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Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 263-274, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364963


ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common oncologic disease among men. Radical treatment with curative intent provides good oncological results for PCa survivors, although definitive therapy is associated with significant number of serious side-effects. In modern-era of medicine tissue-sparing techniques, such as focal HIFU, have been proposed for PCa patients in order to provide cancer control equivalent to the standard-of-care procedures while reducing morbidities and complications. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the available evidence about focal HIFU therapy as a primary treatment for localized PCa. Material and methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of focal HIFU therapy in the MEDLINE database (PROSPERO: CRD42021235581). Articles published in the English language between 2010 and 2020 with more than 50 patients were included. Results: Clinically significant in-field recurrence and out-of-field progression were detected to 22% and 29% PCa patients, respectively. Higher ISUP grade group, more positive cores at biopsy and bilateral disease were identified as the main risk factors for disease recurrence. The most common strategy for recurrence management was definitive therapy. Six months after focal HIFU therapy 98% of patients were totally continent and 80% of patients retained sufficient erections for sexual intercourse. The majority of complications presented in the early postoperative period and were classified as low-grade. Conclusions: This review highlights that focal HIFU therapy appears to be a safe procedure, while short-term cancer control rate is encouraging. Though, second-line treatment or active surveillance seems to be necessary in a significant number of patients.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal/methods , Treatment Outcome , Salvage Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 54-66, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356296


ABSTRACT Introduction: The therapeutic role of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer (PCa) is unknown due to absence of randomized trials. Objective: to present a critical review on the therapeutic benefits of PLND in high risk localized PCa patients. Materials and Methods: A search of the literature on PLND was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Medline database. Articles obtained regarding diagnostic imaging and sentinel lymph node dissection, PLND extension, impact of PLND on survival, PLND in node positive "only" disease and PLND surgical risks were critically reviewed. Results: High-risk PCa commonly develops metastases. In these patients, the possibility of presenting lymph node disease is high. Thus, extended PLND during radical prostatectomy may be recommended in selected patients with localized high-risk PCa for both accurate staging and therapeutic intent. Although recent advances in detecting patients with lymph node involvement (LNI) with novel imaging and sentinel node dissection, extended PLND continues to be the most accurate method to stage lymph node disease, which may be related to the number of nodes removed. However, extended PLND increases surgical time, with potential impact on perioperative complications, hospital length of stay, rehospitalization and healthcare costs. Controversy persists on its therapeutic benefit, particularly in patients with high node burden. Conclusion: The impact of PLND on biochemical recurrence and PCa survival is unclear yet. Selection of patients may benefit from extended PLND but the challenge remains to identify them accurately. Only prospective randomized study would answer the precise role of PLND in high-risk pelvis confined PCa patients.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Pelvis , Prostatectomy , Prospective Studies , Lymph Nodes/surgery
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 984-992, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134246


ABSTRACT Background Focal therapy (FT) for localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is raising interest. New technological mpMRI-US guided FT devices have never been compared with the previous generation of ultrasound-only guided devices. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed prospectively recorded data of men undergoing FT for localized low- or intermediate-risk PCa with US- (Ablatherm®-2009 to 2014) or mpMRI-US (Focal One®-from 2014) guided HIFU. Follow-up visits and data were collected using internationally validated questionnaires at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results We included n=88 US-guided FT HIFU and n=52 mpMRI-US guided FT HIFU respectively. No major baseline differences were present except higher rates of Gleason 3+4 for the mpMRI-US group. No major differences were present in hospital stay (p=0.1), catheterization time (p=0.5) and complications (p=0.2) although these tended to be lower in the mpMRI-US group (6.8% versus 13.2% US FT group). At 3 months mpMRI-US guided HIFU had significantly lower urine leak (5.1% vs. 15.9%, p=0.04) and a lower drop in IIEF scores (2 vs. 4.2, p=0.07). Of those undergoing 12-months control biopsy in the mpMRI-US-guided HIFU group, 26% had residual cancer in the treated lobe. Conclusion HIFU FT guided by MRI-US fusion may allow improved functional outcomes and fewer complications compared to US- guided HIFU FT alone. Further analysis is needed to confirm benefits of mpMRI implementation at a longer follow-up and on a larger cohort of patients.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Treatment Outcome , Prostate-Specific Antigen
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(supl.1): 50-61, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134281


