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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 45-54, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874353

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to reduce radiation doses to the tongue, a patient-specific semi-customized tongue immobilization device (SCTID) was developed using a 3D printer for helical tomotherapy (HT) of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPCa). Dosimetric characteristics and setup stability of the SCTID were compared with those of a standard mouthpiece (SMP). @*Materials and Methods@#For displacement and robust immobilization of the tongue, the SCTID consists of four parts: upper and lower tooth stoppers, tongue guider, tongue-tip position guide bar, and connectors. With the SCTID and SMP, two sets of planning computed tomography and HT plans were obtained for 10 NPCa patients. Dosimetric and geometric characteristics were compared. Position reproducibility of the tongue with SCTID was evaluated by comparing with planned dose and adaptive accumulated dose of the tongue and base of the tongue based on daily setup mega-voltage computed tomography. @*Results@#Using the SCTID, the tongue was effectively displaced from the planning target volume compared to the SMP. The median mucosa of the tongue (M-tongue) dose was significantly reduced (20.7 Gy vs. 27.8 Gy). The volumes of the M-tongue receiving a dose of 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 45 Gy and the volumes of the mucosa of oral cavity and oropharynx (M-OC/OP) receiving a dose of 45 Gy and 60 Gy were significantly lower than using the SMP. No significant differences was observed between the planned dose and the accumulated adaptive dose in any dosimetric characteristics of the tongue and base of tongue. @*Conclusion@#SCTID can not only reduce the dose to the M-tongue and M-OC/OP dramatically, when compared to SMP, but also provide excellent reproducibility and easy visual verification.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 63-70, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170080

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits and treatment efficiency of carotid-sparing TomoHelical 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (TH-3DCRT) for early glottic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten early-stage (T1N0M0) glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients were simulated, based on computed tomography scans. Two-field 3DCRT (2F-3DCRT), 3-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (3F-IMRT), TomoHelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TH-3DCRT plans were generated with a 67.5-Gy total prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) for each patient. In order to evaluate the plan quality, dosimetric characteristics were compared in terms of conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, dose to the carotid arteries, and maximum dose to the spinal cord. Treatment planning and delivery times were compared to evaluate treatment efficiency. RESULTS: The median CI was substantially better for the 3F-IMRT (0.65), TH-IMRT (0.64), and TH-3DCRT (0.63) plans, compared to the 2F-3DCRT plan (0.32). PTV HI was slightly better for TH-3DCRT and TH-IMRT (1.05) compared to 2F-3DCRT (1.06) and 3F-IMRT (1.09). TH-3DCRT, 3F-IMRT, and TH-IMRT showed an excellent carotid sparing capability compared to 2F-3DCRT (p < 0.05). For all plans, the maximum dose to the spinal cord was < 45 Gy. The median treatment planning times for 2F-3DCRT (5.85 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (7.10 minutes) were much lower than those for 3F-IMRT (45.48 minutes) and TH-IMRT (35.30 minutes). The delivery times for 2F-3DCRT (2.06 minutes) and 3F-IMRT (2.48 minutes) were slightly lower than those for TH-IMRT (2.90 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (2.86 minutes). CONCLUSION: TH-3DCRT showed excellent carotid-sparing capability, while offering high efficiency and maintaining good PTV coverage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Carotid Arteries , Prescriptions , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Spinal Cord
3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 106-114, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170075

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes following definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for patients with N3-positive stage IIIB (N3-IIIB) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with a focus on radiation therapy (RT) techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2010 to November 2012, 77 patients with N3-IIIB NSCLC received definitive CCRT (median, 66 Gy). RT techniques were selected individually based on estimated lung toxicity, with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) delivered to 48 (62.3%) and 29 (37.7%) patients, respectively. Weekly docetaxel/paclitaxel plus cisplatin (67, 87.0%) was the most common concurrent chemotherapy regimen. RESULTS: The median age and clinical target volume (CTV) were 60 years and 288.0 cm3, respectively. Patients receiving IMRT had greater disease extent in terms of supraclavicular lymph node (SCN) involvement and CTV > or = 300 cm3. The median follow-up time was 21.7 months. Fortyfive patients (58.4%) experienced disease progression, most frequently distant metastasis (39, 50.6%). In-field locoregional control, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates at 2 years were 87.9%, 38.7%, and 75.2%, respectively. Although locoregional control was similar between RT techniques, patients receiving IMRT had worse PFS and OS, and SCN metastases from the lower lobe primary tumor and CTV > or = 300 cm3were associated with worse OS. The incidence and severity of toxicities did not differ significantly between RT techniques. CONCLUSION: IMRT could lead to similar locoregional control and toxicity, while encompassing a greater disease extent than 3D-CRT. The decision to apply IMRT should be made carefully after considering oncologic outcomes associated with greater disease extent and cost.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 337-343, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70159

