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Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 336-346, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364946


ABSTRACT Background: To analyze the incidence of epididymal anomalies (EAs) associated to spermatic obstruction in patients with undescended testis (UT) according to testicular position and age. Materials and Methods: We studied 87 patients (110 testis) with cryptorchidism and analyzed the presence of EAs correlated with the testicular position, age and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis we considered three situations: (a) Normal pattern: the epididymis was attached to the testis at the head and tail and epididymis totally attached to the testis; (b) EAs: when the epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head (Figure-1A) and (c) EAs associated to spermatic obstruction: epididymis was attached to the testis only at the tail (Figure-1B) and when there are no visible connection between testis and epididymis (Figure-1C). We used the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-square test for contingency analysis (p <0.05). Results: The mean age of the patients was 5.18 years (SD=2.867). Of 110 testes analyzed, 14 were abdominal (12.72%); 83 inguinal (75.45%) and 13 suprascrotal (11.81%). Normal relationships between testis and epididymis were observed in 54 patients (62.1%) with no significant differences in relation to the patient's age (p=0.666). Epididymal tail disjunction was observed in 23 patients (26.44%), with no significant differences in relation to age (p=0.59). EAs associated to spermatic obstruction were observed in 16 patients (18.4%), also with no significant differences in relation to age (p=0.684). We did not observe significant correlation between the testis position and the incidence of EAs (p=0.119). We did not observe significant correlations between patency of the PV (64.7%) and incidence of EAs (p=0.742). Conclusions: Epididymal anomalies associated with spermatic obstruction are present in almost 20% of undescended testes, without significant correlation with age, testicular position and patency of the PV. This information needs to be correlated to the infertility risk of this congenital anomaly.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Cryptorchidism/complications , Testis/abnormalities , Incidence , Epididymis/abnormalities , Inguinal Canal
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 8-17, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356298


ABSTRACT Objectives: In this review we will describe the testicular vessels anatomy and the implications of these vessels in surgical treatment of high undescended testis. Material and Methods: We performed a narrative review of the literature about the role of the testicular arteries anatomy in the treatment of high undescended testis. We also studied two human testes to illustrate the testicular vascularization. Results: Each testis is irrigated by three arteries: testicular artery (internal spermatic artery), a branch of the right aorta; deferential artery (vasal artery), a branch of the inferior vesicle artery that originates from the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery and cremasteric artery (external spermatic artery), a branch of the inferior epigastric artery. There are important communications among the three arteries with visible anastomotic channels between the testicular and deferential arteries. Conclusions: Laparoscopic transection of the testicular vessels by dividing the spermatic vessels (Fowler-Stephens surgery) is safe in patients with high abdominal testis due to the great collateral vascular supply between testicular, vasal and cremasteric arteries; also, two-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy appears to carry a higher rate of success than the single stage approach.

Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord/surgery , Laparoscopy , Cryptorchidism/surgery , Arteries/surgery , Testis/surgery , Orchiopexy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1219-1227, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340041


ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a modified surgical technique for immediate intravaginal prosthesis implantation in patients undergoing orchiectomy due to testicular torsion, and to evaluate the wound healing process and patient's satisfaction. Material and methods: We prospectively analyzed 137 patients with testicular torsion admitted to our facility between April 2018 and May 2020. Twenty-five patients who underwent orchiectomy were included in this study. Fifteen had a testicular prosthesis implanted at the same time as orchiectomy using a modified intravaginal technique (summary figure) and 10 received implants 6 to 12 months after orchiectomy. Wound healing was evaluated at a minimum of four checkpoints (on days 15, 45, 90 and 180 after surgery). At the end of the study, a questionnaire was administered to measure patients' satisfaction rate. Student's t test was used for comparison of quantitative data between negative vs. positive cultures (p <0.05). The chi-square test was used to verify associations between categorical variables and immediate vs. late prosthesis implantation (p <0.05). Results: Patient's ages ranged from 13 to 23 years (mean 16.44 years). Overall time lapse from symptoms to orchiectomy ranged from 10 hours to 25 days (mean 7.92 days). Only one extrusion occurred and it happened in the late implant group. All wounds were healed in 72%, 88%, 95.8% and 100% of the cases on the 15th, 45th, 90th and 180th days after implant, respectively. At the end of the study, all patients stated they would recommend it to a friend or relative. The only patient that had prothesis extrusion asked to have it implanted again. Conclusion: There was no prosthesis extrusion using the modified intravaginal surgical technique for immediate testicular prosthesis implantation, which proved to be an easily performed and safe procedure that can avoid further reconstructive surgery in patients whose testicle was removed due to testicular torsion.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Prostheses and Implants , Testis/surgery , Orchiectomy , Retrospective Studies , Prosthesis Implantation
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 796-802, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286776


ABSTRACT Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the possible long-term protective effects of quercetin during renal warm ischemia. Materials and Methods: Male rats were allocated into 4 groups: sham (S), sham quercetin (SQ), ischemia (I), and ischemia quercetin (IQ). Groups SQ and IQ received quercetin (50mg/kg) before and after surgery. Groups I and IQ had their left renal vessels clamped for 60 minutes. All animals were euthanized four weeks after the procedure, and serum urea and creatinine levels were measured. Renal weight and volume, cortex-non-cortex area ratio (C-NC), cortical volume (CV), glomerular volumetric density (Vv[glom]), volume-weighted glomerular volume (VWGV) and number of glomeruli per kidney (N[glom]) were evaluated by stereological methods. Results were considered statistically significant when p <0.05. Results: Serum urea levels in group I increased by 10.4% in relation to group S, but no differences were observed among the other groups. The C-NC of group I was lower than those of all other groups, and group IQ had similar results to sham groups. The Vv[glom] and N[glom] of group I were lower than those of group S (33.7% and 28.3%, respectively) and group IQ had no significant difference compared to the S group. Conclusions: Quercetin was effective as a nephroprotective agent in preventing the glomerular loss observed when the kidney was subjected to warm ischemia. This suggests that this flavonoid may be used preventively in kidney surgery, when warm ischemia is necessary, such as partial nephrectomy.

Animals , Male , Rats , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Warm Ischemia , Rodentia , Kidney , Kidney Glomerulus , Nephrectomy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 36-44, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134335


ABSTRACT Objectives: This review aims to study the role of the abdominal wall in testicular migration process during the human fetal period. Materials and Methods: We performed a descriptive review of the literature about the role of the abdominal wall in testicular migration during the human fetal period. Results: The rise in intra-abdominal pressure is a supporting factor for testicular migration. This process has two phases: the abdominal and the inguinal-scrotal stages. The passage of the testis through the inguinal canal occurs very quickly between 21 and 25 WPC. Bilateral cryptorchidism in Prune Belly syndrome is explained by the impaired contraction of the muscles of the abdominal wall; mechanical obstruction due to bladder distention and structural alteration of the inguinal canal, which hampers the passage of the testis during the inguinoscrotal stage of testicular migration. Abdominal wall defects as gastroschisis and omphaloceles are associated with undescended testes in around 30 to 40% of the cases. Conclusions: Abdominal pressure wound is an auxiliary force in testicular migration. Patients with abdominal wall defects are associated with undescendend testis in more than 30% of the cases probably due to mechanical factors; the Prune Belly Syndrome has anatomical changes in the anterior abdominal wall that hinder the increase of intra-abdominal pressure which could be the cause of cryptorchidism in this syndrome.

Humans , Male , Prune Belly Syndrome , Cryptorchidism , Scrotum , Testis , Inguinal Canal
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 1021-1028, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134271


ABSTRACT Objective To study the arterial segments of ovine kidney, present a proportional volume analysis of each kidney arterial segment, and analyze arterial injuries caused by simulated partial nephrectomy of cranial pole. Materials and Methods Forty-eight ovine kidneys injected with polyester resin into the renal arteries and collecting system were used in this study. Eighteen kidneys were used to study the arterial segments and the proportional volume of each renal segment. Other 30 kidneys were submitted to superior pole resection at a distance of 1.0cm, 0.5cm, or exactly at the cranial hilar edge, just before the resin hardening. These endocasts were used to evaluate the arterial injuries caused by these different resection planes. Results Ovine renal artery divided into two (ventral and dorsal) or three segmental arteries. Dorsal segment presented higher proportional volume than ventral segment. For kidneys with three segments, the third segment was on the caudal region (caudo-ventral or caudo-dorsal segment) and presented the lowest proportional volume. None of the resected kidneys (at 1.0, 0.5 or at the cranial hilar edge) presented injury of arterial branches that irrigate non-resected region. Conclusion The segmental distribution of renal artery, the proportional volume of each segment and arterial injuries after cranial pole resection in ovine kidneys are different from what is observed in human kidneys. Meanwhile, ovine kidneys show a primary segmental division on anterior and posterior, as in humans, but different from swine. These anatomical characteristics should be considered when using ovine as animal models for renal experimental and/or training procedures.

Animals , Vascular System Injuries , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Renal Artery , Swine , Sheep , Models, Animal , Kidney/surgery
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 150-160, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989962


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the renal parenchymal area in human fetuses, providing a descriptive analysis on the renal area development by demographic factors during the second gestational trimester. Material and Methods: We analyzed 84 fetuses (44 males and 40 females), for a total of 168 renal units evaluated in terms of longitudinal length, superior pole width, inferior pole width and thickness. Renal volume was calculated by ellipsoid formula. After renal pelvis dissection, length and width were evaluated; as pelvis is free of urine, we considered thickness as 1mm. Renal pelvis volume was also calculated by ellipsoid formula. Renal parenchymal area was assessed by excluding the volume of the renal pelvis from the total renal volume. We performed the statistical analysis by simple linear regression assessing the association between the variables analyzed with the fetal age. Results: Gestational age ranged from 12 to 23 weeks post conception. Mean renal parenchymal area of the right kidney was 666.22mm3 (45.86 to 2375.35mm3) and for the left kidney was 606.76mm3 (68.63 to 2402.57mm3). No statistical difference was observed between the sides (p-value = 0.3456) or genders (p-value = 0.07429). Linear regression between renal parenchymal volume and gestational age was positive for right kidney (y = 133.74x-1479.94 / r2 = 0.4009) and left kidney (y = 149.53x-1761.59 / r2 = 0.4591). Conclusions: The linear regression analysis indicated that renal parenchymal area correlated significantly and positively with fetal age, weight and crown-rump length with no statistical differences between gender or laterality. These growth curves provide a reference for functional volume of the kidney during fetal period.

Humans , Male , Female , Fetus/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/embryology , Organ Size , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Reference Values , Gestational Age
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(5): 957-965, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892904


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate if late hormonal replacement is able to recover the prostatic tissue modified by androgenic deprivation. Materials and Methods: 24 rats were assigned into a Sham group; an androgen deficient group, submitted to bilateral orchiectomy (Orch); and a group submitted to bilateral orchiectomy followed by testosterone replacement therapy (Orch+T). After 60 days from surgery blood was collected for determination of testosterone levels and the ventral prostate was collected for quantitative and qualitative microscopic analysis. The acinar epithelium height, the number of mast cells per field, and the densities of collagen fibers and acinar lumen were analyzed by stereological methods under light microscopy. The muscle fibers and types of collagen fibers were qualitatively assessed by scanning electron microscopy and polarization microscopy. Results: Hormone depletion (in group Orch) and return to normal levels (in group Orch+T) were effective as verified by serum testosterone analysis. The androgen deprivation promoted several alterations in the prostate: the acinar epithelium height diminished from 16.58±0.47 to 11.48±0.29μm; the number of mast cells per field presented increased from 0.45±0.07 to 2.83±0.25; collagen fibers density increased from 5.83±0.92 to 24.70±1.56%; and acinar lumen density decreased from 36.78±2.14 to 16.47±1.31%. Smooth muscle was also increased in Orch animals, and type I collagen fibers became more predominant in these animals. With the exception of the densities of collagen fibers and acinar lumen, in animals receiving testosterone replacement therapy all parameters became statistically similar to Sham. Collagen fibers density became lower and acinar lumen density became higher in Orch+T animals, when compared to Sham. This is the first study to demonstrate a relation between mast cells and testosterone levels in the prostate. This cells have been implicated in prostatic cancer and benign hyperplasia, although its specific role is not understood. Conclusion: Testosterone deprivation promotes major changes in the prostate of rats. The hormonal replacement therapy was effective in reversing these alterations.

Animals , Male , Rats , Prostate/pathology , Prostate/ultrastructure , Testosterone/blood , Orchiectomy , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Androgens/deficiency , Prostate/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(4): 803-809, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794693


ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies.

Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Testis/abnormalities , Cryptorchidism/complications , Epididymis/abnormalities , Fetus/embryology , Testicular Hydrocele/complications , Testis/embryology , Prospective Studies , Gestational Age , Cryptorchidism/surgery , Cryptorchidism/embryology , Epididymis/surgery , Testicular Hydrocele/surgery
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(3): 603-607, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785742


ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate the protective effect of L-Glutamine in animals undergone to ventral radiation when the target organ is not the prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into groups of 10 animals each: Controls (C), maintained under standard conditions and not exposed to radiation, Radiated group (R) undergone to abdominal radiation only and Radiated plus supplemented by L-glutamine group (R+G). The animals of group R+G were supplemented with L-glutamine at the beginning of the experiment until death in the 22nd day. The ventral prostate was dissected and processed for morphometrical analysis. The epithelial height, collagen density and acinar area were objectively assessed in histological sections. Results Epithelial height was significantly reduced in R group in comparison to C group (p= 0.005). However, there was no statistical difference between the C and R+G groups. Collagen surface density in the C and R groups were not statistically different, but a significant difference was observed when comparing groups R+G and R (p= 0.040). The R+G group values did not differ significantly from C group. The acinar prostate area of group R was similar to that of C (p= 0.971), but in R+G it was significantly reduced when compared with the C (p= 0.038) and R (p= 0.001) groups. Conclusions Pelvic radiation promotes structural modifications in ventral prostate of rats, which can be reduced by L-Glutamine.

Animals , Male , Prostate/radiation effects , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/prevention & control , Radiation-Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Glutamine/administration & dosage , Prostate/drug effects , Prostate/pathology , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/pathology , Random Allocation , Administration, Oral , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen/analysis , Collagen/radiation effects , Rats, Wistar
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(3): 558-563, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785741


ABSTRACT Objectives To confirm if a real inner descend of testis occurs, correlating the testicular position with fetal parameters and analyzing the position of the testes relative to the internal ring. Material and Methods Twenty nine human fetuses between 13 and 23 weeks post conception (WPC) were studied. The fetuses were carefully dissected with the aid of a stereoscopic lens with 16/25X magnification and testicular position observed. With the aid of a digital pachymeter the distance between the lower pole of the kidney and the upper extremity of the testis (DK-T) was measured to show the position of the testis. During the dissection we also indicated the position of the testes relative to the internal ring. Means were statistically compared using simple linear regression and the paired T-test. Results The 58 testes had abdominal position. The DK-T in the right side measured between 0.17 and 1.82cm (mean=0.79cm) and in the left side it was between 0.12 and 1.84cm (mean=0.87cm), without statistically differences (p=0.0557). The linear regression analysis indicated that DK-T in both sides correlated significantly and positively with fetal age. All fetuses with more than 20 WPC, heavier than 350g and with CRL over 22cm had a greater distance than the average DK-T. We xobserved that the 58 testis remains adjacent to the internal ring throughout the period studied. Conclusions The testes remains adjacent to the internal ring throughout the period studied, indicating that there is no real trans-abdominal testicular descent during the second gestational trimester.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Testis/anatomy & histology , Testis/embryology , Fetus/anatomy & histology , Fetus/embryology , Linear Models , Gestational Age , Crown-Rump Length , Fetal Weight , Cryptorchidism/embryology , Abdomen/anatomy & histology , Abdomen/embryology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/embryology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 569-575, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755856



To evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets on body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and testicular morphology in rats seven months old.

Materials and Methods:

Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), HF-SP (high fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). The rats were fed for 16 weeks. Blood samples, testes and genital fat deposits were collected for analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test, considering p<0.05 as statistically significant.


Different high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (p<0.0001). The genital fat deposits were higher in the high-fat groups (HF-S, HF-P, HF-SP) (p=0.0004). Regarding serum parameters, the animals in the HF-S and HF-SP groups presented hyperglycemia (p=0.0060), hyperinsulinemia (p=0.0030) and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.0021). All of the hyperlipidemic groups showed hyperleptinemia (p=0.0019). Concerning the testis, the HF-S group showed a reduction on the seminiferous epithelium height (p=0.0003) and cell proliferation (p=0.0450). Seminiferous tubule diameter was lower in the HF-SP than in the SC group (p=0.0010).


The high fat diet administration, independent of the lipid quality, promotes overweight. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids (lard) alters the carbohydrate metabolism and the testicular morphology with reductions of seminiferous epithelium height, seminiferous tubule diameter and cell proliferation which could be related to a disturbance of spermatogenesis.


Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Testis/anatomy & histology , Testis/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Leptin/blood , Organ Size , Overweight/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Spermatogenesis , Time Factors , Testosterone/blood , Triglycerides/blood
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(6): 722-729, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735984


Objectives The objective of this review is to study the role of the gubernaculum in the testicular migration process during the human fetal period. Materials and Methods We performed a descriptive review of the literature about the role of the gubernaculum in testicular migration during the human fetal period. Results In the first phase of testicular migration, the gubernaculum enlarges to hold the testis near the groin and in the second phase the gubernaculum migrates across the pubic region to reach the scrotum. The proximal portion of the gubernaculum is attached to the testis and epididymis and the presence of multiple insertions in the distal gubernaculum is extremely rare. The presence of muscle and nerves in the human gubernaculum is very poor. The gubernaculum of patients with cryptorchidism has more fibrous tissue and less collagen and when the patients are submitted to hormonal treatment, the gubernaculum components alter significantly. Conclusions The gubernaculum presents significant structural modifications during testicular migration in human fetuses. .

Humans , Male , Fetus/embryology , Scrotum/embryology , Testis/embryology , Collagen/analysis , Cryptorchidism/embryology , Cryptorchidism/physiopathology , Fetal Development/physiology , Fetus/physiology , Gestational Age , Scrotum/physiology , Testis/physiology
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.3): 55-59, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726246


PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to analyze the bladder wall modifications after a chronic treatment with high doses of corticosterone in prepubertal rats. METHODS: This study included 26 male rats assigned into four groups: T30 was treated with corticosterone until 29 days of age and killed at day 30, while T65 group received the same treatment but was killed at day 65. Each group had its own control group (C30 and C65). For treated animals, daily intraperitoneal injections of corticosterone (20 mg/Kg) were administered between 7th and 29th day of life. Bladders were removed and collagen, smooth muscle, elastic fibers system, vascular density and epithelium were analyzed by morphometrical methods, immunofluorescence, and biochemistry. RESULTS: Vascular density in lamina propria was reduced by 40% (p<0.05) in group T65. Collagen organization was altered in T30 and T65, although total collagen concentration was unchanged. The T65 group had an increase in elastic system fibers. There was no difference in epithelial height and cell density between the groups. Concerning the smooth muscle fibers density we observed a 19% increase (p<0.05) in the T65 group. CONCLUSION: Prepubertal administration of corticosterone induces structural modifications in the bladder of rats in a medium term analysis. .

Animals , Male , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Corticosterone/pharmacology , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Age Factors , Collagen/analysis , Collagen/drug effects , Elastic Tissue/pathology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Urinary Bladder/blood supply , Urinary Bladder/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.3): 44-48, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726249


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of leptin and its receptor in histological sections of prostate tumors, and their association with prognostic factors. METHODS: A total of 532 surgical specimens from prostate cancer were studied. After histopathological diagnosis, the samples were included in tissue microarrays containing cores from tumor and non-tumor (benign prostatic hyperplasia) areas. These were immunostained with anti-leptin and anti-leptin-receptor antibodies. Objective and subjective analyses were performed. Student's-t-test and ANOVA were used to compare mean values, and linear regression was used to evaluate the correlation between histological results and prognostic indicators. RESULTS: Leptin receptor expression was reduced in tumors with a positive surgical margin, urethral margin involvement, and seminal vesicles invasion. Further, there was a negative correlation between the expression of leptin receptor in tumor areas and the sum of prognostic factors, suggesting that leptin receptor may predict the aggressiveness of disease. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that leptin receptor expression is a potential prognostic factor for PCa. Further investigation is needed to support the use of leptin receptor as a novel biomarker, although leptin itself does not seem to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. .

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Leptin/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Leptin/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Disease Progression , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Seminal Vesicles/pathology , Tissue Array Analysis
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(6): 853-860, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699126


Purpose The objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the ureter in normal and anencephalic human fetuses. Materials and Methods We studied 16 ureters from 8 human fetuses without congenital anomalies aged 16 to 27 weeks post-conception (WPC) and 14 ureters from 7 anencephalic fetuses aged 19 to 33 WPC. The ureters were dissected and embedded in paraffin, from which 5 µm thick sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome, to quantify smooth muscle cells (SMC) and to determine the ureteral lumen area, thickness and ureteral diameter. The samples were also stained with Weigert Resorcin Fucsin (to study elastic fibers) and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to study collagen. Stereological analysis of collagen, elastic system fibers and SMC were performed on the sections. Data were expressed as volumetric density (Vv-%). The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done using the Image Pro and Image J programs. For biochemical analysis, samples were fixed in acetone, and collagen concentrations were expressed as micrograms of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired t-test (p < 0.05). Results The ureteral epithelium was well preserved in the anencephalic and control groups. We did not observe differences in the transitional epithelium in the anencephalic and control groups. There was no difference in elastic fibers and total collagen distribution in normal and anencephalic fetuses. SMC concentration did not differ significantly (p = 0.1215) in the anencephalic and control group. The ureteral lumen area (p = 0.0047), diameter (p = 0.0024) and thickness (p = 0.0144) were significantly smaller in anencephalic fetuses. Conclusions Fetuses with anencephaly showed smaller diameter, area and thickness. These differences could indicate ...

Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Anencephaly/pathology , Fetus/ultrastructure , Ureter/abnormalities , Case-Control Studies , Collagen/analysis , Elastic Tissue/embryology , Immunohistochemistry , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Statistics, Nonparametric , Ureter/embryology , Ureter/ultrastructure
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(3): 424-431, May/June/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680101


Objective To assess the morphological changes of penile vascular structures and the corpus cavernosum area in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Materials and Methods Twenty male rabbits (2 months old) were divided into two groups with 10 rabbits each, the control group (CG) and the diabetic group (DG). The animals from DG received an intravenous injection of alloxan (100mg/kg) to induce the diabetes. Ten weeks after the induction of diabetes, all animals were euthanized. Two fragments of the penile shaft were harvested and samples were processed and paraffin embedded. Sections (5µm) were cut and stained for histological and immunohistochemical markers. Results Nuclear protrusion toward the lumen, and cytoplasmic vacuolization were observed in the tunica intima of the dorsal artery of the penis in DG. The thicknesses of the tunica media increased significantly in DG (p = 0.0350). It was also observed a significant increase in the area of the tunica media (p = 0.0179). There was no significant change in smooth muscle cell density in the tunica media of the dorsal artery of the penis (p = 0.0855). The collagen fiber pattern of the tunica adventitia of the dorsal artery of the penis was different between the control and diabetic groups. There was a significant decrease in the area occupied by the cavernous sinuses in DG (p = 0.0013). Conclusion Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits promotes important changes in penile vascular structures, thereby decreasing blood supply and affecting penile hemodynamics, leading to erectile dysfunction. .

Animals , Humans , Male , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Penis/blood supply , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Alloxan , Blood Glucose/analysis , Constriction, Pathologic/complications , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Hemodynamics , Hypertrophy/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Penile Erection , Vascular Diseases/complications
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(2): 240-247, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676261


Objectives Report the incidence and structure of testicular appendices (TAs) in patients with cryptorchidism, comparing their incidence with epididymal anomalies (EA) and patency of the vaginal process (PVP) and analyzes the structure of TAs. Material and Methods We studied 72 testes of patients with cryptorchidism (average of 6 years), and 8 testes from patients with hydroceles (average of 9 years). We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and PVP and prevalence and histology of the TAs. The appendices of 10 patients with cryptorchidism and 8 with hydrocele were dissected and embedded in paraffin and stained with Masson trichrome; Weigert and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to observe collagen. The stereological analysis was done with the software Image Pro and Image J, using a grid to determine volumetric densities (Vv). Means were statistically compared using the ANOVA and unpaired T test (p < 0.05). Results Of the 72 testes with cryptorchidism, 20 (27.77%) presented EA, 41 (56.9%) had PVP and 44 (61.1%) had TAs. Of the 44 testes with cryptorchidism and appendices, 30 (68.18%) presented PVP and 11 (25%) presented EA. There was no alteration of the epithelium in the appendices of patients in both groups. Stereological analysis documented the prevalence of ESFs (mean of 1.48%), prevalence of veins (mean of 10.11%) and decrease (p = 0.14) of SMCs in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism (mean = 4.93%). Collagen III prevailed in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism. Conclusion The testicular appendices presented significant structural alteration in the patients with cryptorchidism, indicating that TAs present a structural remodeling. .

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , Cryptorchidism/pathology , Testis/pathology , Analysis of Variance , Collagen/analysis , Epididymis/abnormalities , Epididymis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Testicular Hydrocele/pathology , Testis/abnormalities