ABSTRACT Purpose: Propose an approach of prostate cancer (PCa) patients during COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: We conducted a review of current literature related to surgical and clinical management of patients during COVID-19 crisis paying special attention to oncological ones and especially those suffering from PCa. Based on these publications and current urological guidelines, a manual to manage PCa patients is suggested. Results: Patients suffering from cancer are likely to develop serious complications from COVID-19 disease together with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the management of oncological patients should be taken into special consideration and most of the treatments postponed. In case the procedure is not deferrable, it should be adapted to the current situation. While the shortest radiotherapy (RT) regimens should be applied, surgical procedures must undergo the following recommendations proposed by main surgical associations. PCa prognosis is generally favourable and therefore one can safely delay most of the biopsies up to 6 months without interfering with survival outcomes in the vast majority of cases. In the same way, most of the localised PCa patients are suitable for active surveillance (AS) or hormonal therapy until local definitive treatment could be reconsidered. In metastatic as well as castration resistant PCa stages, adding androgen receptor targeted agents (abiraterone, apalutamide, darolutamide or enzalutamide) to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) could be considered in high risk patients. On the contrary, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and Radium-223 must be avoided with regard to the consequence of hematologic toxicity and risk of COVID-19 infection because of immunodepression. Conclusions: Most of the biopsies should be delayed while AS is advised in those patients with low risk PCa. ADT allows us to defer definitive local treatment in many cases of intermediate and high risk PCa. In regard to metastatic and castration resistant PCa, combination therapies with abiraterone, apalutamide, darolutamide or enzalutamide could be considered. Chemotherapy, Radium-223 and immunotherapy are discouraged.

Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Urology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1094-1104, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056337


ABSTRACT Introduction: The health-related QoL is a patient-centered evaluation covering several aspects. This evaluation seems to be particularly important in patients submitted to radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion with ileal conduit (IC) or a neobladder (NB). Objective: Review all recent data comparing QoL outcomes after radical cystectomy with NB and IC diversions. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic search in PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement in December 2018. All articles published from January 01, 2012 to December 31, 2018, were included. A study was considered relevant if it compared QoL outcomes using validated questionnaires (EORTC QLQ C30, FACT-G, FACT-BL, FACT-VCI, and BCI). Evidence Synthesis: In 11 included studies, a total of 1389 participants were accounted (730 NB and 659 IC cases). The studies were conducted in 8 different countries, two were prospective, and none was randomized. There were two studies favoring results with a neobladder, 3 with incontinent diversion and 6 with no differences. The EORTC-QLQ-C30 was the most used instrument (5 studies) followed by FACT VCI and BCI (3 studies each). Given the heterogeneity of data and lack of prospective studies, a meta-analysis was not performed. Conclusion: No superiority of one urinary diversion was characterized. It seems that the choice must be individualized with an extensive preoperative orientation of the patient and their relatives. That will probably influence how the patient accepts the new condition.

Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life/psychology , Urinary Diversion/rehabilitation , Cystectomy/rehabilitation , Time Factors , Urinary Diversion/methods , Urinary Diversion/psychology , Cystectomy/methods , Cystectomy/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(1): 14-21, Jan.-Feb. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892957


ABSTRACT Background Radical prostatectomy (RP) has been used as the main primary treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) for many years with excellent oncologic results. However, approximately 20-40% of those patients has failed to RP and presented biochemical recurrence (BCR). Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) has been the pivotal tool for recurrence diagnosis, but there is no consensus about the best PSA threshold to define BCR until this moment. The natural history of BCR after surgical procedure is highly variable, but it is important to distinguish biochemical and clinical recurrence and to find the correct timing to start multimodal treatment strategy. Also, it is important to understand the role of each clinical and pathological feature of prostate cancer in BCR, progression to metastatic disease and cancer specific mortality (CSM). Review design A simple review was made in Medline for articles written in English language about biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Objective To provide an updated assessment of BCR definition, its meaning, PCa natural history after BCR and the weight of each clinical/pathological feature and risk group classifications in BCR, metastatic disease and CSM.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Prostatectomy , Risk Factors , Disease-Free Survival , Disease Progression
Rev. chil. cir ; 63(2): 217-222, abr. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-582977


Radical laparosocpic prostatectomy (RLP) is an attractive therapeutic modality for localized prostate cancer. The results obtained with this technique are similar to those obtained with open radical prostatectomy, which continues to be the gold standard for the treatment of prostate cancer. The surgical access for RLP can be extra-peritoneal or trans-peritoneal. The advantages of laparoscopy are lower bleeding rates, less need for transfusion and shorter recuperation time and hospital stay. The oncological results of RLP are similar, but in any case better, that those obtained with open retropubic radical prostatectomy. Recent reports raised the concern that laparoscopic prostatectomy could have higher rates of relapse of cancer. However this opinion is questionable. RLP is a difficult technique and should be performed by experienced teams. Robot assistance facilitates the procedure and could improve functional and oncological results. Therefore RLP is nowadays an alternative to traditional retropubic prostatectomy.

