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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925875

ABSTRACT

Background@#Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a useful index to assess exercise capacity. However, there is no reference value for Koreans. This study aimed to compare actual VO2 max and predicted VO 2 max using exercise capacity equations in Korean subjects. @*Methods@#This retrospective study enrolled 383 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with incremental maximal cycle ergometer test at Asan Medical Center from January 2020 to May 2021. Stage 1 and 2 lung cancer patients with normal lung function and healthy persons of 50 subjects who had maximal CPET were analyzed. @*Results@#The subjects were aged 65 ± 13 years and predominantly male (74%). CPET results were as follows: absolute VO2 max, 1.2 ± 0.3 L/min; body weight referenced VO2 max, 20 ± 3.9 mL/kg/min; peak work rate, 94 ± 24 watts; peak heart rate, 142 ± 21 bpm; peak O 2 pulse, 10 ± 3 mL/beat; minute ventilation, 59 ± 14 L/min; peak respiratory rate, 34 ± 6 breaths per minute; and peak breathing reserve, 41 ± 18%. There was significant discordance between the measured and predicted absolute VO2 max using the Jones, Hansen, and Wasserman prediction equations developed for Caucasian population (P < 0.001). Agreement using Bland-Altman test between true and predicted absolute VO2 max was the best in Chinese equation (−0.03, 2SD = 0.55) compared to Jones (0.42, 2SD = 1.07), Hansen (0.44, 2SD = 0.86), and Wasserman (0.42, 2SD = 0.86) equations. @*Conclusion@#The reference value and prediction equation from studies including primarily Caucasians may not be appropriate for Koreans. Since the mean difference is the lowest in Chinese equation, the Chinese equation might be used for the Korean adult population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895996

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Air trapping is associated with unfavorable outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study evaluated the association between longitudinal changes in air trapping with pulmonary function, computed tomography (CT) parameters and exacerbation. @*Methods@#Patients enrolled in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) study cohort from June 2005 to October 2015 were included. The study patients were categorized into four groups according to the change in residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC) over 3 years. The RV/TLC was considered abnormal when it was ≥ 40% and normal when it was < 40%. @*Results@#A total of 279 patients were categorized into four groups: 76 in the “normal to normal” (N→N) group, 34 in the “abnormal to normal” (A→N) group, 33 in the “normal to abnormal” (N→A) group, and 136 in the “abnormal to abnormal” (A→A) group. For forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (FVC), respectively, group A→N showed a large increase of 266 mL (p < 0.001) and 381 mL (p < 0.001), group N→A showed a marked decrease of 216 mL (p < 0.001) and 332 mL(p = 0.029), and group A→A showed a decrease of 16 mL (p = 0.426) and 6 mL (p = 0.011) compared to group N→N. Group A→N showed a significant decrease of –0.013 in expiratory to inspiratory ratio of the mean lung density (p < 0.001), while group A→N showed an increase of 0.005 (p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#Patients with COPD whose RV/TLC changed from normal to abnormal showed deterioration of pulmonary function and worsening of CT parameters simultaneously

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1719-1729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894788

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Emphysema and small-airway disease are the two major components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We propose a novel method of quantitative computed tomography (CT) emphysema air-trapping composite (EAtC) mapping to assess each COPD component. We analyzed the potential use of this method for assessing lung function in patients with COPD. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 584 patients with COPD underwent inspiration and expiration CTs. Using pairwise analysis of inspiration and expiration CTs with non-rigid registration, EAtC mapping classified lung parenchyma into three areas: Normal, functional air trapping (fAT), and emphysema (Emph). We defined fAT as the area with a density change of less than 60 Hounsfield units (HU) between inspiration and expiration CTs among areas with a density less than -856 HU on inspiration CT. The volume fraction of each area was compared with clinical parameters and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The results were compared with those of parametric response mapping (PRM) analysis. @*Results@#The relative volumes of the EAtC classes differed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (p < 0.001). Each class showed moderate correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) and FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.659–0.674, p < 0.001). Both fAT and Emph were significant predictors of FEV 1 and FEV 1/FVC (R2 = 0.352 and 0.488, respectively; p < 0.001). fAT was a significant predictor of mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% and residual volume/total vital capacity (R2 = 0.264 and 0.233, respectively; p < 0.001), while Emph and age were significant predictors of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (R2 = 0.303; p < 0.001). fAT showed better correlations with PFTs than with small-airway disease on PRM. @*Conclusion@#The proposed quantitative CT EAtC mapping provides comprehensive lung functional information on each disease component of COPD, which may serve as an imaging biomarker of lung function.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919179

