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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896104

ABSTRACT

Except for carbamazepine for trigeminal neuralgia, gabapentinoid anticonvulsants have been the standard for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Pregabalin, which followed gabapentin, was developed with the benefit of rapid peak blood concentration and better bioavailability. Mirogabalin besylate (DS-5565, Tarlige® ) shows greater sustained analgesia due to a high affinity to, and slow dissociation from, the α2 δ-1 subunits in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Additionally, it produces a lower level of central nervous system-specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), due to a low affinity to, and rapid dissociation from, the α2 δ-2 subunits in the cerebellum. Maximum plasma concentration is achieved in less than 1 hour, compared to 1 hour for pregabalin and 3 hours for gabapentin. The plasma protein binding is relatively low, at less than 25%. As with all gabapentinoids, it is also largely excreted via the kidneys in an unchanged form, and so the administration dose should also be adjusted according to renal function. The equianalgesic daily dose for 30 mg of mirogabalin is 600 mg of pregabalin and over 1,200 mg of gabapentin. The initial adult dose starts at 5 mg, given orally twice a day, and is gradually increased by 5 mg at an interval of at least a week, to 15 mg. In conclusion, mirogabalin is anticipated to be a novel, safe gabapentinoid anticonvulsant with a greater therapeutic effect for neuropathic pain in the DRG and lower ADRs in the cerebellum.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903808

ABSTRACT

Except for carbamazepine for trigeminal neuralgia, gabapentinoid anticonvulsants have been the standard for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Pregabalin, which followed gabapentin, was developed with the benefit of rapid peak blood concentration and better bioavailability. Mirogabalin besylate (DS-5565, Tarlige® ) shows greater sustained analgesia due to a high affinity to, and slow dissociation from, the α2 δ-1 subunits in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Additionally, it produces a lower level of central nervous system-specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), due to a low affinity to, and rapid dissociation from, the α2 δ-2 subunits in the cerebellum. Maximum plasma concentration is achieved in less than 1 hour, compared to 1 hour for pregabalin and 3 hours for gabapentin. The plasma protein binding is relatively low, at less than 25%. As with all gabapentinoids, it is also largely excreted via the kidneys in an unchanged form, and so the administration dose should also be adjusted according to renal function. The equianalgesic daily dose for 30 mg of mirogabalin is 600 mg of pregabalin and over 1,200 mg of gabapentin. The initial adult dose starts at 5 mg, given orally twice a day, and is gradually increased by 5 mg at an interval of at least a week, to 15 mg. In conclusion, mirogabalin is anticipated to be a novel, safe gabapentinoid anticonvulsant with a greater therapeutic effect for neuropathic pain in the DRG and lower ADRs in the cerebellum.

3.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 108-120, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835206

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of the definition of pain, pain can be divided into emotional and sensory components, which originate from potential and actual tissue damage, respectively. The pharmacologic treatment of the emotional pain component includes antianxiety drugs, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. The anti-anxiety drugs have anti-anxious, sedative, and somnolent effects. The antipsychotics are effective in patients with positive symptoms of psychosis. On the other hand, the sensory pain component can be divided into nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids are usually applied for somatic and visceral nociceptive pain, respectively; anticonvulsants and antidepressants are administered for the treatment of neuropathic pain with positive and negative symptoms, respectively. The NSAIDs, which inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase pathway, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects; however, they have a therapeutic ceiling. The adverse reactions (ADRs) of the NSAIDs include gastrointestinal problems, generalized edema, and increased bleeding tendency. The opioids, which bind to the opioid receptors, present an analgesic effect only, without anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, or ceiling effects. The ADRs of the opioids start from itching and nausea/vomiting to cardiovascular and respiratory depression, as well as constipation. The anticonvulsants include carbamazepine, related to sodium channel blockade, and gabapentin and pregabalin, related to calcium blockade. The antidepressants show their analgesic actions mainly through inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin or norepinephrine. Most drugs, except NSAIDs, need an updose titration period. The principle of polypharmacy for analgesia in case of mixed components of pain is increasing therapeutic effects while reducing ADRs, based on the origin of the pain.

4.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 245-255, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761715

ABSTRACT

Stem cells are attracting attention as a key element in future medicine, satisfying the desire to live a healthier life with the possibility that they can regenerate tissue damaged or degenerated by disease or aging. Stem cells are defined as undifferentiated cells that have the ability to replicate and differentiate themselves into various tissues cells. Stem cells, commonly encountered in clinical or preclinical stages, are largely classified into embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Recently, stem cell transplantation has been frequently applied to the treatment of pain as an alternative or promising approach for the treatment of severe osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, and intractable musculoskeletal pain which do not respond to conventional medicine. The main idea of applying stem cells to neuropathic pain is based on the ability of stem cells to release neurotrophic factors, along with providing a cellular source for replacing the injured neural cells, making them ideal candidates for modulating and possibly reversing intractable neuropathic pain. Even though various differentiation capacities of stem cells are reported, there is not enough knowledge and technique to control the differentiation into desired tissues in vivo. Even though the use of stem cells is still in the very early stages of clinical use and raises complicated ethical problems, the future of stem cells therapies is very bright with the help of accumulating evidence and technology.