La Prostatectomia radical laparoscópica (PRL) se ha convertido en una técnica atractiva para el tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer de próstata localizado. Si bien, los resultados actuales son inicialmente comparables a la prostatectomia radical abierta, es importante mencionar que la tendencia quirúrgica en cáncer de próstata, se ha modificado a pesar de que no hay estudios que confirmen la superioridad del método endoscópico y hoy, el estándar dorado sigue siendo la prostatectomia radical abierta. Dos rutas de acceso quirúrgico pueden ser utilizadas para la realización de PRL, la vía extraperitoneal y la transperitoneal. Un menor sangrado y menor tasa de transfusión, así como, tiempo de hospitalización y recuperación más cortos, son ventajas incuestionables para los procedimientos laparoscópicos. Los resultados oncológicos y funcionales de la prostatectomia laparoscópica son hoy en día comparables, pero en ningún caso mejores que la técnica retropúbica abierta estándar. Recientemente, Hu y colaboradores, en base a una revisión de cerca de 3.000 pacientes tratados en los Estados Unidos, plantean la posibilidad de que los pacientes tratados con prostatectomia laparoscópica (pura o asistida por robot), pudiesen tener mayor riesgo de recurrencia de la enfermedad. Esta es una posición discutible, ya que el análisis, a pesar de ser extenso es limitado para establecer conclusiones finales en el tema. Es importante recordar que la PRL sigue siendo una intervención técnicamente difícil y debiera ser realizada en centros seleccionados con equipos experimentados. La prostatectomía laparoscópica asistida por Robot, facilita el procedimiento y en suma, pareciera mejorar los resultados oncológicos y funcionales. La PRL es hoy en día una alternativa válida a la prostatectomía retropúbica tradicional, con ciertas ventajas adicionales.

Humans , Male , Adult , Laparoscopy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatectomy/methods , Robotics , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 37(2): 213-222, Mar.-Apr. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-588994


PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of prostate cancer control and complication rates, in the elderly, after focal therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June 1997 and March 2000, patients with localized prostate cancer were included into a focal therapy protocol. Inclusion criteria were: PSA < 10 ng/mL, < 3 positive biopsies with only 1 lobe involved, clinical stage < T2a, Gleason score < 7 (3+4), negative CT scan and bone scan. Hemi-ablation of the prostate was performed with the Ablatherm(R) device. Survival, complication rates and urinary continence were evaluated. Control biopsies were performed at 1 year. Treatment failure was defined as a positive biopsy or need for salvage therapy. RESULTS: Twelve patients with a mean age 70 years were included. Median follow-up was 10 years. Control prostate biopsies were negative in 11/12 (91 percent) patients. Overall survival was 83 percent (10/12) and cancer specific survival was 100 percent at 10 years. Two patients died from other causes. Recurrence free survival was 90 percent (95 percent CI; 0.71-1) at 5 years, and 38 percent (95 percent CI; 0.04-0.73) at 10 years. Five patients had salvage therapy with repeat HIFU (n = 1) or hormonal therapy (n = 4) and all salvage patients were alive at 10 years. No patients developed lymph node or bone metastasis. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. International Prostate Symptom Score was stable at 1 year. Complications included two urinary tract infections and one episode of acute urinary retention. CONCLUSIONS: Hemi-prostate ablation with HIFU can be safely performed in selected elderly patients with adequate long-term cancer control and low complication rates. Results from larger prospective studies using improved imaging techniques and extensive biopsy protocols are awaited.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal , Feasibility Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 36(4): 385-400, July-Aug. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-562105


Laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represent novel approaches in urological surgery. To perform a review of the literature in order describe the current status of LESS and NOTES in Urology. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-02 to 15-05-09. Search terms included single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. A total of 412 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 64 manuscripts were selected based in their urological content. The manuscript features subheadings for experimental and clinical studies, as NOTES-LESS is a new surgical technique and its future evolution will probably rely in initial verified feasibility. A subheading for reviews presents information regarding common language and consensus for the techniques. The issue of complications published in clinical series and the future needs of NOTES-LESS, are also presented.

