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1.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 76-82, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966526

ABSTRACT

While the guidelines for adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for colon cancer are relatively standardized, those for early rectal cancer are still lacking. We therefore evaluated the role of AC in clinical stage II rectal cancer treatment after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients diagnosed with early rectal cancer (defined by clinical stage T3/4, N0) who completed CRT followed by surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. To evaluate the role of AC, we analyzed the risk of recurrence and survival based on clinicopathologic parameters and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 112 patients, 11 patients (9.8%) experienced recurrence and five patients (4.8%) died. In a multivariate analysis, circumferential resection margin involvement (CRM+) on magnetic resonance imaging at diagnosis, CRM involvement following neoadjuvant therapy (ypCRM+), tumor regression grade (≤G1) and no-AC were considered poor prognostic factors for recurrence free survival (RFS). In addition, ypCRM+ and no-AC were associated with poor overall survival (OS) in the multivariate analysis. AC including 5-FU monotherapy demonstrated the benefits of reduced recurrence and prolonged survival in clinical stage II rectal cancer, even in pathologic stage following neoadjuvant therapy (ypStage) 0-I. Further prospective studies are needed to verify the benefit of each regimen of AC and the development of a method that can accurately predict CRM status before surgery, and a vigorous treatment that can induce CRM non-involvement (CRM−) should be considered even in early stages of rectal cancer.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 660-672, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927020

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite the increasing need for geriatric assessment prior to chemotherapy, the method for this assessment remains inadequate for older cancer patients. We aimed to propose a simple assessment method to predict the performance of adjuvant chemotherapy in older patients after colon cancer surgery. @*Methods@#This prospective study included patients over 65 years of age who were scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy after colon cancer surgery. Before initiating chemotherapy, their functional status was assessed on the basis of activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). These parameters were analyzed with clinical characteristics and the patterns of adjuvant chemotherapy. The focus was on the completion rate of adjuvant chemotherapy. @*Results@#A total of 89 patients with a median age of 72 years were analyzed. Among them, 54 (61%) were non-impaired and 35 (39%) were impaired regarding their ADL/IADL classification. Low body mass index and impairment of ADL/IADLs were significantly associated with chemotherapy interruption. Among toxicities, fatigue and hand-foot syndrome were independent prognostic factors for chemotherapy interruption. Impairments of ADL/IADL were significantly associated with fatigue regardless of age. Based on age and ADL/IADL stratification, younger patients (≤ 72 years) and/or those who were ADL/IADL non-impaired were significantly more likely to complete adjuvant chemotherapy than older patients (> 72 years) and ADL/IADL impaired patients (p = 0.038). This was regardless of the chemotherapy regimen. @*Conclusions@#Functional assessment using ADL/IADL is a convenient method to predict chemotherapy toxicity and performance. These results suggested that routine screening for ADL/IADLs could guide appropriate patient selection for the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy and predict expected outcomes.

3.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 29-36, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913901

ABSTRACT

Extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer. Although several biological and histological markers have been suggested as prognostic factors for this cancer, the prognostic importance of systemic inflammatory markers, including the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio, is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between systemic inflammatory markers and the prognosis of extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 85 patients with unresectable or metastatic extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma who received platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line chemotherapy from August 2007 to November 2019. We used time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine the cut-off values. The cut-off values for the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were 3.0 and 158.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score, Ki-67 index, or response to chemotherapy between groups. The high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio group showed significantly worse overall survival (high vs. low, median 11.1 vs. 21.0 months, log-rank p=0.004) and shorter median progression-free survival, but the latter was not statistically significant. The high platelet-lymphocyte ratio group also showed significantly worse progression-free survival and overall survival than the low platelet-lymphocyte ratio group (high vs. low:median 5.6 vs. 9.8 months, log-rank p=0.047 and median 13.8 vs. 21.0 months, log-rank p=0.013, respectively). In multivariable analysis, a high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is a potent and readily available prognostic factor for extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 754-762, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897459