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although international guidelines for bronchiectasis management have been published in Western countries, there is a lack of data about their application in Asian populations including patients with different phenotypes. We aimed to investigate the current status of bronchiectasis management in Asian populations. @*Methods@#A nationwide questionnaire survey was performed of Asian respiratory specialists from South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Participants were invited by e-mail to answer a questionnaire comprising 25 questions based on international guidelines for the management of bronchiectasis. @*Results@#A total of 221 physicians participated in the survey. About half of them were Korean (50.2%), with the next most common nationalities being Japanese (23.1%), Taiwanese (13.6%), and Singaporean (7.7%). Only 18 (8.1%) responders had local guidelines for bronchiectasis. While 85 (38.5%) responders checked sputum acid-fast bacillus smear/culture about 1 to 3 times per year, only a small proportion of responders routinely performed a serum immunoglobulin test (36/221, 16.3%) or evaluated for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (41/221, 18.6%). Less than half (43.4%) of responders performed eradication treatment in patients with drug-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, mainly due to the limited availability of inhaled antibiotics (34.8%). In addition, 58.6% of responders considered physiotherapy such as airway clearance and pulmonary rehabilitation. @*Conclusions@#Discrepancies might exist between guideline recommendations and practice for bronchiectasis management in Asian populations, partly due to the limited availability of treatment in each country. The development of local guidelines that consider the phenotypes and situation will help to standardize and improve the management of bronchiectasis.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903700

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Air trapping is associated with unfavorable outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study evaluated the association between longitudinal changes in air trapping with pulmonary function, computed tomography (CT) parameters and exacerbation. @*Methods@#Patients enrolled in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) study cohort from June 2005 to October 2015 were included. The study patients were categorized into four groups according to the change in residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC) over 3 years. The RV/TLC was considered abnormal when it was ≥ 40% and normal when it was < 40%. @*Results@#A total of 279 patients were categorized into four groups: 76 in the “normal to normal” (N→N) group, 34 in the “abnormal to normal” (A→N) group, 33 in the “normal to abnormal” (N→A) group, and 136 in the “abnormal to abnormal” (A→A) group. For forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (FVC), respectively, group A→N showed a large increase of 266 mL (p < 0.001) and 381 mL (p < 0.001), group N→A showed a marked decrease of 216 mL (p < 0.001) and 332 mL(p = 0.029), and group A→A showed a decrease of 16 mL (p = 0.426) and 6 mL (p = 0.011) compared to group N→N. Group A→N showed a significant decrease of –0.013 in expiratory to inspiratory ratio of the mean lung density (p < 0.001), while group A→N showed an increase of 0.005 (p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#Patients with COPD whose RV/TLC changed from normal to abnormal showed deterioration of pulmonary function and worsening of CT parameters simultaneously

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1719-1729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902492