Humans , Male , Laparoscopy/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Robotics/methods , Treatment Outcome , Urologic Surgical Procedures
Int. braz. j. urol ; 36(2): 129-140, Mar.-Apr. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548372


PURPOSE: To review the literature and present a current picture of the evolution in radical prostatectomy from the laparoscopic point of view. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive Medline literature search. Articles obtained regarding laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and our experience at Institut Montsouris were used for reassessing anatomical and technical issues in radical prostatectomy. RESULTS: LRP nuances were reassessed by surgical teams in order to verify possible weaknesses in their performance. Our basic approach was to carefully study the anatomy and pioneer open surgery descriptions in order to standardized and master a technique. The learning curve is presented in terms of an objective evaluation of outcomes for cancer control and functional results. In terms of technique-outcomes, there are several key elements in radical prostatectomy, such as dorsal vein control-apex exposure and nerve sparing with particular implications in oncological and functional results. Major variations among the surgical teams' performance and follow-up prevented objective comparisons in radical prostatectomy. The remarkable evolution of LRP needs to be supported by comprehensive results. CONCLUSIONS: Radical prostatectomy is a complex surgical operation with difficult objectives. Surgical technique should be standardized in order to allow an adequate and reliable performance in all settings, keeping in mind that cancer control remains the primary objective. Reassessing anatomy and a return to basics in surgical technique is the means to improve outcomes and overcome the difficult task of the learning curve, especially in minimally access urological surgery.

Humans , Male , Laparoscopy/methods , Prostate/surgery , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Robotics/methods , Prostatectomy/trends , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. cir ; 61(1): 52-58, feb. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-523056


Background: Laparoscopic prostatectomy is one of the standard treatments for localized prostate cancer. Aim: To report our experience with extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (ELRP). Material and Methods: Prospective recording of 310 ELRP performed between 2001 and 2005. The series was divided chronologically in three groups. Group 1 was formed by the first 100 operated patients and groups 2 and 3 by subsequent series of 100 subjects, to show the learning curve. ELRP was performed using an anterograde technique, placing five trocars. Results: Median age of patients was 62 years. No differences in the clinical data of patients in the different groups were observed. Median prostate specific antigen was 13.3ng/ml. One hundred eighty patients (60 percent)had a Gleason score of 2 to 6: 80 patients (25 percent) had a score of 7 and 50 patients(15 percent) had a score of 8 to 10. Two hundred fourteen patients (69 percent) were in clinical stage Tic, 62 patients (20 percent) were in stage T2a and 34 patients (11 percent) were in stage T2b. Surgical times were 185, 139 and 134 min in groups 1,2 and 3 respectively (p < 0.05). Blood transfusions were required in 20, 22 and 3 percent of patients in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The figures for blood loss were 624, 451 and 268 ce, respectively. Positive surgical margins were observed in 24, 9 and 12 percent of patients in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Rectal injuries occurred in 9, 2 and none patient of groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Urinary fistula occurred in 4, 1 and no patient of groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Late complications such as bladder neck stricture and incontinence decreased in consecutive groups. Conclusions: ELRP is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of localized prostate cancer, but it has a learning curve to reduce the incidence of complications.

