydrocortisone/blood , Rats , Stress, Physiological/physiopathology , Tourniquets , Urinary Calculi/etiology , Urodynamics
15.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1985 Apr-Jun; 29(2): 107-10
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106986

ABSTRACT

Body and liver weights, Liver lipids, glycogen, aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2) and blood glucose levels were determined in starved and starved-refed rats. Decrease in body and liver weights was rapid during the initial stage of starvation and slowed down thereafter. Water was the major liver constituent lost in early fast. Following 10 days of starvation, body weight was reduced by nearly 20%, liver weight 43%, liver glycogen 93% and blood glucose 34%. Liver lipids and the activities of the two transaminases however, were increased by about 30-50%. On refeeding body weight and its water content increased and became nearly double of the initial fasting value on day 2. Blood glucose, liver glycogen, liver lipids and transaminases were significantly altered and got normalised within 5-8 days.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , Eating , Energy Metabolism , Food , Liver Glycogen/metabolism , Male , Organ Size , Rats , Starvation/metabolism
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