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this report is to describe the proton therapy system at Samsung Medical Center (SMC-PTS) including the proton beam generator, irradiation system, patient positioning system, patient position verification system, respiratory gating system, and operating and safety control system, and review the current status of the SMC-PTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SMC-PTS has a cyclotron (230 MeV) and two treatment rooms: one treatment room is equipped with a multi-purpose nozzle and the other treatment room is equipped with a dedicated pencil beam scanning nozzle. The proton beam generator including the cyclotron and the energy selection system can lower the energy of protons down to 70 MeV from the maximum 230 MeV. RESULTS: The multi-purpose nozzle can deliver both wobbling proton beam and active scanning proton beam, and a multi-leaf collimator has been installed in the downstream of the nozzle. The dedicated scanning nozzle can deliver active scanning proton beam with a helium gas filled pipe minimizing unnecessary interactions with the air in the beam path. The equipment was provided by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., RayStation from RaySearch Laboratories AB is the selected treatment planning system, and data management will be handled by the MOSAIQ system from Elekta AB. CONCLUSION: The SMC-PTS located in Seoul, Korea, is scheduled to begin treating cancer patients in 2015.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cyclotrons , Helium , Korea , Metallurgy , Particle Accelerators , Patient Positioning , Proton Therapy , Protons , Radiation Oncology , Respiratory System , Seoul
5.
Korean Journal of Medical Physics ; : 91-98, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104170

ABSTRACT

Verification of internal organ motion during treatment and its feedback is essential to accurate dose delivery to the moving target. We developed an offline based internal organ motion verification system (IMVS) using cine EPID images and evaluated its accuracy and availability through phantom study. For verification of organ motion using live cine EPID images, a pattern matching algorithm using an internal surrogate, which is very distinguishable and represents organ motion in the treatment field, like diaphragm, was employed in the self-developed analysis software. For the system performance test, we developed a linear motion phantom, which consists of a human body shaped phantom with a fake tumor in the lung, linear motion cart, and control software. The phantom was operated with a motion of 2 cm at 4 sec per cycle and cine EPID images were obtained at a rate of 3.3 and 6.6 frames per sec (2 MU/frame) with 1,024x768 pixel counts in a linear accelerator (10 MVX). Organ motion of the target was tracked using self-developed analysis software. Results were compared with planned data of the motion phantom and data from the video image based tracking system (RPM, Varian, USA) using an external surrogate in order to evaluate its accuracy. For quantitative analysis, we analyzed correlation between two data sets in terms of average cycle (peak to peak), amplitude, and pattern (RMS, root mean square) of motion. Averages for the cycle of motion from IMVS and RPM system were 3.98+/-0.11 (IMVS 3.3 fps), 4.005+/-0.001 (IMVS 6.6 fps), and 3.95+/-0.02 (RPM), respectively, and showed good agreement on real value (4 sec/cycle). Average of the amplitude of motion tracked by our system showed 1.85+/-0.02 cm (3.3 fps) and 1.94+/-0.02 cm (6.6 fps) as showed a slightly different value, 0.15 (7.5% error) and 0.06 (3% error) cm, respectively, compared with the actual value (2 cm), due to time resolution for image acquisition. In analysis of pattern of motion, the value of the RMS from the cine EPID image in 3.3 fps (0.1044) grew slightly compared with data from 6.6 fps (0.0480). The organ motion verification system using sequential cine EPID images with an internal surrogate showed good representation of its motion within 3% error in a preliminary phantom study. The system can be implemented for clinical purposes, which include organ motion verification during treatment, compared with 4D treatment planning data, and its feedback for accurate dose delivery to the moving target.