Objetivo: La Prostatectomía Radical Laparoscópica Extraperitoneal (PRLE) es un procedimiento difícil con una curva de aprendizaje estable comunicada entre 50-100 casos. Intentamos determinar la curva de aprendizaje con un cirujano experimentado en cirugía laparoscópica previamente. Material y Método: Comparamos los resultados operatorios tras 310 casos de PRLE realizada por un único cirujano en cinco años. Las serie se divide en tres grupos: Grupo 1 los 100 primeros pacientes, grupo 2 los siguientes 100 pacientes y el grupo 3 los últimos 110 pacientes. Análisis Estadístico: Se realiza comparación de pares utilizando el test de por ciento, considerando p < 0,05 estadísticamente significativa. Resultados: Edad media de la serie es de 62,4 años. Mediana de PSA = 13,3 ng/ml, distribución del Gleason de la biopsia: Gleason 2-6 =180 pacientes (60 por ciento); 7 en 80 pacientes (25 por ciento) y 8-10 en 50 pacientes (15 por ciento). Estadio clínico Tic: 214 pacientes (69 por ciento); T2a en 62 pacientes (20 por ciento) y T2b in 34 (11 por ciento). No existen diferencias en cuanto a la distribución entre los grupos. Estadio Patológico: T2 en 41 por ciento de los casos. No hubo diferencias entre los 3 grupos en el Gleason quirúrgico, estadio patológico o peso de la glándula. Hubo diferencias significativas en el tiempo operatorio (p < 0,05) entre el grupo 1 y 2-3 pero no entre los grupos 2 y 3, ( Grupo 1: 184,7 min; Grupo 2: 138,9 min; Grupo 3: 134,3 min) y en los márgenes quirúrgicos en pT2, que disminuyeron (Grupo 1: 24 por ciento; Grupo 2: 9 por ciento; Grupo 3: 11,8 por ciento) y en el porcentaje de transfusión (Grupo 1: 20 por ciento; Grupo 2: 22 por ciento; Grupo 3: 2,7 por ciento) (p < 0,05), así como en la pérdida sanguínea entre los grupos 1 y 2 con respecto al tres: Grupo 1: 624 ce; Grupo 2: 451 ce; Grupo 3: 268 ce. Las complicaciones quirúrgicas, como lesión del recto o fístula recto-urinaria disminuyeron entre los grupos (lesión rectal Grupo 1: 9 pacien...

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Laparoscopy , Lymph Node Excision , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Peritoneum/surgery , Prostatectomy/methods , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. urol ; 74(2): 102-107, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-562739


Introducción: En la actualidad existe consenso en que el método ideal de derivación urinaria luego de la cistectomía radical es la neovejiga ortotópica construida con un segmento detubulizado de intestino. Sin embargo no fue sino hasta hace pocos años que esta alternativa se ha considerado válida en mujeres, al constatar que es seguro preservar la uretra desde el punto de vista oncológico y que los resultados funcionales son adecuados. Presentamos una serie de pacientes sometidas a cistectomía por diferentes indicaciones en quienes se reconstituyó la vía urinaria con una neovejiga ileal ortotópica. Material y métodos: Se analizan los resultados de 6 pacientes sometidas a cistectomía y reconstrucción de la vía urinaria con una neovejiga ortotópica. Se realizaron 2 exanteraciones anteriores por cáncer vesical invasor y 4 cistectomías totales por cistitis intersticial en 2 casos, por cistitis actínica en 1 caso y por cistitis eosinofílica en 1 caso. La neovejiga se confeccionó en todos los casos con íleon desfuncionalizado, detubularizado y reconfigurado en forma esférica, anastomosado a la uretra y a ambos ureteres. Resultados: Ninguna de las pacientes de esta serie presentó complicaciones en el intraoperatorio ni en el postoperatorio inmediato. Con un seguimiento que va entre los 5 y 12 años todas las pacientes se encuentran vivas y orinando por la uretra nativa. Dos pacientes tienen continencia completa, una paciente tiene incontinencia nocturna y tres pacientes necesitan autocateterismo. Una de las últimas desarrolló una litiasis en la neovejiga. Todas las pacientes se encuentran satisfechas con su derivación urinaria. Conclusión: La neovejiga ortotópica es una alternativa válida luego de la cistectomía en mujeres seleccionadas, con resultados comparables a los obtenidos en hombres. Debiera ser la derivación urinaria de elección si se cumplen los criterios de selección y técnica quirúrgica.

Introduction: Current consensus places orthotopic ileal neobladder as the best option for bladder substitution alter radical cystectomy. However, recently this technique has gained wide acceptance in female patients only after it was proven safe to preserve urethra in an oncological setting. We report a series of female patients that underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladder. Material and methods: Results in 6 patients that underwent radical cystectomy with ileal neobladder are analyzed. Two anterior exanterations for invasive bladder cancer and 2 total cystectomies for interstitial cystitis and 1 for actinic and eosinophilic cystitis respectively. In all cases neobladder was made out of detubularized ileon reconfigured as a pouch and anastomosed to the urethra and ureters. Results: None of the patients presented intraoperative or postoperative complications. Follow-up varied between 5 and 12 years. All patients are alive and urinating through their native urethra. Two patients have complete continence, one patient presents only day continence and 3 patients require authocatheterism, one of them presented with bladder stone. All patients are satisfied with their urinary diversion. Conclusion: Ileal neobladder is a valid alternative for bladder substitution in selected female patients. Results are comparable with the ones obtained in male patients. It should be the diversion of choice if selection and technical criteria are met.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cystectomy/methods , Cystitis/surgery , Urinary Diversion/methods , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Diseases/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Urinary Reservoirs, Continent , Patient Satisfaction , Ileum/transplantation
Rev. chil. cir ; 60(6): 552-556, dic. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-512410


