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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874768

ABSTRACT

Background@#Generally, allergen immunotherapy must be administered for three to five years. Meanwhile, rush immunotherapy (RIT) shortens the required duration for the build-up phase, thereby improving the therapy's convenience compared with conventional immunotherapy (CIT). However, RIT is often performed with modified allergens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the safety and utility of RIT with aqueous allergens. @*Methods@#Medical records of 98 patients sensitized with at least one inhalant allergen who had received subcutaneous immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were classified into three groups: depot-RIT (n = 25), receiving RIT with depot allergen; aqueous-RIT (n = 48), receiving RIT with aqueous allergen; and aqueous-CIT (n = 25), receiving CIT with aqueous allergen. Patients who had received immunotherapy targeting only house dust mites were excluded. @*Results@#The proportions of patients presenting with a systemic reaction to depot-RIT, aqueous-RIT, or aqueous-CIT were 80.0%, 85.4%, and 48.0%, respectively (P = 0.002). The proportions of patients experiencing severe systemic reaction were 4.0%, 16.7%, and 8.0% in depot-RIT, aqueous-RIT and aqueous-CIT, respectively (P = 0.223). The proportions of depotRIT and aqueous-RIT patients presenting with systemic reaction or severe systemic reaction did not differ significantly (P = 0.553 and P = 0.118, respectively). Significantly fewer depotRIT (1.0 ± 0.2) and aqueous-RIT patients (2.0 ± 1.3) required outpatient clinical visits during the build-up phase, compared to those administered aqueous-CIT (13.6 ± 1.9; P < 0.001).Moreover, the build-up phase decreased to 17.4 ± 1.8 days in depot-RIT and 23.7 ± 10.9 days in aqueous-RIT, compared to 92.0 ± 12.5 days in aqueous-CIT (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#RIT with aqueous allergen reduced the build-up phase duration and frequency of hospital visits, with acceptable safety levels. RIT with aqueous allergen may, therefore, be suitable for broad application to patients with respiratory allergies.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902466

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced radial T1-weighted gradient-echo 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) for the detection of visceral pleural surface invasion (VPSI). Visceral pleural invasion by non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be classified into two types: PL1 (without VPSI), invasion of the elastic layer of the visceral pleura without reaching the visceral pleural surface, and PL2 (with VPSI), full invasion of the visceral pleura. @*Materials and Methods@#Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed VPSI by NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed.Multidetector CT and contrast-enhanced 3T MRI with a free-breathing radial three-dimensional fat-suppressed volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) pulse sequence were compared in terms of the length of contact, angle of mass margin, and arch distance-to-maximum tumor diameter ratio. Supplemental evaluation of the tumor-pleura interface (smooth versus irregular) could only be performed with MRI (not discernible on CT). @*Results@#At the tumor-pleura interface, radial VIBE MRI revealed a smooth margin in 20 of 21 patients without VPSI and an irregular margin in 10 of 12 patients with VPSI, yielding an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and F-score for VPSI detection of 91%, 83%, 95%, 91%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. The McNemar test and receiver operating characteristics curve analysis revealed no significant differences between the diagnostic accuracies of CT and MRI for evaluating the contact length, angle of mass margin, or arch distance-to-maximum tumor diameter ratio as predictors of VPSI. @*Conclusion@#The diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced radial T1-weighted gradient-echo 3T MRI and CT were equal in terms of the contact length, angle of mass margin, and arch distance-to-maximum tumor diameter ratio. The advantage of MRI is its clear depiction of the tumor-pleura interface margin, facilitating VPSI detection.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894762