Subject(s)
Diaphragm , Human Body , Lung , Particle Accelerators , Track and Field
6.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : 197-200, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11429

ABSTRACT

External-beam radiation therapy with intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy is the standard treatment modality for advanced cervical cancer; however, late gastrointestinal complications are a major concern after radiotherapy. While radiation proctitis is a well-known side effect and radiation oncologists make an effort to reduce it, the sigmoid colon is often neglected as an organ at risk. Herein, we report two cases of radiation sigmoiditis mimicking sigmoid colon cancer after external-beam radiation therapy with intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer with dosimetric consideration.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Colon, Sigmoid , Proctitis , Sigmoid Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
7.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 206-213, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a high precision therapy technique that can achieve a conformal dose distribution on a given target. However, organ motion induced by respiration can result in significant dosimetric error. Therefore, this study explores the dosimetric error that result from various patterns of respiration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were designed to deliver a treatment plan made for a real patient to an in-house developed motion phantom. The motion pattern; the amplitude and period as well as inhale-exhale period, could be controlled by in-house developed software. Dose distribution was measured using EDR2 film and analysis was performed by RIT113 software. Three respiratory patterns were generated for the purpose of this study; first the 'even inhale-exhale pattern', second the slightly long exhale pattern (0.35 seconds longer than inhale period) named 'general signal pattern', and third a 'long exhale pattern' (0.7 seconds longer than inhale period). One dimensional dose profile comparisons and gamma index analysis on 2 dimensions were performed RESULTS: In one-dimensional dose profile comparisons, 5% in the target and 30% dose difference at the boundary were observed in the long exhale pattern. The center of high dose region in the profile was shifted 1 mm to inhale (caudal) direction for the 'even inhale-exhale pattern', 2 mm and 5 mm shifts to exhale (cranial) direction were observed for 'slightly long exhale pattern' and 'long exhale pattern', respectively. The areas of gamma index >1 were 11.88%, 15.11%, and 24.33% for 'even inhale-exhale pattern', 'general pattern', and 'long exhale pattern', respectively. The long exhale pattern showed largest errors. CONCLUSION: To reduce the dosimetric error due to respiratory motions, controlling patient's breathing to be closer to even inhaleexhale period is helpful with minimizing the motion amplitude.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration
8.
Korean Journal of Medical Physics ; : 107-116, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99723