Se presenta el caso de una paciente joven con cuadro de cistitis intersticial condicionante de dolor pélvico crónico sin respuesta al tratamiento médico, que requirió de cistectomía total laparoscópica transperitoneal, así como la creación intracorpórea de una derivación urinaria rectosigmoidea. (Mainz Pouch II). Con una evolución sin complicaciones, en el seguimiento tardío se reporta continencia total, mejoría de su calidad de vida y ausencia de infecciones urinarias o alteraciones metabólicas. La derivación de Mainz II es una opción viable en pacientes seleccionados para la reconstrucción de la vía urinaria luego de cistectomía, siendo su realización factible por vía laparoscópica. El control postoperatorio estricto es de vital importancia.

We report a 31 years oíd female with a previous history of chronic pelvic pain and interstitial cystitis. After years of lack of response to medical treatment, a simple total cystectomy and neobladder were proposed as therapeutic option. The patient accepted the procedure and a laparoscopic simple cystectomy with creation of a rectosigmoid pouch (Mainz II) was performed. The patient had an uneventful evolution. During long-term follow-up a total control of continence was achieved, improvement in quality of life verified, and no metabolic disorders or upper urinary tract infections were observed. Mainz II pouch is a viable option in selected patients as a urinary derivative procedure. Mainz II pouch creation can be done laparoscopically and a cióse follow-up is mandatory.

Humans , Adult , Female , Cystectomy/methods , Cystitis, Interstitial/surgery , Urinary Diversion/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Colon, Sigmoid/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. cir ; 60(5): 393-397, oct. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-549990


Introducción: La litiasis coraliforme es una patología que de no ser tratada efectivamente lleva al daño renal progresivo e irreversible, con consecuencias que pueden ser letales. El abordaje clásico con cirugía abierta, aunque efectivo en la remoción del cálculo y sus fragmentos, está asociado a morbilidad importante. En las últimas décadas se han impuesto técnicas menos invasivas como la litotripsia extracorporea, que tiene baja morbilidad pero un rendimiento discutible como monoterapia en cálculos complejos del riñón. Presentamos nuestra experiencia en nefrolitectomía percutánea de la litiasis coraliforme, técnica que conjuga una alta efectividad con baja morbilidad. Material y Método: Se analizan en forma retrospectiva los resultados de 42 pacientes portadores de litiasis coraliforme sometidos a nefrolitectomía percutánea como tratamiento único o combinado con litotripsia extracorporea. Los pacientes se trataron en decúbito prono, con nefroscopio rígido, litotripsia endoscópica, con uno o más accesos en una o más sesiones. Todos fueron sometidos a tratamiento antibiótico previo. Entre los pacientes hubo un niño de 11 años, un paciente monorreno y una litiasis coraliforme en un riñón en herradura. Resultados: Se trataron 22 mujeres y 20 hombres de una edad promedio de 40,7 años (rango 11-74). En 27 casos el cálculo era derecho y en 15 izquierdo. En 33 casos (78,5 por ciento) se realizó un acceso único, en 9 casos (21,4 por ciento) se realizó 2 accesos y en 3 casos (7,1 por ciento) se necesitó de 3 accesos. En 9 casos hubo litiasis residual que se trató con litotripsia extracorporea y en 1 con ureteroscopía. En 40 pacientes se logró finalmente la remoción completa del cálculo y sus fragmentos (95,3 por ciento). En la serie no hubo pérdida de unidades renales ni mortalidad. Conclusiones: La cirugía percutánea de la litiasis renal es una técnica mínimamente invasiva efectiva en el tratamiento de la litiasis coraliforme asociada a una baja morbilidad.