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the association between alcohol-related genetic variants and CRC risk. @*Materials and Methods@#The study cohort consisted of 5,435 CRC cases and 3,553 population-based cancer-free controls. Genotype data were generated from germline DNA using the Infinium OncoArray-500K BeadChip in 2,535 cases and 2,287 controls and the Infinium Multi-Ethnic Global BeadChip in 2,900 cases and 1,266 controls. The associations between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) rs1229984 polymorphisms and CRC risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. @*Results@#Compared with the major homozygous ALDH2 genotype (GG), heterozygous or minor homozygous ALDH2 genotype (GA or AA, related to a low alcohol consumption) was significantly associated with a reduced risk for CRC in men (odds ratio [OR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.90), but not in women (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.05). A stronger association was found among regular drinkers (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.71 in men and OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.58 in women). No association of CRC risk with ADH1B rs1229984 genotype was found. The association between alcohol-related combined genotypes and risk of CRC was significant (p for linear=0.001). The combined genotype with the highest genetically predicted alcohol consumption (ALDH2 rs671 GG and ADH1B rs1229984 AG/GG) was associated with a high risk for CRC (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.63). @*Conclusion@#Our study provides strong evidence for a possible causal association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 754-762, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889755

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the association between alcohol-related genetic variants and CRC risk. @*Materials and Methods@#The study cohort consisted of 5,435 CRC cases and 3,553 population-based cancer-free controls. Genotype data were generated from germline DNA using the Infinium OncoArray-500K BeadChip in 2,535 cases and 2,287 controls and the Infinium Multi-Ethnic Global BeadChip in 2,900 cases and 1,266 controls. The associations between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) rs1229984 polymorphisms and CRC risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. @*Results@#Compared with the major homozygous ALDH2 genotype (GG), heterozygous or minor homozygous ALDH2 genotype (GA or AA, related to a low alcohol consumption) was significantly associated with a reduced risk for CRC in men (odds ratio [OR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.90), but not in women (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.05). A stronger association was found among regular drinkers (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.71 in men and OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.58 in women). No association of CRC risk with ADH1B rs1229984 genotype was found. The association between alcohol-related combined genotypes and risk of CRC was significant (p for linear=0.001). The combined genotype with the highest genetically predicted alcohol consumption (ALDH2 rs671 GG and ADH1B rs1229984 AG/GG) was associated with a high risk for CRC (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.63). @*Conclusion@#Our study provides strong evidence for a possible causal association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e148-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831498

ABSTRACT

The association between alcohol and gastric cancer is stronger in East Asians than in other ethnic groups, presumably due to an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism and gastric cancer in a Korean population. This case-control study included 3,245 hospital patients newly diagnosed with gastric cancer and 8,732 population controls. The ALDH2 rs671 genotype was classified as inactive ALDH2 (GG) or active ALDH2 (GA/AA). The risk of gastric cancer was higher in men with the inactive ALDH2 than in those with active ALDH2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.39), whereas no significant association was found between ALDH2 genotype and gastric cancer in women (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99–1.02). In men, the association between ALDH2 genotype and gastric cancer was stronger in current drinkers. Our findings support the previously reported association between inactive ALDH2 and high risk of gastric cancer.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 246-253, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831073

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pneumococcal vaccination (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13]) is recommended to cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy. However, the optimal time interval between vaccine administration and initiation of chemotherapy has been little studied in adult patients with solid malignancies. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether administering PCV13 on the first day of chemotherapy is non-inferior to vaccinating 2 weeks prior to chemotherapy initiation. Patients were randomly assigned to two study arms, and serum samples were collected at baseline and 4 weeks after vaccination to analyze the serologic response against Streptococcus pneumoniae using a multiplexed opsonophagocytic killingassay. @*Results@#Of the 92 patients who underwent randomization, 43 patients in arm A (vaccination 2 weeks before chemotherapy) and 44 patients in arm B (vaccination on the first day of chemotherapy) were analyzed. Immunogenicity was assessed by geometric mean and fold-increase of post-vaccination titers, seroprotection rates (percentage of patients with post-vaccination titers > 1:64), and seroconversion rates (percentage of patients with > 4-fold increase in post-vaccination titers). Serologic responses to PCV13 did not differ significantly between the two study arms according to all three types of assessments. @*Conclusion@#The overall antibody response to PCV13 is adequate in patients with gastric and colorectal cancer during adjuvant chemotherapy, and no significant difference was found when patients were vaccinated two weeks before or on the day of chemotherapy initiation.

8.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 31-39, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719478

ABSTRACT

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogenous population of immature cells that play a critical role in tumor associated immune suppression. In tumor conditions, the population of MDSCs increases. The main feature of these cells is their ability to suppress the T cell response in antigen specific or nonspecific manners depending on the condition of T cell activation. IL-12 can modulate MDSC in preliminary reports, so we investigated how IL-12 can affect MDSC in a tumor microenvironment. After implanting tumor based cells on syngeneic host, 4T-1/BALB/c or EL4/C57BL6 mice, MDSCs (Gr1+CD11b+) were isolated from splenocytes. Isolated MDSCs were treated with GM-CSF with or without IL-12 and analyzed based on their phenotypes and functions. Treatment of MDSC with IL-12 increased co-stimulatory molecules of CD80, CD86, OX-40L, enhancing the DC phenotype (CD11c) and maturation markers such as p-NF-κB and p-GSK3β. In addition to a change of surface markers, T-cell suppressive function of MDSC after IL-12 treatment was significantly improved compared with the control MDSC. In addition, PD-L1+F4/80+ macrophages, which show aninhibitory effect in phagocytosis, were decreased after IL-12 treatment. The changes of cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, MHC class II were also shown in vivo. Our results showed that the IL-12 can modulate MDSC into APC and recover the macrophage function. These results suggested that IL-12 plays a role in improving the tumor immune microenvironment through MDSC modulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Interleukin-12 , Macrophages , Phagocytosis , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 300-312, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a deadly disease in which precision medicine needs to be incorporated. We aimed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in determining actionable targets to guide appropriate molecular targeted therapy in HNSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three tumors and matched blood samples underwent targeted sequencing of 244 genes using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform with an average depth of coverage of greater than 1,000×. Clinicopathological data from patients were obtained from 17 centers in Korea, and were analyzed in correlation with NGS data. RESULTS: Ninety-two of the 93 tumors were amenable to data analysis. TP53 was the most common mutation, occurring in 47 (51%) patients, followed by CDKN2A (n=23, 25%), CCND1 (n=22, 24%), and PIK3CA (n=19, 21%). The total mutational burden was similar between human papillomavirus (HPV)–negative vs. positive tumors, although TP53, CDKN2A and CCND1 gene alterations occurred more frequently in HPV-negative tumors. HPV-positive tumors were significantly associated with immune signature-related genes compared to HPV-negative tumors. Mutations of NOTCH1 (p=0.027), CDKN2A (p < 0.001), and TP53 (p=0.038) were significantly associated with poorer overall survival. FAT1 mutations were highly enriched in cisplatin responders, and potentially targetable alterations such as PIK3CA E545K and CDKN2A R58X were noted in 14 patients (15%). CONCLUSION: We found several targetable genetic alterations, and our findings suggest that implementation of precision medicine in HNSCC is feasible. The predictive value of each targetable alteration should be assessed in a future umbrella trial using matched molecular targeted agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin , Epithelial Cells , Head , Korea , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Statistics as Topic
10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 165-177, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer is associated with different anatomical, biological, and clinical characteristics. We determined the impact of the primary tumor location in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: Demographic data and clinical information were collected from 1,115 patients from the Republic of Korea, who presented with mCRC between January 2009 and December 2011, using web-based electronic case report forms. Associations between the primary tumor location and the patient's clinical characteristics were assessed, and factors inf luencing overall survival were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Of the 1,115 patients recruited to the study, 244 (21.9%) had right colon cancer, 483 (43.3%) had left colon cancer, and 388 (34.8%) had rectal cancer. Liver and lung metastases occurred more frequently in patients with left colon and rectal cancer (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006, respectively), while peritoneal and ovarian metastases occurred more frequently in patients with right and left colon cancer (p < 0.001 and p = 0.031, respectively). The median overall survival of patients with tumors originating in the right colon was significantly shorter than that of patients whose tumors had originated in the left colon or rectum (13.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 12.0 to 15.5] vs. 18.0 months [95% CI, 16.3 to 19.7] or 19.9 months [95% CI, 18.5 to 21.3], respectively; p = 0.003). Tumor resection, the number of metastatic sites, and primary tumor location correlated with overall survival in the univariate and multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Primary tumor location influences the metastatic sites and prognosis of patients with mCRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Liver , Lung , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum , Republic of Korea
11.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 301-314, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764499

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer (GC) patients results in extremely poor prognosis. Malignant ascites samples are the most appropriate biological material to use to evaluate biomarkers for peritoneal carcinomatosis. This study identified exosomal MicroRNAs (miRNAs) differently expressed between benign liver cirrhosis-associated ascites (LC-ascites) and malignant gastric cancer-associated ascites (GC-ascites), and validated their role as diagnostic biomarkers for GC-ascites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from 165 ascites samples (73 LC-ascites and 92 GC-ascites). Initially, microarrays were used to screen the expression levels of 2,006 miRNAs in the discovery cohort (n=22). Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were performed to validate the expression levels of selected exosomal miRNAs in the training (n=70) and validation (n=73) cohorts. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were determined in ascites samples. RESULTS: The miR-574-3p, miR-181b-5p, miR-4481, and miR-181d were significantly downregulated in the GC-ascites samples compared to the LC-ascites samples, and miR-181b-5p showed the best diagnostic performance for GC-ascites (area under the curve [AUC]=0.798 and 0.846 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively). The diagnostic performance of CEA for GC-ascites was improved by the combined analysis of miR-181b-5p and CEA (AUC=0.981 and 0.946 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We identified exosomal miRNAs capable of distinguishing between non-malignant and GC-ascites, showing that the combined use of miR-181b-5p and CEA could improve diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascites , Biomarkers , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Carcinoma , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Down-Regulation , Exosomes , Liver , MicroRNAs , Prognosis , RNA , Stomach Neoplasms
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 766-777, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129233

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays an important role in cancer progression during tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. This study evaluated the prognostic role of FGFR4 polymorphism in patients with resected colon cancer, including the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FGFR4 polymorphism was characterized in patientswho received curative resection for stage III colon cancer. FGFR4-dependent signal pathways involving cell proliferation, invasion, and migration according to genotypes were also evaluated in transfected colon cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Among a total of 273 patients, the GG of FGFR4 showed significantly better overall survival than the AG or AA, regardless of adjuvant treatment. In the group of AG or AA, combination of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) resulted in better survival than fluorouracil/leucovorin or no adjuvant chemotherapy. However, in GG, there was no difference among treatment regimens. Using multivariate analyses, the Arg388 carriers, together with age, N stage, poor differentiation, absence of a lymphocyte response, and no adjuvant chemotherapy, had a significantly worse OS than patients with the Gly388 allele. In transfected colon cancer cells, overexpression of Arg388 significantly increased cell proliferation and changes in epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers compared with cells overexpressing the Gly388 allele. CONCLUSION: The Arg388 allele of FGFR4 may be a biomarker and a candidate target for adjuvant treatment of patients with resected colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Biomarkers , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Genotype , Leucovorin , Lymphocytes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4 , Signal Transduction
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 766-777, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129219

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays an important role in cancer progression during tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. This study evaluated the prognostic role of FGFR4 polymorphism in patients with resected colon cancer, including the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FGFR4 polymorphism was characterized in patientswho received curative resection for stage III colon cancer. FGFR4-dependent signal pathways involving cell proliferation, invasion, and migration according to genotypes were also evaluated in transfected colon cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Among a total of 273 patients, the GG of FGFR4 showed significantly better overall survival than the AG or AA, regardless of adjuvant treatment. In the group of AG or AA, combination of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) resulted in better survival than fluorouracil/leucovorin or no adjuvant chemotherapy. However, in GG, there was no difference among treatment regimens. Using multivariate analyses, the Arg388 carriers, together with age, N stage, poor differentiation, absence of a lymphocyte response, and no adjuvant chemotherapy, had a significantly worse OS than patients with the Gly388 allele. In transfected colon cancer cells, overexpression of Arg388 significantly increased cell proliferation and changes in epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers compared with cells overexpressing the Gly388 allele. CONCLUSION: The Arg388 allele of FGFR4 may be a biomarker and a candidate target for adjuvant treatment of patients with resected colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Biomarkers , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Genotype , Leucovorin , Lymphocytes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4 , Signal Transduction
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 71-79, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) polymorphism in esophageal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from 244 patients treated with CRT for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were assessed for the role of FGFR4 genotype on treatment response and survival. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients were homozygous for the Gly388 allele, and 110 were heterozygous and 40 homozygous for the Arg388 allele. No significant association was found between the FGFR4 genotype and clinicopathological parameters. However, patients carrying the Gly388 allele showed a better overall response rate than Arg388 carriers (p=0.038). In addition, Gly388 allele patients at an earlier stage showed better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival than Arg388 carriers. Among these, the Gly388 allele showed significantly improved OS compared to Arg388 carriers in the lymph node (LN) metastasis group (p=0.042) compared to the no LN metastasis group (p=0.125). However, similar survival outcomes were observed for advanced-stage disease regardless of genotype. CONCLUSION: This result suggests that the role of FGFR4 Gly388 in treatment outcomes differs according to esophageal cancer stage. It showed a predictive role in the response of esophageal cancer patients to CRT with a better trend for OS in Gly388 than Arg388 carriers in the early stages. In particular, LN-positive early-stage patients carrying the Gly388 allele showed improved OS compared to those carrying Arg388.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Esophageal Neoplasms , Genotype , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 276-284, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78974

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Locally advanced esophageal cancers are generally treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, followed by surgery in operable candidates. However, even if the patients were diagnosed as operable disease, surgery could not be performed on patients with poor condition or other comorbidity. In this case, definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) is the other option for localized esophageal cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and clinical prognostic factors for dCRT in locally advanced esophageal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a review of patients who received dCRT for locally advanced squamous esophageal cancer from 2004 to 2010, focusing on stages III and IVa. All patients received at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy during radiation, and all tumor burdens were included in the radiation field. The treatment results were analyzed for patterns of failure and prognostic factors associated with survival. RESULTS: In total, 63 patients were enrolled in this study. The overall response rate was 84.1%. Relief from dysphagia after dCRT was achieved in 48 patients. The most frequent failure was local recurrence. The median overall survival (OS) was 23.0 months, and the 2-year survival rate was 45.4%. Similar results were observed for elderly study patients. Significant prognostic factors for OS were duration of smoking, high grade of dysphagia (score of 3 or 4), and shorter duration of progression-free and dysphagia-free survival. Maintenance chemotherapy after dCRT did not influence OS. However, "good risk" patients receiving maintenance chemotherapy showed better OS than those who did not receive maintenance chemotherapy (30.4 months vs. 12.0 months, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: dCRT has a major role in improving survival and palliation of dysphagia in inoperable advanced esophageal cancer, even in elderly patients. Maintenance chemotherapy after dCRT may be effective in prolonging survival in "good risk" patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Comorbidity , Deglutition Disorders , Drug Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Maintenance Chemotherapy , Prognosis , Recurrence , Smoke , Smoking , Survival Rate , Tumor Burden
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 374-380, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89573

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) increases transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene. Inhibition of VEGF abolishes VEGF mediated induction of HIF-1alpha. Recent reports suggested that HIF-1alpha also mediated the induction of class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) in hypoxia. TUBB3 confers resistance to taxanes. Inhibition of VEGF may decrease the expression of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3. This study was undertaken to investigate the roles of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) in gastric cancer cell behavior and to identify methods to overcome paclitaxel resistance in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protein expression levels of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3 were measured in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The relationship between TUBB3 and paclitaxel resistance was assessed with small interfering TUBB3 RNA. AGS cells were treated with anti-VEGFR-1, anti-VEGFR-2, placental growth factor (PlGF), bevacizuamb, and paclitaxel. RESULTS: Hypoxia induced paclitaxel resistance was decreased by knockdown of TUBB3. Induction of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3 in AGS is VEGFR-1 mediated and PlGF dependent. Hypoxia-dependent upregulation of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3 was reduced in response to paclitaxel treatment. Expressions of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3 were most decreased when AGS cells were treated with a combination of paclitaxel and anti-VEGFR-1. AGS cell cytotoxicity was most increased in response to paclitaxel, anti-VEGFR-1, and anti-VEGFR-2. CONCLUSION: We suggest that blockade of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 enhances paclitaxel sensitivity in TUBB3-expressing gastric cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Pregnancy Proteins/pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tubulin/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/antagonists & inhibitors
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 297-304, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165641

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer represents a major public health problem in worldwide including Korea. According to the National Cancer Registry, colon cancer is the third most common cancer and the forth leading cause of cancer death. The surgery is a main treatment option for cure. Despite curative surgery in those presenting early, the risk of relapse is significantly high. To improve the survival, huge advances have been made in the treatment of colon cancer over the last decade. Especially, the median overall survival time for stage IV colon cancer has been reached from 6-9 months to over 20 months. Based on these results, drugs such as irinotecan, oxaliplatin and oral fluoropyrimidine have been used to evaluate the efficacy in adjuvant setting. Oxaliplatin based chemotherapy is now emerging as the standard of care in adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer. Targeted agents, which have shown promise in the metastatic setting, are currently being examined in the adjuvant setting, although results have been disappointing until now. Even though adjuvant treatment is recommended for 'high risk' stage II, the endeavor to answer for question-who should be treated by what-is needed.


Subject(s)
Camptothecin , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Korea , Organoplatinum Compounds , Public Health , Recurrence , Standard of Care
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1037-1043, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154187

ABSTRACT

The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), inhibits the growth of several types of human cancer cells in vitro, but its therapeutic use is limited because it causes hypercalcemia. Among its analogs, 19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (paricalcitol), has fewer calcemic effects and exhibits an activity equipotent to that of calcitriol. We assessed the antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects of paricalcitol in gastric cancer cells, and evaluated the potential role of vitamin D in the treatment of peritoneal metastatic gastric cancer. In this study, treatment with paricalcitol inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest. Paricalcitol also induced apoptosis and showed anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, the growth of intraperitoneal metastases in vivo was reduced in mice treated with paricalcitol. 18F-FDG uptake was significantly lower in the paricalcitol group compared to control group (SUV; control group 13.2 +/- 5.3 vs paricalcitol group 4.5 +/- 3.0). Intraperitoneal tumor volume was significantly lower in paricalcitol treated mice (control group 353.2 +/- 22.9 mm3 vs paricalcitol group 252.0 +/- 8.4 mm3). These results suggest that the vitamin D analog, paricalcitol, has anticancer activity on gastric cancer cells by regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Ergocalciferols/chemistry , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/chemistry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peritoneal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Positron-Emission Tomography , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Transplantation, Heterologous
19.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 100-104, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54809

ABSTRACT

Esophageal hiatal hernia is the hernia of a part of or the whole of stomach to posterior mediastinum through esophageal hiatus. Esophageal hiatal hernia can be classified as sliding hiatal hernia (type I), paraesophageal (type II), combined sliding and paraesophageal (type III), and complex paraesophageal (type IV). Type III and IV are clinically classified as paraesophageal hernia. The authors by chance found cystic mass filled with air in the lower lobe of the right lung during the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia of 10 month-old patient. It was found to be paraesophageal hernia on the chest computed tomography and treated with the operation. As complex paraesophageal hernia is not usual among infants, the authors report it here with literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Hernia , Hernia, Hiatal , Lung , Mediastinum , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Stomach , Thorax
20.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 23-28, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48591

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Interest in peptic ulcer in children has been relatively low because the disease is rarer in children than in adults and there were restrictions in the application of endoscopy to children, but the recent development of pediatric endoscopy is activating research on pediatric peptic ulcer. Thus, this study compared the H. pylori infection rate and clinical and endoscopic findings among pediatric patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively 58 pediatric patients for whom whether to be infected with H. pylori was confirmed selected out of pediatric patients diagnosed with gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Department of Pediatrics of Gachon University Gil Hospital during the period from January 2002 to December 2007. A case was considered H. pylori positive if H. pylori was detected in the Giemsa stain of tissue or the results of UBT (urea breath test) and CLO (rapid urease test) were both positive. RESULTS: Of the pediatric patients, 37 were infected with H. pylori and 21 were not. The H. pylori infection rate increased with aging and the result was statistically significant (p0.05). CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection increased with aging, but was not significantly correlated with gastroduodenal ulcer. Further research may need to examine prospectively the relation between H. pylori and gastroduodenal ulcer in the Incheon area.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Aging , Azure Stains , Duodenal Ulcer , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pediatrics , Peptic Ulcer , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Ulcer , Urease
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