ABSTRACT

Respiratory gated radiation therapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy require identical tumor motions during each treatment with the motion detected in treatment planning CT. Therefore, this study developed a tumor motion monitoring and analysis system during the treatments employing RPM data, gated setup OBI images and a data analysis software. A respiratory training and guiding program which improves the regularity of breathing was used to patients. The breathing signal was obtained by RPM and the recorded data in the 4D console was read after treatment. The setup OBI images obtained gated at 0% and 50% of breathing phases were used to detect the tumor motion range in crenio-caudal direction. By matching the RPM data recorded at the OBI imaging time, a factor which converts the RPM motion to the tumor motion was computed. RPM data was entered to the institute developed data analysis software and the maximum, minimum, average of the breathing motion as well as the standard deviation of motion amplitude and period was computed. The computed result is exported in an excel file. The conversion factor was applied to the analyzed data to estimate the tumor motion. The accuracy of the developed method was tested by using a moving phantom, and the efficacy was evaluated for 10 stereotactic body radiation therapy patients. For the sine wave motion of the phantom with 4 sec of period and 2 cm of peak-to-peak amplitude, the measurement was slightly larger (4.052 sec) and the amplitude was smaller (1.952 cm). For patient treatment, one patient was evaluated not to qualified to SBRT due to the usability of the breathing, and in one patient case, the treatment was changed to respiratory gated treatment due the larger motion range of the tumor than treatment planed motion. The developed method and data analysis program was useful to estimate the tumor motion during treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration , Statistics as Topic
9.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 155-165, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to evaluate the positional uncertainty of internal organs during radiation therapy for treatment of liver cancer, we measured differences in inter- and intra-fractional variation of the tumor position and tidal amplitude using 4-dimentional computed radiograph (DCT) images and gated orthogonal setup kilovolt (KV) images taken on every treatment using the on board imaging (OBI) and real time position management (RPM) system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients who underwent 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy for treatment of liver cancer participated in this study. All patients received a 4DCT simulation with an RT16 scanner and an RPM system. Lipiodol, which was updated near the target volume after transarterial chemoembolization or diaphragm was chosen as a surrogate for the evaluation of the position difference of internal organs. Two reference orthogonal (anterior and lateral) digital reconstructed radiograph (DRR) images were generated using CT image sets of 0% and 50% into the respiratory phases. The maximum tidal amplitude of the surrogate was measured from 3D conformal treatment planning. After setting the patient up with laser markings on the skin, orthogonal gated setup images at 50% into the respiratory phase were acquired at each treatment session with OBI and registered on reference DRR images by setting each beam center. Online inter-fractional variation was determined with the surrogate. After adjusting the patient setup error, orthogonal setup images at 0% and 50% into the respiratory phases were obtained and tidal amplitude of the surrogate was measured. Measured tidal amplitude was compared with data from 4DCT. For evaluation of intra-fractional variation, an orthogonal gated setup image at 50% into the respiratory phase was promptly acquired after treatment and compared with the same image taken just before treatment. In addition, a statistical analysis for the quantitative evaluation was performed. RESULTS: Medians of inter-fractional variation for twenty patients were 0.00 cm (range, -0.50 to 0.90 cm), 0.00 cm (range, -2.40 to 1.60 cm), and 0.00 cm (range, -1.10 to 0.50 cm) in the X (transaxial), Y (superior-inferior), and Z (anterior-posterior) directions, respectively. Significant inter-fractional variations over 0.5 cm were observed in four patients. Min addition, the median tidal amplitude differences between 4DCTs and the gated orthogonal setup images were -0.05 cm (range, -0.83 to 0.60 cm), -0.15 cm (range, -2.58 to 1.18 cm), and -0.02 cm (range, -1.37 to 0.59 cm) in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Large differences of over 1 cm were detected in 3 patients in the Y direction, while differences of more than 0.5 but less than 1 cm were observed in 5 patients in Y and Z directions. Median intra-fractional variation was 0.00 cm (range, -0.30 to 0.40 cm), -0.03 cm (range, -1.14 to 0.50 cm), 0.05 cm (range, -0.30 to 0.50 cm) in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Significant intra-fractional variation of over 1 cm was observed in 2 patients in Y direction. CONCLUSION: Gated setup images provided a clear image quality for the detection of organ motion without a motion artifact. Significant intra- and inter-fractional variation and tidal amplitude differences between 4DCT and gated setup images were detected in some patients during the radiation treatment period, and therefore, should be considered when setting up the target margin. Monitoring of positional uncertainty and its adaptive feedback system can enhance the accuracy of treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artifacts , Diaphragm , Ethiodized Oil , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Liver , Liver Neoplasms , Skin , Uncertainty
10.
Korean Journal of Medical Physics ; : 360-366, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156693

ABSTRACT

To generate on-board digital tomosynthesis (DTS) for three-dimensionalimage-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as an alternative to conventional portal imaging or on-board cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), two clinical cases (liver and bladder) were selected to illustrate the capabilities of on-board DTS for IGRT. DTS images were generated from subsets of CBCT projection data (45, 162 projections) using half-fan mode scanning with a Feldkamp-type reconstruction algorithm. Digital tomosynthesis slices appeared similar to coincident CBCT planes and yielded substantially more anatomic information. Improved bony and soft-tissue visibility in DTS images is likely to improve target localization compared with radiographic verification techniques and might allow for daily localization of a soft-tissue target. Digital tomosynthesis might allow targeting of the treatment volume on the basis of daily localization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Patient Positioning
11.
Korean Journal of Medical Physics ; : 127-136, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55619

ABSTRACT

Emerging technologies such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) is expected to allow clinicians to accurately model interfractional motion and to quantitatively estimate internal target volumes (ITVs) for radiation therapy involving moving targets. A need exists for a 4D radiation therapy quality assurance (QA) device that can incorporate and analyze the patient specific intrafractional motion as it relate to dose delivery and respiratory gating. We built a 4D RT prototype device and analyzed the patient-specific 4D radiation therapy QA for 2D dose distributions successfully. With more improvements, the 4D RT QA prototype device could be an integral part of a 4D RT decision process to confirm the dose delivery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography , Polymethacrylic Acids
12.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 91-102, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy and efficacy of EDR2 film, a 2D ionization chamber array (MatriXX) and an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in the pre-treatment QA of IMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fluence patterns, shaped as a wedge with 10 steps (segments) by a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), of reference and test IMRT fields were measured using EDR2 film, the MatriXX, and EPID. Test fields were designed to simulate leaf positioning errors. The absolute dose at a point in each step of the reference fields was measured in a water phantom with an ionization chamber and was compared to the dose obtained with the use of EDR2 film, the MatriXX and EPID. For qualitative analysis, all measured fluence patterns of both reference and test fields were compared with calculated dose maps from a radiation treatment planning system (Pinnacle, Philips, USA) using profiles and gamma evaluation with 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm criteria. By measurement of the time to perform QA, we compared the workload of EDR2 film, the MatriXX and EPID. RESULTS: The percent absolute dose difference between the measured and ionization chamber dose was within 1% for the EPID, 2% for the MatriXX and 3% for EDR2 film. The percentage of pixels with gamma%>1 for the 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm criteria was within 2% for use of both EDR2 film and the EPID. However, differences for the use of the MatriXX were seen with a maximum difference as great as 5.94% with the 2%/2 mm criteria. For the test fields, EDR2 film and EPID could detect leaf-positioning errors on the order of -3 mm and -2 mm, respectively. However it was difficult to differentiate leaf-positioning errors with the MatriXX due to its poor resolution. The approximate time to perform QA was 110 minutes for the use of EDR2 film, 80 minutes for the use of the MatriXX and approximately 55 minutes for the use of the EPID. CONCLUSION: This study has evaluated the accuracy and efficacy of EDR2 film, the MatriXX and EPID in the pre-treatment verification of IMRT. EDR2 film and the EPID showed better performance for accuracy, while the use of the MatriXX significantly reduced measurement and analysis times. We propose practical and useful methods to establish an effective QA system in a clinical environment.


Subject(s)
Electronics , Electrons , Silicon , Water
13.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 42-48, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51891

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The introduction of image guided radiation therapy/four-dimensional radiation therapy (IGRT/4DRT) potentially increases the accumulated dose to patients from imaging and verification processes as compared to conventional practice. It is therefore essential to investigate the level of the imaging dose to patients when IGRT/4DRT devices are installed. The imaging dose level was monitored and was compared with the use of pre-IGRT practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A four-dimensional CT (4DCT) unit (GE, Ultra Light Speed 16), a simulator (Varian Acuity) and Varian IX unit with an on-board imager (OBI) and cone beam CT (CBCT) were installed. The surface doses to a RANDO phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY USA) were measured with the newly installed devices and with pre-existing devices including a single slice CT scanner (GE, Light Speed), a simulator (Varian Ximatron) and L-gram linear accelerator (Varian, 2100C Linac). The surface doses were measured using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at eight sites-the brain, eye, thyroid, chest, abdomen, ovary, prostate and pelvis. RESULTS: Compared to imaging with the use of single slice non-gated CT, the use of 4DCT imaging increased the dose to the chest and abdomen approximately ten-fold (1.74+/-0.34 cGy versus 23.23+/-3.67 cGy ). Imaging doses with the use of the Acuity simulator were smaller than doses with the use of the Ximatron simulator, which were 0.91+/-0.89 cGy versus 6.77+/-3.56 cGy, respectively. The dose with the use of the electronic portal imaging device (EPID; Varian IX unit) was approximately 50% of the dose with the use of the L-gram linear accelerator (1.83+/-0.36 cGy versus 3.80+/-1.67 cGy). The dose from the OBI for fluoroscopy and low-dose mode CBCT were 0.97+/-0.34 cGy and 2.3+/-0.67 cGy, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of 4DCT is the major source of an increase of the radiation (imaging) dose to patients. OBI and CBCT doses were small, but the accumulated dose associated with everyday verification need to be considered