Background: Stag horn calculi may cause irreversible renal damage. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a minimally invasive surgical therapy than can be useful for these calculi. Aim: To report the experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy for stag horn calculi. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of patients with stag horn calculi treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy alone or associated to extracorporeal lithotripsy. All patients were treated with a rigid nephroscope, with one or more accesses during one or more sessions. Results: Twenty two women and 20 men aged 11 to 74 years were treated. One patient had only one kidney and one calculus was located in a horse shoe shaped kidney. The calculus was located in the right side in 27 patients and in the left side in 15. A unique access was used in 33 cases (79 percent), two accesses in nine (21 percent) and three accesses in three patients (7 percent). Nine patients had a residual lithiasis that required extracorporeal lithotripsy and one required an ureteroscopy. In 40 patients (95 percent), the complete removal of the calculus and its fragments was achieved. No patient died or lost the affected kidney. Conclusions: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective minimally invasive surgical treatment for stag horn calculi.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Child , Middle Aged , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous , Combined Modality Therapy , Lithotripsy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. cir ; 60(5): 387-392, oct. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-549991


Introducción: La técnica quirúrgica de elección para la hiperplasia prostética benigna es la resección transuretral de próstata (RTUP), que está reservada para adenomas menores de 75 gr. La adenomectomía prostética abierta permite extirpar adenomas de gran tamaño. Se presenta una serie inicial de 27 pacientes operados mediante adenomectomía prostética laparoscópica extraperitoneal con control vascular. Material y Métodos: Entre Junio de 2003 y Junio de 2006, 27 pacientes fueron operados por vía laparoscópica extraperitoneal. La edad promedio fue de 65,5 años (51-82 años). El promedio de l-PSS (Score de síntomas prostéticos) fue de 20 puntos y 7 pacientes se presentaron en retención aguda de orina. Todos los pacientes fueron evaluados con tacto rectal, antígeno prostético específico (APE) y ultrasonido para determinación del volumen prostético. Todos presentaban indicación de adenomectomía prostética abierta. Se registraron datos demográficos y perioperatorios de forma prospectiva en una base de datos, los cuales se analizaron en forma retrospectiva. Resultados: En los 27 pacientes la técnica fue exitosa sin necesidad de conversión a cirugía abierta. El peso prostético promedio en anatomía patológica fue tasado en 95,2 gr (40 -150). El tiempo operatorio promedio fue de 123 minutos (90-180), sangrado intraoperatorio promedio fue de 415 ce (50-1.500), y sólo 4 pacientes (14,8 por ciento) fueron transfundidos. Los promedios de la estadía hospitalaria y permanencia de la sonda uretral fueron de 3,5 días (2-7) y 4,2 días (3-7), respectivamente. Se registraron 2 complicaciones postoperatorias (7,4 por ciento). Conclusión: La laparoscopia ofrece una alternativa segura y menos cruenta para los pacientes con hiperplasia prostética benigna (HPB) que tengan indicación de cirugía abierta. En nuestra experiencia, es una técnica segura y reproducible.

Introduction: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) remains the gold standard for surgical treatment of benign prostatic hiperplasya (BPH). However, its application is limited to low volume adenomas (< 75 ce). Simple prostatectomy allows for the surgical treatment of large adenomas. We present our initial series of 27 patients with BPH, surgically treated with extraperitoneal laparoscopic simple prostatectomy (ELSP). Materials and Methods: Between June 2003 and June 2006, 27 patients were operated for BPH with ELSP. Median age of the series was 65.5 years. (51 a 82) Median l-PSS score was 20 points and 7 patients attended to emergency room with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). All patients had digital rectal examination, PSA test and abdominal ultrasound to determine prostate volume. All patients had formal indication for simple prostatectomy. Demographic and surgical data were prospectively collected and retrospective analysis was performed. Results: 27 patients had ELSP with no conversion to open surgery. Median prostatic volume in final pathology was en 95.2 gr. (40 -150). Median operative time was 123 min (90-180). Median blood loss was 415 ce (50-1.500) and 4 patients required blood transfusions. Median hospital stay was 3.5 days (2-7), median catheterization period was 4.2 days (3-7). Postoperative complications were registered in 2 patients (7.4 percent). Conclusion: Laparoscopy offers a safe and less morbid surgical option for the treatment of BPH with formal indication of simple prostatectomy. In our experience is a feasible and reproducible technique. Accurate vascular control is mandatory.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Hyperplasia/surgery , Laparoscopy , Prostatectomy/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome