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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5533-5544, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921735

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthi Fructus, a unique Chinese and Tibetan medicinal plant with both edible and medical values, has high potential of cultivation and development. The resources of Phyllanthi Fructus in China are rich, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Sichuan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, etc. Phyllanthi Fructus is widely used in the clinical practice of Chinese medicine and plays an important role in Tibetan medicine, Uyghur medicine, Yi medicine, and Mongolian medicine. Phyllanthi Fructus mainly contains phenolic acids,tannins, terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, flavonoids, amino acids and other compounds. Modern pharmacological studies show that Phyllanthi Fructus has antioxidant, anticancer, blood lipid-lowering, liver protective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulatory activities. In this paper, the research status of Phyllanthi Fructus was reviewed from the aspects of herbal textual research,chemical composition, and pharmacological action. The quality markers(Q-markers) of Phyllanthi Fructus were predicted and analyzed from the aspects of biogenic pathway, specificity and measurability of chemical components, efficacy, properties, new clinical uses, drug-food homology, and transformation of polyphenols. The results will provide a scientific basis for the quality control, quality evaluation, and standard formulation of Phyllanthi Fructus.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Quality Control
2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 147-156, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906467

ABSTRACT

Objective:The differences of chemical compositions and pharmacological activities between the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus were investigated by chemical analysis and <italic>in vitro</italic> test to explore the effect of the core on the quality of this medicinal material. Method:Literature, medicinal material standards and market research on the appearance of Phyllanthi Fructus were conducted based on existing databases. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-electrostatic field orbital trap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was used to identify the constituents of the core and pulp. The analysis was performed on Thermo Scientific Accucore C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.6 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-methanol (B) for gradient elution (0-25 min, 5%B; 25-30 min, 5%-95%B; 30-35 min, 95%-5%B), the flow rate was 0.2 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, heating electrospray ionization (HESI) was adopted with positive and negative ion modes, and the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 500. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid and ellagic acid in the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus. Analysis was performed on Welchrom C<sub>18</sub> column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase of methanol (A)-0.05% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-6 min, 5%A; 6-15 min, 5%-7%A; 15-20 min, 7%-15%A; 20-25 min, 15%-21%A; 25-31 min, 21%-22%A; 31-41 min, 22%A; 41-47 min, 22%-28%A; 47-51 min, 28%-32%A; 51-57 min, 32%-38%A; 57-70 min, 38%-45%A; 70-80 min, 45%-65%A; 80-85 min, 65%-5%A), the detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. The antibacterial effects of the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus on <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> and <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> were investigated by filter paper method, and their antioxidant activities were compared by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Result:A total of 47 compounds were identified in the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus, mainly including tannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, organic acids, saccharides and glycosides, most of which were concentrated in the pulp, and the fatty acids in the core accounted for a higher proportion. The contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid, ellagic acid and other phenolic compounds in the pulp of 20 batches of Phyllanthi Fructus were much higher than those in the core. The results of antibacterial test showed that the core of Phyllanthi Fructus with different concentrations had no antimicrobial effect. The DPPH radical scavenging test showed that the antioxidant activity of the core [half-inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>)=199.632 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>] was much less than that of the pulp (IC<sub>50</sub>=12.688 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>). Conclusion:From the perspectives of polyphenol content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities, it is scientific to use Phyllanthi Fructus pulp in ancient and modern times, which may be to remove the secondary parts of Phyllanthi Fructus, so as to enhance the actual utilization rate and therapeutic effect of medicinal materials. In view of the large proportion of the core of Phyllanthi Fructus and its high content of fatty acids and other components, whether or not to use it remains to be further studied in clinical application.