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Abdomen , Brain , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Electronics , Electrons , Eye , Fluoroscopy , Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography , Light , Ovary , Particle Accelerators , Pelvis , Prostate , Thorax , Thyroid Gland
14.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 240-248, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To provide a simple research tool that may be used to analyze a dose volume histogram from different radiation therapy planning systems for NTCP (Normal Tissue Complication Probability), OED (Organ Equivalent Dose) and so on. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A high-level computing language was chosen to implement Niemierko's EUD, Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model's NTCP, and OED. The requirements for treatment planning analysis were defined and the procedure, using a developed GUI based program, was described with figures. The calculated data, including volume at a dose, dose at a volume, EUD, and NTCP were evaluated by a commercial radiation therapy planning system, Pinnacle (Philips, Madison, WI, USA) for comparison. RESULTS: The volume at a special dose and a dose absorbed in a volume on a dose volume histogram were successfully extracted using DVH data of several radiation planning systems. EUD, NTCP and OED were successfully calculated using DVH data and some required parameters in the literature. CONCLUSION: A simple DVH analyzer program was developed and has proven to be a useful research tool for radiation therapy.

15.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 181-188, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154634

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. RESULTS: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal regularity and maintaining a more even tidal volume.

16.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 249-260, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159791

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to enhance the quality of IMRT as employed in Korea, we developed a remote monitoring system. The feasibility of the system was evaluated by conducting a pilot study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The remote monitoring system consisted of a head and neck phantom and a user manual. The phantom contains a target and three OARs (organs at risk) that can be detected on CT images. TLD capsules were inserted at the center of the target and at the OARs. Two film slits for GafchromicEBT film were located on the axial and saggital planes. The user manual contained an IMRT planning guide and instructions for IMRT planning and the delivery process. After the manual and phantom were sent to four institutions, IMRT was planed and delivered. Predicted doses were compared with measured doses. Dose distribution along the two straight lines that intersected at the center of the axial film was measured and compared with the profiles predicted by the plan. RESULTS: The measurements at the target agreed with the predicted dose within a 3% deviation. Doses at the OARs that represented the thyroid glands showed larger deviations (minimum 3.3% and maximum 19.8%). The deviation at OARs that represented the spiral cord was 0.7~14.8%. The percentage of dose distributions that showed more than a 5% of deviation on the lines was 7~27% and 7~14% along the horizontal and vertical lines, respectively. CONCULSION: Remote monitoring of IMRT using the developed system was feasible. With remote monitoring, the deviation at the target is expected to be small while the deviation at the OARs can be very large. Therefore, a method that is able to investigate the cause of a large deviation needs to be developed. In addition, a more clinically relevant measure for the two-dimensional dose comparison and pass/fail criteria need to be further developed.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Head , Korea , Neck , Pilot Projects , Thyroid Gland
17.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 81-87, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93699

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is to evaluate the xerostomia following 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) in nasopharynx cancer patients using the xerostomia questionnaire score (XQS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaire study was done on 51 patients with nasopharynx cancer who received 3D CRT from Dec. 2000 to Aug. 2005. 3D CRT technique is based on "serial shrinking field" concept by 3 times of computed tomography (CT) simulation. Total target dose to the primary tumor was 72 Gy with 1.8 Gy daily fractions. Xerostomia was assessed with 4-questions XQS, and the associations between XQS and time elapsed after RT, age, sex, stage, concurrent chemotherapy, and parotid dose were analyzed. RESULTS: Concurrent chemotherapy was given to 40 patients and RT alone was given to 11 patients. The median time elapsed after 3D CRT was 20 (1~58) months and the mean XQS of all 51 patients was 8.4+/-1.9 (6~14). XQS continuously and significantly decreased over time after 3D CRT (x(2)=-0.484, p or=35 Gy was significantly higher than or=35 Gy were suggested to adversely affect radiation-induced xerostomia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Therapy , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Surveys and Questionnaires , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Xerostomia
18.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 186-193, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139459