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Emphysema and small-airway disease are the two major components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We propose a novel method of quantitative computed tomography (CT) emphysema air-trapping composite (EAtC) mapping to assess each COPD component. We analyzed the potential use of this method for assessing lung function in patients with COPD. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 584 patients with COPD underwent inspiration and expiration CTs. Using pairwise analysis of inspiration and expiration CTs with non-rigid registration, EAtC mapping classified lung parenchyma into three areas: Normal, functional air trapping (fAT), and emphysema (Emph). We defined fAT as the area with a density change of less than 60 Hounsfield units (HU) between inspiration and expiration CTs among areas with a density less than -856 HU on inspiration CT. The volume fraction of each area was compared with clinical parameters and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The results were compared with those of parametric response mapping (PRM) analysis. @*Results@#The relative volumes of the EAtC classes differed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (p < 0.001). Each class showed moderate correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) and FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.659–0.674, p < 0.001). Both fAT and Emph were significant predictors of FEV 1 and FEV 1/FVC (R2 = 0.352 and 0.488, respectively; p < 0.001). fAT was a significant predictor of mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% and residual volume/total vital capacity (R2 = 0.264 and 0.233, respectively; p < 0.001), while Emph and age were significant predictors of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (R2 = 0.303; p < 0.001). fAT showed better correlations with PFTs than with small-airway disease on PRM. @*Conclusion@#The proposed quantitative CT EAtC mapping provides comprehensive lung functional information on each disease component of COPD, which may serve as an imaging biomarker of lung function.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).@*CONCLUSION@#Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity in patients with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies. However, nationwide population-based epidemiology studies regarding APS are still unavailable.@*METHODS@#We analyzed claims data extracted from the Korean Health Insurance and Review Agency (HIRA) covering more than 52 million Koreans, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017. Patients diagnosed with APS, as determined by the Korean Classification of Disease, 7th edition (D68.6), and a rare intractable disease program (V253), were identified in HIRA.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3,088 newly diagnosed incident cases of 1,215 men and 1,873 women were identified during 2009–2016. The mean age was 44.6 ± 16.6 (men, 47.4 ± 16.3; women, 42.8 ± 16.6) years. The incidence was 0.75 per 105 person-year (95% confidence interval, 0.73–0.78). The prevalence in 2016 was 6.19 per 105 people. For incident cases, women showed incidence peak at ages of 30–39 years and 70–79 years, whereas for men, it was highest at ages of 70–79 years only. Of all patients, 1,766 (57%, 810 men and 956 women) had primary APS, 1,322 (43%, 405 men and 917 women) had secondary APS, and 845 (27%, 216 men and 629 women) were associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of APS differs according to age groups and gender. The incidence of primary APS was higher than that of secondary APS in both gender. Furthermore, as already reported, secondary APS is highly associated with SLE; however, we observed that rheumatoid arthritis is also highly related.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).@*CONCLUSION@#Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity in patients with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies. However, nationwide population-based epidemiology studies regarding APS are still unavailable.@*METHODS@#We analyzed claims data extracted from the Korean Health Insurance and Review Agency (HIRA) covering more than 52 million Koreans, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017. Patients diagnosed with APS, as determined by the Korean Classification of Disease, 7th edition (D68.6), and a rare intractable disease program (V253), were identified in HIRA.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3,088 newly diagnosed incident cases of 1,215 men and 1,873 women were identified during 2009–2016. The mean age was 44.6 ± 16.6 (men, 47.4 ± 16.3; women, 42.8 ± 16.6) years. The incidence was 0.75 per 105 person-year (95% confidence interval, 0.73–0.78). The prevalence in 2016 was 6.19 per 105 people. For incident cases, women showed incidence peak at ages of 30–39 years and 70–79 years, whereas for men, it was highest at ages of 70–79 years only. Of all patients, 1,766 (57%, 810 men and 956 women) had primary APS, 1,322 (43%, 405 men and 917 women) had secondary APS, and 845 (27%, 216 men and 629 women) were associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of APS differs according to age groups and gender. The incidence of primary APS was higher than that of secondary APS in both gender. Furthermore, as already reported, secondary APS is highly associated with SLE; however, we observed that rheumatoid arthritis is also highly related.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831917

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite increasing awareness of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, knowledge regarding gender differences in COPD outcomes is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether COPD outcomes, including exacerbations, lung , and symptoms differ by gender. @*Methods@#We recruited patients with COPD from two Korean multicenter prospective cohorts. After propensity score matching, the main outcome, the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. We also assessed changes in lung function and symptom scores including the St. George’s respiratory questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C), COPD assessment test (CAT), and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score. @*Results@#After propensity score matching, 74 women and 74 men with COPD were included. The incidence rates of exacerbations in women and men were not significantly different (incidence rate ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 2.54). There was no significant difference in the incidence rates adjusted for medication possession ratios of long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting β-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids during the follow-up period (incidence rate ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86 to 2.52). Rates of decline in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity did not differ between women and men during 48 months of follow-up. The changes in scores on the SGRQ-C, CAT, and mMRC Questionnaire in women were also similar to those in men. @*Conclusions@#We observed no gender differences in the rate of exacerbations of COPD in a prospective longitudinal study. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in the general COPD population.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831762

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Few studies have attempted to interpret unusually high predicted pulmonary function test results. This study aimed to investigate the demographic features of patients with an unusually high predicted pulmonary function. @*Methods@#The demographic data of subjects who underwent pulmonary function testing at a tertiary referral hospital during between January 2011 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Of the 68,693 included patients, 55 (0.08%) had a percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second or forced vital capacity ≥ 140%. These patients had a relatively older median age (72 years vs. 54 years, p < 0.001), female predominance (65.5% vs. 42.5%, p = 0.001), lower body weight (52.5 kg vs. 64.5 kg, p < 0.001) and shorter height (148.4 cm vs. 164.2 cm, p < 0.001). Furthermore, 6.1% of women older than 80 years with weight < 50 kg and height < 150 cm had a high predicted pulmonary function. @*Conclusions@#A high predicted pulmonary function is not rare among elderly subjects with a small body size. Physicians should consider the demographics of the examinees, especially those of minority populations, particularly as the test results might be determined using an incorrect reference equation.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).CONCLUSION: Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperuricemia , Inflammation , Korea , Lung , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Male , Mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Uric Acid
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The utility of computed tomography (CT) in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation remains uncertain. However, due to the low cost associated with CT scan along with the impact of Koreas' health insurance system, there has been a rise in the number of CT scans in the patients with initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbations. Therefore, the utility of CT in the differential diagnosis was investigated to determine whether performing CT scans affect the clinical outcomes of the patients with an initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbation.@*METHODS@#This study involved 202 COPD patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of COPD exacerbation. We evaluated the change in diagnosis or treatment after performing a CT scan, and compared the clinical outcomes of patient groups with vs. without performing CT (non-CT group vs. CT group).@*RESULTS@#After performing CT, the diagnosis was changed for two (3.0%) while additional diagnoses were made for 27 of the 64 patients (42.1%). However, the treatment changed for only one (1.5%), and six patients (9.3%) received supplementary medication. There were no difference in the median length of hospital stay (8 [6–13] days vs. 8 [6–12] days, p=0.786) and intensive care unit care (14 [10.1%] vs. 11 [16.7%], p=0.236) between the CT and non-CT groups, respectively. These findings remained consistent even after the propensity score matching.@*CONCLUSION@#Utility of CT in patients with acute COPD exacerbation might not be helpful; therefore, we do not recommend chest CT scan as a routine initial diagnostic tool.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918251

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Although direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are recommended as an alternative to low-molecular weighted heparin for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE), there is no firm evidence on the efficacy and safety of DOACs in patients with urologic cancer. Therefore, we compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban and dalteparin for treating cancer-associated VTE in urologic cancer.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#We reviewed the medical records of 124 eligible VTE patients with urologic cancers who were treated with dalteparin or rivaroxaban. The primary outcome was the composite event of clinically relevant bleeding or VTE recurrence. The secondary outcomes were VTE recurrence, clinically relevant bleeding events, and all-cause mortality.@*RESULTS@#During anticoagulation period, there was no significant difference in primary and secondary outcomes between the groups. In Cox proportional hazards model for composite events, although there was no statistical significance, rivaroxaban presented lower hazard ratio (HR) than dalteparin (HR, 0.472; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.210–1.060; p=0.069 in univariate analysis; HR, 0.505; 95% CI, 0.206–1.234; p=0.134 in multivariate analysis). In clinically relevant bleeding events, there was no significance difference between rivaroxaban and dalteparin (HR, 0.568; 95% CI, 0.238–1.358; p=0.203 in univariate analysis; HR, 0.617; 95% CI, 0.232–1.636; p=0.331 in multivariate analysis).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Rivaroxaban can be regarded as a valuable option for VTE in urologic cancer. Further prospective studies are warranted to prove the safety or efficacy of rivaroxaban for treating VTE in patients with urologic cancer.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), an important cause of acquired thrombophilia, is diagnosed when vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity occurs with persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS is a risk factor for unprovoked recurrence of pulmonary embolism (PE). Performing laboratory testing for aPL after a first unprovoked acute PE is controversial. We investigated if a specific phenotype existed in patients with unprovoked with acute PE, suggesting the need to evaluate them for APS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with PE and APS (n=24) and those with unprovoked PE with aPL negative (n=44), evaluated 2006–2016 at the Asan Medical Center. We compared patient demographics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and radiological findings between the groups. RESULTS: On multivariate logistic regression analysis, two models of independent risk factors for APS-PE were suggested. Model I included hemoptysis (odds ratio [OR], 12.897; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025–162.343), low PE severity index (OR, 0.948; 95% CI, 0.917–0.979), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT; OR, 1.166; 95% CI, 1.040–1.307). Model II included age (OR, 0.930; 95% CI, 0.893–0.969) and aPTT (OR, 1.104; 95% CI, 1.000–1.217). CONCLUSION: We conclude that patients with first unprovoked PE with hemoptysis and are age <40; have a low pulmonary embolism severity index, especially in risk class I–II; and/or prolonged aPTT (above 75th percentile of the reference interval), should be suspected of having APS, and undergo laboratory testing for aPL.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Demography , Hemoptysis , Humans , Logistic Models , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Embolism , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis
18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1216-1225, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The absence of collateral ventilation (CV) is crucial for effective bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) with an endobronchial valve. Here, we assessed whether CT can predict the Chartis™ results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 69 patients (mean age: 70.9 ± 6.6 years; 66 [95.7%] males) who had undergone CT to assess BLVR eligibility. The Chartis™ system (Pulmonox Inc.) was used to check CV. Experienced thoracic radiologists independently determined the completeness of fissures on volumetric CT images. RESULTS: The comparison between the visual and quantitative analyses revealed that 5% defect criterion showed good agreement. The Chartis™ assessment was performed for 129 lobes; 11 (19.6%) of 56 lobes with complete fissures on CT showed positive CV, while this rate was significantly higher (40 of 49 lobes, i.e., 81.6%) for lobes with incomplete fissures. The size of the fissure defect did not affect the rate of CV. Of the patients who underwent BLVR, 22 of 24 patients (91.7%) with complete fissures and three of four patients with incomplete fissures (75%) achieved target lobe volume reduction (TLVR). CONCLUSION: The quantitative analysis of fissure shows that incomplete fissures increased the probability of CV on Chartis™, while the defect size did not affect the overall rates. TLVR could be achieved even in some patients with relatively large fissure defect, if they showed negative CV on Chartis™.