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced radial T1-weighted gradient-echo 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) for the detection of visceral pleural surface invasion (VPSI). Visceral pleural invasion by non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be classified into two types: PL1 (without VPSI), invasion of the elastic layer of the visceral pleura without reaching the visceral pleural surface, and PL2 (with VPSI), full invasion of the visceral pleura. @*Materials and Methods@#Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed VPSI by NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed.Multidetector CT and contrast-enhanced 3T MRI with a free-breathing radial three-dimensional fat-suppressed volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) pulse sequence were compared in terms of the length of contact, angle of mass margin, and arch distance-to-maximum tumor diameter ratio. Supplemental evaluation of the tumor-pleura interface (smooth versus irregular) could only be performed with MRI (not discernible on CT). @*Results@#At the tumor-pleura interface, radial VIBE MRI revealed a smooth margin in 20 of 21 patients without VPSI and an irregular margin in 10 of 12 patients with VPSI, yielding an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and F-score for VPSI detection of 91%, 83%, 95%, 91%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. The McNemar test and receiver operating characteristics curve analysis revealed no significant differences between the diagnostic accuracies of CT and MRI for evaluating the contact length, angle of mass margin, or arch distance-to-maximum tumor diameter ratio as predictors of VPSI. @*Conclusion@#The diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced radial T1-weighted gradient-echo 3T MRI and CT were equal in terms of the contact length, angle of mass margin, and arch distance-to-maximum tumor diameter ratio. The advantage of MRI is its clear depiction of the tumor-pleura interface margin, facilitating VPSI detection.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913280

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Anaphylaxis is life-threatening, so early recognition and proper response are critical. This study evaluated the awareness of anaphylaxis in Korean community including teachers, 119 rescue team, and doctors in public service. @*Methods@#A questionnaire of anonymously structured 9 items about anaphylaxis was administered to the teachers working in kindergartens or elementary schools, 119 rescue team, and public health physicians in Gangwon province in 2017. Additional questionnaire about knowledge on anaphylaxis management was administered to the physicians. @*Results@#A total of 415 people participated in the survey. About 4% of child care and health teachers experienced anaphylaxis within 1 year, but the overall awareness of anaphylaxis was very low, regardless of the educational level of anaphylaxis. 119 rescue teams experienced more anaphylactic patients, but they lacked knowledge of epinephrine administration and epinephrine autoinjector (EAI), independent of the educational level of anaphylaxis. Public health physicians had good knowledge of early treatment for anaphylaxis, but there was a lack of knowledge for epinephrine injection sites, observation plan, and EAI. @*Conclusion@#The awareness of anaphylaxis among community and emergency responders seems likely to be inadequate. Systematic and continuous education by anaphylaxis specialists is necessary for community health care providers.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaphylaxis is an immediate allergic reaction characterized by potentially life-threatening, severe, systemic manifestations. While studies have evaluated links between serious illness and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few have investigated PTSD after anaphylaxis in adults. We sought to investigate the psychosocial burden of recent anaphylaxis in Korean adults.METHODS: A total of 203 (mean age of 44 years, 120 females) patients with anaphylaxis were recruited from 15 university hospitals in Korea. Questionnaires, including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean version (IES-R-K), the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), and the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), were administered. Demographic characteristics, causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis, and serum inflammatory markers, including tryptase, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein, were evaluated.RESULTS: PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 25) was noted in 84 (41.4%) patients with anaphylaxis. Of them, 56.0% had severe PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 40). Additionally, 23.2% and 28.1% of the patients had anxiety (K-BAI ≥ 22) and depression (K-BDI ≥ 17), respectively. IES-R-K was significantly correlated with both K-BAI (r = 0.609, P < 0.0001) and K-BDI (r = 0.550, P < 0.0001). Among the inflammatory mediators, tryptase levels were lower in patients exhibiting PTSD; meanwhile, platelet-activating factor levels were lower in patients exhibiting anxiety and depression while recovering from anaphylaxis. In multivariate analysis, K-BAI and K-BDI were identified as major predictive variables of PTSD in patients with anaphylaxis.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with anaphylaxis, we found a remarkably high prevalence of PTSD and associated psychological distresses, including anxiety and depression. Physicians ought to be aware of the potential for psychological distress in anaphylactic patients and to consider psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anaphylaxis , Anxiety , C-Reactive Protein , Depression , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Tryptases
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719509