Subject(s)
Adult , Adult Stem Cells , Aging , Cell Differentiation , Embryonic Stem Cells , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Musculoskeletal Pain , Nerve Growth Factors , Neuralgia , Osteoarthritis , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742212

ABSTRACT

Going back to basics prior to mentioning the use of antipsychotics in patients with pain, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) definition of pain can be summarized as an unpleasant experience, composed of sensory experience caused by actual tissue damage and/or emotional experience caused by potential tissue damage. Less used than antidepressants, antipsychotics have also been used for treating this unpleasant experience as adjuvant analgesics without sufficient evidence from research. Because recently developed atypical antipsychotics reduce the adverse reactions of extrapyramidal symptoms, such as acute dystonia, pseudo-parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia caused by typical antipsychotics, they are expected to be used more frequently in various painful conditions, while increasing the risk of metabolic syndromes (weight gain, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). Various antipsychotics have different neurotransmitter receptor affinities for dopamine (D), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenergic (α), histamine (H), and muscarinic (M) receptors. Atypical antipsychotics antagonize transient, weak D₂ receptor bindings with strong binding to the 5-HT(2A) receptor, while typical antipsychotics block long-lasting, tight D₂ receptor binding. On the contrary, antidepressants in the field of pain management also block the reuptake of similar receptors, mainly on the 5-HT and, next, on the norepinephrine, but rarely on the D receptors. Antipsychotics have been used for treating positive symptoms, such as delusion, hallucination, disorganized thought and behavior, perception disturbance, and inappropriate emotion, rather than the negative, cognitive, and affective symptoms of psychosis. Therefore, an antipsychotic may be prescribed in pain patients with positive symptoms of psychosis during or after controlling all sensory components.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms , Analgesics , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Delusions , Dopamine , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dystonia , Hallucinations , Histamine , Humans , Movement Disorders , Norepinephrine , Pain Management , Prolactin , Psychomotor Agitation , Psychotic Disorders , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A , Receptors, Neurotransmitter , Serotonin , Weight Gain
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is uncommon for patients who have received a permanent implant to remove the spinal cord stimulator (SCS) after discontinuation of medication in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) due to their completely painless state. This study evaluated CRPS patients who successfully removed their SCSs. METHODS: This 10-year retrospective study was performed on patients who had received the permanent implantation of an SCS and had removed it 6 months after discontinuation of stimulation, while halting all medications for neuropathic pain. Age, sex, duration of implantation, site and type of CRPS, and their return to work were compared between the removal and non-removal groups. RESULTS: Five (12.5%, M/F = 4/1) of 40 patients (M/F = 33/7) successfully removed the permanent implant. The mean age was younger in the removal group (27.2 ± 6.4 vs. 43.5 ± 10.7 years, P < 0.01). The mean duration of implantation in the removal group was 34.4 ± 18.2 months. Two of 15 patients (13.3%) and 3 of 25 patients (12%) who had upper and lower extremity pain, respectively, had removed the implant. The implants could be removed in 5 of 27 patients (18.5%) with CRPS type 1 (P < 0.01). All 5 patients (100%) who removed their SCS returned to work, while only 5 of 35 (14.3%) in the non-removal group did (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Even though this study had limited data, younger patients with CRPS type 1 could remove their SCSs within a 5-year period and return to work with complete pain relief.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Device Removal , Extremities , Humans , Lower Extremity , Neuralgia , Retrospective Studies , Return to Work , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Spinal Cord
7.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 103-111, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188396

ABSTRACT

Nefopam (NFP) is a non-opioid, non-steroidal, centrally acting analgesic drug that is derivative of the non-sedative benzoxazocine, developed and known in 1960s as fenazocine. Although the mechanisms of analgesic action of NFP are not well understood, they are similar to those of triple neurotransmitter (serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) reuptake inhibitors and anticonvulsants. It has been used mainly as an analgesic drug for nociceptive pain, as well as a treatment for the prevention of postoperative shivering and hiccups. Based on NFP's mechanisms of analgesic action, it is more suitable for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Intravenous administration of NFP should be given in single doses of 20 mg slowly over 15-20 min or with continuous infusion of 60-120 mg/d to minimize adverse effects, such as nausea, cold sweating, dizziness, tachycardia, or drowsiness. The usual dose of oral administration is three to six times per day totaling 90-180 mg. The ceiling effect of its analgesia is uncertain depending on the mechanism of pain relief. In conclusion, the recently discovered dual analgesic mechanisms of action, namely, a) descending pain modulation by triple neurotransmitter reuptake inhibition similar to antidepressants, and b) inhibition of long-term potentiation mediated by NMDA from the inhibition of calcium influx like gabapentinoid anticonvulsants or blockade of voltage-sensitive sodium channels like carbamazepine, enable NFP to be used as a therapeutic agent to treat neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Administration, Oral , Analgesia , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Anticonvulsants , Antidepressive Agents , Calcium , Carbamazepine , Dizziness , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hiccup , Long-Term Potentiation , Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action , N-Methylaspartate , Nausea , Nefopam , Neuralgia , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nociceptive Pain , Norepinephrine , Shivering , Sleep Stages , Sodium Channels , Sweat , Sweating , Tachycardia
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