3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1034-1042, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879001

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthus emblica is a kind of traditional medicine and medicinal and edible plant, with rich variety resources and high development value. It is a key poverty alleviation variety in China at present. As P. emblica processing industry is rising gradually in recent years, in order to fully develop and utilize its industrial resources, this paper systematically introduces current comprehensive development and utilization of P. emblica, discusses the problems in P. emblica processing industry, and puts forward comprehensive development and utilization strategies and industrial models in terms of cultivation, breeding, grading, quality evaluation and waste recycling, so as to provide a certain reference for promoting the high-quality development of P. emblica industry in China.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Phyllanthus emblica , Plant Breeding , Plant Extracts
4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 143-151, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873231

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the main chemical components in the supernatant and precipitate of Sanajon oral liquid, so as to provide basis for establishing its quality standard and precipitation control technology. Method:UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE was used to analyze the chemical components in the supernatant and precipitate of this oral liquid. The analysis was performed on Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-1 min, 2%B; 1-2 min, 2%-5%B; 2-4 min, 5%-7%B; 4-6 min, 7%-24%B; 6-10 min, 24%-42%B; 10-12 min, 42%-54%B; 12-15 min, 54%-76%B; 15-18 min, 76%-100%B), the flow rate was set to 0.3 mL·min-1, the column temperature was 30 ℃, the injection volume was 2 µL. The mass spectrographic analysis was used with electrospray ionization (ESI), sample MS data was acquired by time-dependent MSE in negative ion mode, the collection range was m/z 50-1 200 (supernatant) and m/z 50-3 000 (precipitate). Then the chemical constituents were identified by the information of retention time, accurate relative molecular mass and secondary mass spectrum fragment. Result:Totally 61 compounds were identified in the supernatant, including tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, etc. Totally 15 compounds were identified in the precipitate, including tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. Conclusion:The hydrolyzed tannin of Sanajon oral liquid may be the potential material basis of its precipitate, and its precipitate is likely to be a complex precipitate mainly composed of ellagic acid and tanned red. The established UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE can quickly and comprehensively analyze the chemical composition of Sanajon oral liquid, which can provide a scientific basis for the researches of its material basis, precipitation mechanism and quality control.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 45-53, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780559

ABSTRACT

Plant polyphenols have a wide range of pharmacological activities and application prospects. Liquid polyphenol preparations have special physical phases and complex chemical compositions, with problems such as poor stability and easy precipitation during production and marketing. Taking the multi-precipitation mechanism of plant polyphenol liquid preparations as an example,we discuss the chemistry and composition of the precipitation, how it forms, whether precipitationcan be controlled, and the interaction law of three precipitation approaches. An unstable mechanism model is proposed where hydrolyzed tannin hydrolysis and catechin non-enzymatic oxidative polymerization repeatedly induces associative colloid aggregation and precipitation. This study explains the complex physicochemical changes in polyphenol solutions and the microcosmic mechanism of instability in the induced system and proposes a steady state reconstruction of liquid polyphenol preparation consistent with the common law of precipitation and control. It has scientific significance for promoting the development and manufacture of high quality liquid polyphenol preparations.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 737-745, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780158

ABSTRACT

Ellagic acid is ubiquitous in plants and is considered as a potential candidate for antioxidant and antineoplastic drugs. However, ellagic acid has poor solubility and precipitates easily even after initial solubilization. Improvement of its bioavailability has been a concern of pharmaceutical industry. It was found that storage in Sanlejiang oral liquid at low temperature keeps its stability. Ellagic acid is anomalous in a way that is easily soluble at low temperatures but precipitates at high temperatures. In order to reveal the mechanism of this phenomenon and develop precipitation prevention and control strategies, ellagic acid in Sanlejiang oral liquid was stored at high, medium and low temperatures for three months. The changes of composition and phase state of the whole system during storage were systematically tracked and studied by means of precipitation amount or morphology, HPLC chemical profile of supernatant versus precipitates, and comprehensive characterization of physical phase state. The results show that the amount of precipitation at low temperature is only 1/3 of that at normal room temperature. As the temperature rises, the sedimentation increases sharply. HPLC analyses of supernatant versus precipitates revealed that ellagic acid precipitation originated from two ways: chemical degradation and physical deposition. The chemical sedimentation is related to the hydrolysis of tannins under acidic condition, forming chebulagic acid and corilagin. Physical sedimentation is related to the decrease of the association degree and viscosity of polyphenol colloids when temperature rises. This study elucidated the stability mechanism of ellagic acid in liquid preparations of TCM, and provided the mechanistic basis for efficient utilization and solution prepartion of ellagic acid.

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