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To improve the management of a medical linear accelerator, the records of operational failures of a Varian CL2100C over a ten year period were retrospectively analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The failures were classified according to the involved functional subunits, with each class rated into one of three levels depending on the operational conditions. The relationships between the failure rate and working ratio and between the failure rate and outside temperature were investigated. In addition, the average life time of the main part and the operating efficiency over the last 4 years were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the recorded failures (total 587 failures), the most frequent failure was observed in the parts related with the collimation system, including the monitor chamber, which accounted for 20% of all failures. With regard to the operational conditions, 2nd level of failures, which temporally interrupted treatments, were the most frequent. Third level of failures, which interrupted treatment for more than several hours, were mostly caused by the accelerating subunit. The number of failures was increased with number of treatments and operating time. The average life-times of the Klystron and Thyratron became shorter as the working ratio increased, and were 42 and 83% of the expected values, respectively. The operating efficiency was maintained at 95% or higher, but this value slightly decreased. There was no significant correlation between the number of failures and the outside temperature. CONCLUSION: The maintenance of detailed equipment problems and failures records over a long period of time can provide good knowledge of equipment function as well as the capability of predicting future failure. More rigorous equipment maintenance is required for old medical linear accelerators for the advanced avoidance of serious failure and to improve the quality of patient treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particle Accelerators , Retrospective Studies
19.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 186-193, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139454

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To improve the management of a medical linear accelerator, the records of operational failures of a Varian CL2100C over a ten year period were retrospectively analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The failures were classified according to the involved functional subunits, with each class rated into one of three levels depending on the operational conditions. The relationships between the failure rate and working ratio and between the failure rate and outside temperature were investigated. In addition, the average life time of the main part and the operating efficiency over the last 4 years were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the recorded failures (total 587 failures), the most frequent failure was observed in the parts related with the collimation system, including the monitor chamber, which accounted for 20% of all failures. With regard to the operational conditions, 2nd level of failures, which temporally interrupted treatments, were the most frequent. Third level of failures, which interrupted treatment for more than several hours, were mostly caused by the accelerating subunit. The number of failures was increased with number of treatments and operating time. The average life-times of the Klystron and Thyratron became shorter as the working ratio increased, and were 42 and 83% of the expected values, respectively. The operating efficiency was maintained at 95% or higher, but this value slightly decreased. There was no significant correlation between the number of failures and the outside temperature. CONCLUSION: The maintenance of detailed equipment problems and failures records over a long period of time can provide good knowledge of equipment function as well as the capability of predicting future failure. More rigorous equipment maintenance is required for old medical linear accelerators for the advanced avoidance of serious failure and to improve the quality of patient treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particle Accelerators , Retrospective Studies
20.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 130-137, 2004.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52747

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In radiotherapy for cervix cancer, both 3-dimensioal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) could reduce the dose to the small bowel (SB), while the small bowel displacement system (SBDS) could reduce the SB volume in the pelvic cavity. To evaluate the effect of the SBDS on the dose to the SB in 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, with or without SBDS, were compared. MATERIALS AND MEHTODS: Ten consecutive uterine cervix cancer patients, receiving curative radiotherapy, were accrued. Ten pairs of computerized tomography (CT) scans were obtained in the prone position, with or without SBDS, which consisted of a Styrofoam compression device and an individualized custom-made abdominal immobilization device. Both 3D-CRT, using the 4-field box technique, and IMRT plans, with 7 portals of 15 MV X-ray, were generated for each CT image, and prescribed 50 Gy (25 fractions) to the isocenter. For the SB, the volume change due to the SBDS and the DVHs of the four different plans were analyzed using paired t-tests. RESULTS: The SBDS significantly reduced the mean SB volume from 522 to 262 cm3 (49.8% reduction). The SB volumes that received a dose of 10~50 Gy were significantly reduced in 3D-CRT (65~80% reduction) and IMRT plans (54~67% reduction) using the SBDS. When the SB volumes that received 20~50 Gy were compared between the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, those of the IMRT without the SBDS were significantly less, by 6~7%, than those for the 3D-CRT without the SBDS, but the volume difference was less than 1% when using the SBDS. CONCLUSION: The SBDS reduced the radiation dose to the SB in both the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, so could reduce the radiation injury of the SB.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cervix Uteri , Immobilization , Prone Position , Radiation Injuries , Radiotherapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
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