Subject(s)
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Emphysema , Humans , Lung , Pneumonectomy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Ventilation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the influence of vitamin D deficiency on COPD has not been fully established. Moreover, the inflammation process is associated with vitamin D deficiency in the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether clinical phenotypes, comorbidities, and exacerbation rates are affected by the level of plasma fibrinogen, well studied by an inflammatory marker in COPD patients, and 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed patients with COPD whose inflammatory marker levels, especially plasma fibrinogen and 25-OH vitamin D levels, had been examined. A correlation analysis was conducted for inflammatory markers and 25-OH vitamin D. Clinical characteristics, comorbidities and exacerbation rates were compared among four groups based on plasma fibrinogen concentrations (threshold, 350 mg/dL) and 25-OH vitamin D levels (threshold, 20 ng/mL). RESULTS: Among 611 patients with COPD, 236 were included in the study. The levels of inflammatory markers had no statistical correlation with the serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. The four groups showed no statistically significant differences in age, sex, smoking history, inhaler use, and severity of comorbidities. Patients with high plasma fibrinogen concentrations and low 25-OH vitamin D levels had lower lung function, higher severity index, and higher annual rate of severe exacerbations 12 months before (0.23/year) and after (0.41/year) the measurement of 25-OH vitamin D levels than did the other patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested an interaction between vitamin D deficiency and COPD. The measurement of plasma fibrinogen concentrations could help identify a severe phenotypic group among patients with vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Fibrinogen , Humans , Inflammation , Lung , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Phenotype , Plasma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is the standard treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with active cancer. However, use of factor Xa inhibitors, such as rivaroxaban, is increasing on the basis of limited clinical evidence. The present single-center study compared the incidence of bleeding and other treatment outcomes in gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary cancer (GI tract cancer) patients administered rivaroxaban or LMWH for the treatment of VTE. METHODS: Retrospective data from 281 GI tract cancer patients who were treated for VTE with rivaroxaban (n = 78) or LMWH (n = 203) between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016, were analyzed. Primary end-point was the incidence of major and clinically relevant bleeding. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of recurrent VTE and mortality. RESULTS: Clinically relevant bleeding occurred in 19 patients (24.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and 31 (15.3%) in the LMWH group (P = 0.074). No inter-group difference was observed for rate of VTE recurrence (3.8% with rivaroxaban vs. 3.9% with LMWH; P > 0.999) or incidence of major bleeding (5.1% with rivaroxaban vs. 8.9% with LMWH; P = 0.296). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis for age, cancer type, metastasis, history of chemotherapy or recent surgery, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status revealed a 1.904-fold higher risk of bleeding with rivaroxaban than LMWH (1.031–3.516; P = 0.040). No significant inter-group difference was found in terms of hazard ratio for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Compared to LMWH, rivaroxaban was associated with a higher incidence of clinically relevant bleeding in GI tract cancer patients presenting with VTE.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hemorrhage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Rivaroxaban , Stomach Neoplasms , Venous Thromboembolism
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