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although there have been reported cases of drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome caused by antituberculosis drugs, there has been no research to examine its prevalence. This study assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of DRESS syndrome caused by antituberculosis drugs. METHODS: The electronic medical records of a cohort consisting of adult patients diagnosed with tuberculosis between July 2006 and June 2010 were reviewed and retrospectively inspected. We searched the surveillance system for adverse drug reactions and the electronic medical records to identify patients who reported severe cutaneous adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. These patients were then re-assessed using a European Registry of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Drugs and Collection of Biological Samples (RegiSCAR) scoring system. Clinical characteristics, including the symptoms and latency of DRESS syndrome, the therapeutic dosage and period of steroids, and the final duration of tuberculosis therapy, were examined. RESULTS: Of the 1,253 adult patients with tuberculosis receiving antituberculosis drugs, 15 were identified as potential cases of DRESS syndrome (prevalence of 1.2%). Ethambutol was the most frequently used drug (53.5%), followed by rifampicin (26.7%), pyrazinamide (20.0%), streptomycin (13.3%), and isoniazid (6.7%). The median latency after day 1 of antituberculosis medication was 42 days. The median daily dose of steroids, expressed in prednisone-equivalent units, was 33-mg/day, and the median dosing period was 14 days. The duration of tuberculosis treatment was 76 days longer than the standard treatment period of 180 days. There was a significant difference in the peak eosinophil counts of DRESS syndrome patients according to RegiSCAR scores. Moreover, there was a significant quantitative correlation between the RegiSCAR score and peak eosinophil count. A negative correlation was also found between the RegiSCAR score and latency. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the prevalence of DRESS syndrome in a cohort of adult patients with tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cohort Studies , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Electronic Health Records , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Ethambutol , Humans , Isoniazid , Prevalence , Pyrazinamide , Retrospective Studies , Rifampin , Steroids , Streptomycin , Tuberculosis
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because acute cholecystitis in elderly hip fracture is not easily distinguishable from other gastrointestinal symptoms and involves atypical clinical behaviors, it may not be diagnosed in the early stage. However, the exact incidences could not be reported. We utilized data from a nationwide claims database and attempted to assess the incidence of acute cholecystitis in elderly hip fracture patients and how cholecystitis affects mortality rates after hip fracture. METHODS: Study subjects were from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort. From a population of approximately 5.5 million Korean enrollees > 60 years of age in 2002, a total of 588,147 participants were randomly selected using 10% simple random sampling. The subjects included in this study were those who were over 65 years old and underwent surgery for hip fractures. RESULTS: A total of 15,210 patients were enrolled in the cohort as hip fracture patients. There were 7,888 cases (51.9%) of femoral neck fracture and 7,443 (48.9%) cases of hemiarthroplasty. Thirty-six patients developed acute cholecystitis within 30 days after the index date (30-day cumulative incidence, 0.24%). Four of the 36 acute cholecystitis patients (11.1%) died within 30 days versus 2.92% of patients without acute cholecystitis. In the multivariate-adjusted Poisson regression model, hip fracture patients with incident acute cholecystitis were 4.35 (adjusted risk ratio 4.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.66–11.37; P = 0.003) times more likely to die within 30 days than those without acute cholecystitis. CONCLUSION: Incidence of acute cholecystitis in elderly patients after hip fracture within 30 days after the index date was 0.24%. Acute cholecystitis in elderly hip fracture patients dramatically increases the 30-day mortality rate by 4.35-fold. Therefore, early disease detection and management are crucial for patients.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Aged , Cholecystitis , Cholecystitis, Acute , Cohort Studies , Femoral Neck Fractures , Hemiarthroplasty , Hip Fractures , Hip , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , National Health Programs , Odds Ratio
8.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 654-662, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762961

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: Associations among risk factors related to adjacent segmental disease (ASD) remain unclear. We evaluated the risk factors and segmental lordosis ratio to prevent ASD developing after lumbar spinal fusion. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Risk factors related to ASD development are age, sex, obesity, pre-existing degeneration, number of fusion segments, and decreased postoperative lumbar lordosis (LL). However, the associations among these factors are still unclear and should be clearly identified. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data on 274 patients who underwent lumbar spinal fusion of three segments or below for lumbar degenerative disease from January 2010 to December 2012, with over 5 years of follow-up. Patients with preoperative sagittal vertical axis (SVA) >5 cm were excluded due to sagittal imbalance. A total of 37 patients with ASD and 40 control patients (CTRL) were randomly selected in a similar distribution of matching variables: age, sex, and preoperative degenerative changes. Sex, age, number of fusion segments, radiologic measurements, L4–5–S1/L1–S1 LL ratio, and spinopelvic parameters (pelvic incidence [PI], pelvic tilt [PT], sacral slope [SS], and SVA) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between PI–LL mismatch and L4–5–S1 segmental lordosis rate. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between ASDs and CTRL groups regarding age, sex, number of fusion segments, fusion method, and preoperative and postoperative spinopelvic parameters (PI, SS, PT, and LL). However, regarding the L4–5–S1/L1–S1 lordosis ratio, 50% (p=0.045), 60% (p=0.031), 70% (p=0.042), 80% (p=0.023), and 90% (p=0.023) were statistically significant; 10 group, and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a postoperative L4–5–S1/L1–S1 lordosis ratio >50% had less occurrence of ASD. Correcting LL according to PI and physiologic segmental lordosis ratio is important in preventing ASD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Lordosis , Methods , Obesity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Fusion
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718135

ABSTRACT

Chronic cough is common in the community and causes significant morbidity. Several factors may underlie this problem, but comorbid conditions located at sensory nerve endings that regulate the cough reflex, including rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, are considered important. However, chronic cough is frequently non-specific and accompanied by not easily identifiable causes during the initial evaluation. Therefore, there are unmet needs for developing empirical treatment and practical diagnostic approaches that can be applied in primary clinics. Meanwhile, in referral clinics, a considerable proportion of adult patients with chronic cough are unexplained or refractory to conventional treatment. The present clinical practice guidelines aim to address major clinical questions regarding empirical treatment, practical diagnostic tools for non-specific chronic cough, and available therapeutic options for chronic wet cough in children and unexplained chronic cough in adults in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Bronchitis , Child , Cough , Eosinophils , Evidence-Based Medicine , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Korea , Referral and Consultation , Reflex , Rhinitis , Sensory Receptor Cells
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1214-1221, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a leading cause of occupational asthma (OA). Periostin is a matricellular protein implicated in type 2 immunity-driven asthma. Its pathogenic role in TDI-OA has not been completely elucidated. The present study was performed to investigate the role of periostin in TDI-OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum periostin levels were measured in subjects with TDI-OA, asymptomatic TDI-exposure controls (AECs), non-occupational asthmatics (NAs), and unexposed normal controls (NCs). To understand the mechanism by which TDI induces periostin production, primary small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were cultured under stimulation of TDI and neutrophils from asthmatic patients. RESULTS: Fifty-three subjects with TDI-OA, 71 AECs, 67 NAs, and 83 NCs were enrolled. Serum periostin levels were significantly higher in TDI-OA subjects than in AECs (p=0.001), NAs (p < 0.001), and NCs (p < 0.001). In TDI-exposed subjects (TDI-OA and AEC), the PC20 methacholine levels were significantly lower in subjects with a higher periostin level than in those with a lower periostin level. TDI exposure did not increase periostin production directly by SAECs; however, periostin production increased significantly after co-culture with TDI and neutrophils, which was suppressed by an antioxidant. In addition, increased release of TGF-β1 was noted from SAECs when exposed to TDI and neutrophils, which was also suppressed by an antioxidant. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that an increased periostin level may contribute to the progression of airway inflammation to remodeling in TDI-exposed workers. A high serum periostin level is a potential serologic marker of the phenotype of TDI-OA.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Asthma, Occupational , Coculture Techniques , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Methacholine Chloride , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Reactive Oxygen Species , Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate , Toluene
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193559

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is steadily rising worldwide. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common indications, mostly imprudent, for antibiotic prescriptions in outpatient setting. In Korea, antibiotic prescription rate for RTIs is still high. As physician visit and antibiotic prescribing are influenced by patient's perceptions and beliefs, we aimed to explore the general public's perspectives and practices toward RTIs and to develop the ‘RTI clinical iceberg.’ A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Wonju Severance Christian Hospital (WSCH) among 550 adults attending outpatient departments during January 2016. Differences in distributions between groups were examined using two-tailed Pearson χ² test. Using the Andersen's behavioral model as a conceptual framework, we constructed logistic regression models to assess factors associated with physician visit. Of 547 participants with complete questionnaires, 62.9% reported having experienced an RTI in the previous six months; 59.3% visited a physician for the illness, most commonly because the symptoms were severe or prolonged, and approximately 16% of them expected an antibiotic prescription from the visit. Perceptions of symptoms severity, the need factor, most strongly influenced physician visit. Predisposing and enabling factors such as inappropriate expectations for antibiotic for a sore throat or having national health insurance also influenced physician visit. Almost all participants who reported asking for an antibiotic were prescribed one, with a 37.1% non-adherence rate. Conclusively, public education on self-care for RTI symptoms that addresses their main concerns may reduce physician visits. Improving physician-patient relationship and informing patients about the lack of antibiotic benefit for most RTIs may also reduce antibiotic prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Causality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Education , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , National Health Programs , Outpatients , Pharyngitis , Prescriptions , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections , Self Care
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of our new video-assisted asthma education program on patients' knowledge regarding asthma and asthma control. METHODS: Adult asthmatics who were diagnosed by primary care physicians and followed for at least 1 year were educated via smart devices and pamphlets. The education sessions were carried out three times at 2-week intervals. Each education period lasted at most 5 minutes. The effectiveness was then evaluated using questionnaires and an asthma control test (ACT). RESULTS: The study enrolled 144 patients (mean age, 56.7±16.7 years). Half of the patients had not been taught how to use their inhalers. After participating in the education program, the participants' understanding of asthma improved significantly across all six items of a questionnaire assessing their general knowledge of asthma. The proportion of patients who made errors while manipulating their inhalers was reduced to less than 10%. The ACT score increased from 16.6±4.6 to 20.0±3.9 (p<0.001). The number of asthmatics whose ACT score was at least 20 increased from 45 (33.3%) to 93 (65.3%) (p<0.001). The magnitude of improvement in the ACT score did not differ between patients who received an education session at least three times within 1 year and those who had not. The majority of patients agreed to the need for an education program (95.8%) and showed a willingness to pay an additional cost for the education (81.9%). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that our newly developed education program would become an effective component of asthma management in primary care clinics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Education , Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pamphlets , Physicians, Primary Care , Primary Health Care
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proper education regarding inhaler usage and optimal management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is essential for effectively treating patients with COPD. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive education program including inhaler training and COPD management. METHODS: We enlisted 127 patients with COPD on an outpatient basis at 43 private clinics in Korea. The patients were educated on inhaler usage and disease management for three visits across 2 weeks. Physicians and patients were administered a COPD assessment test (CAT) and questionnaires about the correct usage of inhalers and management of COPD before commencement of this program and after their third visit. RESULTS: The outcomes of 127 COPD patients were analyzed. CAT scores (19.6±12.5 vs. 15.1±12.3) improved significantly after this program (p<0.05). Patients with improved CAT scores of 4 points or more had a better understanding of COPD management and the correct technique for using inhalers than those who did not have improved CAT scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: A comprehensive education program including inhaler training and COPD management at a primary care setting improved CAT scores and led to patients' better understanding of COPD management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Disease Management , Dry Powder Inhalers , Education , Humans , Korea , Metered Dose Inhalers , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Outpatients , Primary Health Care , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49027

ABSTRACT

The tools for asthma control assessment recommended by the current guideline are cognitive function- and effort-dependent, which is substantially impaired in the elderly. The aim of this study is to investigate objective assessment tools of asthma control status and previous asthma exacerbation (AE) in elderly subjects. Asthmatics aged >60 years who were treated with step 2 or 3 by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline were enrolled. During the 12-week study period, the subjects used either 400 µg of budesonide plus 10 mg of montelukast or 800 µg of inhaled budesonide. The occurrence of AE during the 4-week run-in and 12-week treatment period was monitored. After 12-week of treatment, sputum eosinophil count, peripheral eosinophil count, the plasma leukotriene E₄ (LTE₄), and prostaglandin F₂α (PGF₂α) metabolite levels were measured using the UHPLC/Q-ToF MS system. The study subjects were divided into group 1 (asthmatics who experienced AE during the study period) and group 2 (those who did not). A total of 101 patients aged 60-85 years were enrolled. Twenty-three patients (22.8%) had experienced AE. The plasma LTE₄ level, LTE₄/PGF₂α ratio, and peripheral eosinophil count were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P=0.023, P=0.010, P=0.033, respectively). The plasma LTE₄/PGF₂α ratio and peripheral eosinophil count at week 12 were significantly associated with previous AE (odds ratio [OR]=1.748, P=0.013; OR=1.256, P=0.027). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate the subjects with previous AE, including these 2 parameters, showed that the area under the curve was 0.700 (P=0.004), with 73.9% sensitivity and 47.9% specificity. In conclusion, a combination of plasma LTE₄/PGF₂α ratio and peripheral eosinophil count can be an objective assessment tool which is significantly associated with asthma control status in elderly asthmatics.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asthma , Budesonide , Eosinophils , Humans , Plasma , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 754-761, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44349

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Extrapyramidal signs (EPS) are common in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, few studies have assessed the effect of EPS on the clinical course of MCI. We aimed to evaluate whether patients with EPS show more frequent progression from MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to other types of dementia. METHODS: Participants (n=882) with MCI were recruited, and were followed for up to 5 years. The EPS positive group was defined by the presence of at least one EPS based on a focused neurologic examination at baseline. RESULTS: A total of 234 converted to dementia during the follow-up period. The risk of progression to AD was lower in the patients with EPS after adjusting for potential confounders [hazard ratio (HR)=0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53–0.93, p=0.01]. In contrast, the patients with EPS had a six-fold elevated risk of progression to dementia other than AD (HR=6.33, 95%CI=2.30–17.39, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: EPS in patients with MCI is a strong risk factor for progression of MCI to non-Alzheimer dementia. The careful neurologic examination for EPS in patients with MCI can yield important clinical information for prognosis.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurologic Examination , Prognosis , Risk Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77211

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chronic urticaria (CU) has a substantial impact on the quality of life. Little clinical data on the prognosis of CU has been reported. This study aimed to investigate the control status and remission rate of CU and to explore potential predictors of good responses to the treatment during a 6-month treatment period. METHODS: A total of 75 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) were enrolled from 3 university hospitals in Korea. Urticaria control state was classified into 2 groups: group I (remission and well-controlled) and group II (partly and uncontrolled). CU-specific quality of life (CU-QoL) and the urticaria activity score (UAS) were measured before and after the treatment. Autologous serum skin test (ASST), and anti-nuclear and anti-thyroid antibodies were measured at the enrollment into the study. Aspirin intolerance was confirmed by an oral provocation test. RESULTS: Of 59 patients completing the study, 21 (35.6%) arrived at well-controlled status and only 2 (3.4%) achieved remission, whereas 26 (44.1%) remained at partly controlled status and 10 (16.9%) were at uncontrolled status. Mean changes in CU-QoL (36.5+/-2.7 vs 20.6+/-4.3, P=0.017) and UAS (-7.9+/-0.8 vs -3.0+/-1.0, P=0.001) were significantly different between groups I and II. The presence of serum autoantibodies and aspirin intolerance had no influence on the control of urticaria in this study. However, ASST positivity was identified as a significant predictor of CU control in multivariate analysis (OR=6.106, P=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of CSU patients that achieved remission or a well-controlled state was 39% for the 6 months of stepwise treatment. Longer observations are necessary to assess the exact prognosis of CSU. ASST results may be a useful parameter for predicting a better response to treatment and both UAS and CU-QoL are helpful to monitor therapeutic response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Aspirin , Autoantibodies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Observational Study , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Skin Tests , Urticaria
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13356

ABSTRACT

Education has been known to essential for management of chronic airway diseases. However the real benefits remain unclear. We evaluated the effectiveness of an organized educational intervention for chronic airway diseases directed at primary care physicians and patients. The intervention was a 1-month education program of three visits, during which subjects were taught about their disease, an action plan in acute exacerbation and inhaler technique. Asthma control tests (ACT) for asthma and, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment tests (CAT) for COPD subjects were compared before and after education as an index of quality of life. Educational effectiveness was also measured associated with improvement of their knowledge for chronic airway disease itself, proper use of inhaler technique, and satisfaction of the subjects and clinicians before and after education. Among the 285 participants, 60.7% (n = 173) were men and the mean age was 62.2 ± 14.7. ACT for asthma and CAT in COPD patients were significantly improved by 49.7% (n = 79) and 51.2% (n = 65) more than MCID respectively after education (P < 0.05). In all individual items, knowledge about their disease, inhaler use and satisfaction of the patients and clinicians were also improved after education (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates the well-organized education program for primary care physicians and patients is a crucial process for management of chronic airway diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/pathology , Disease Management , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Satisfaction , Primary Health Care , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Quality of Life , Respiration , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114302

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There have been few reports regarding the efficacy of antiasthmatics in older patients. To compare the efficacy of the addition of montelukast to low-dose inhaled budesonide (MON-400BUD) versus increasing the dose of inhaled steroid (800BUD) on asthma control in older asthmatics. METHODS: A randomized, open-label, parallel-designed trial was conducted for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the rate of patients who reached "well-controlled asthma status" after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, asthma exacerbations, sputum inflammatory cells, asthma control test (ACT) and physical functioning scale (PFS), and adverse reactions were monitored. RESULTS: Twenty-four (36.9%) and 22 (34.9%) subjects in the MON-400BUD (n=65) and 800BUD (n=63) groups had well-controlled asthma at the end of the study, respectively. The numbers of asthma exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroid treatment (20 vs 9, respectively, P=0.036) and the development of sore throat (22 vs 11, respectively, P=0.045) were significantly higher in the 800BUD group than in the MON-400BUD group. Body mass index and changes in ACT, FEV1%, 6-min walk distance and PFS from baseline were all significant determinants for distinguishing subjects with well-controlled and partly controlled asthma from those with uncontrolled asthma (P<0.05) at the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of 12-week treatment with MON-400BUD in older asthmatics was comparable to that of 800BUD on asthma control but associated with reduced frequency of asthma exacerbations requiring oral steroids and sore throat events. Changes in ACT and PFS can be useful predictors of asthma control status in older patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Body Mass Index , Budesonide , Humans , Motor Activity , Pharyngitis , Sputum , Steroids
20.
Keimyung Medical Journal ; : 127-132, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79178

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis (formerly known as zygomycosis) is a life-threatening opportunistic mycosis that infects a broad range of hosts with qualitative or quantitative defects in innate immunity. The overall mortality rate of pulmonary mucormycosis is above 70%. The prognosis and outcome of pulmonary mucormycosis have not improved significantly over the last decade, mainly because of difficulty in early diagnosis and the limited activity of current antifungal agents against members of the order Mucorales. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis treated successfully with posaconazole as salvage therapy. We suggest that posaconazole may be considered as an alternative therapeutic approach in patients with invasive pulmonary mucormycosis who are unable to tolerate surgical treatment.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Mortality , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Prognosis , Salvage Therapy
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