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1.
Journal of the Korean Fracture Society ; : 139-147, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001669

ABSTRACT

Fracture-related infections (FRI) can occur when bacteria enter the wound during a traumatic injury. All efforts should be made to prevent FRI-associated complications due to the complexity of treatment at the time of onset and poor treatment outcomes. The risk factors for FRIs vary and several preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative measures can be implemented to prevent infections. Preoperative measures include blood sugar control, nutritional support, discontinuation of steroids and immunosuppressants, treatment of accompanying pre-existing infections, and decolonization of pathogens, specifically Staphylococcus aureus. The perioperative and postoperative measures include the use of prophylactic antibiotics, proper surgical site preparation (hair removal, preoperative washing, skin antisepsis), suitable surgical environment (operating room ventilation system, behavioral interventions in the operating room), correct surgical techniques (debridement, irrigation, wound closure, and negative pressure wound therapy). All medical staff should pay careful attention and ensure the implementation of the correct preventive measures.

2.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 599-610, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999693

ABSTRACT

According to recent evidence, ferroptosis is a major cell death mechanism in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and fibrosis.Despite the renoprotective effects of classical ferroptosis inhibitors, therapeutic approaches targeting kidney ferroptosis remain limited. In this study, we assessed the renoprotective effects of melatonin and zileuton as a novel therapeutic strategy against ferroptosis-mediated kidney injury and fibrosis. First, we identified RSL3-induced ferroptosis in renal tubular epithelial HK-2 and HKC-8 cells. Lipid peroxidation and cell death induced by RSL3 were synergistically mitigated by the combination of melatonin and zileuton. Combination treatment significantly downregulated the expression of ferroptosis-associated proteins, 4-HNE and HO-1, and upregulated the expression of GPX4. The expression levels of p-AKT and p-mTOR also increased, in addition to that of NRF2 in renal tubular epithelial cells. When melatonin (20 mg/kg) and zileuton (20 mg/kg) were administered to a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model, the combination significantly reduced tubular injury and fibrosis by decreasing the expression of profibrotic markers, such as α-SMA and fibronectin. More importantly, the combination ameliorated the increase in 4-HNE levels and decreased GPX4 expression in UUO mice. Overall, the combination of melatonin and zileuton was found to effectively ameliorate ferroptosis-related kidney injury by upregulating the AKT/mTOR/ NRF2 signaling pathway, suggesting a promising therapeutic strategy for protection against ferroptosis-mediated kidney injury and fibrosis.

3.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 213-220, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937121

ABSTRACT

We aimed to explore the distribution of intraoperative lactic acid (LA) level during liver transplantation (LT) and determine the optimal cutoff values to predict post-LT 30-day and 90-day mortality. Methods: Intraoperative LA data from 3,338 patients were collected between 2008 to 2019 and all-cause mortalities within 30 and 90 days were retrospectively reviewed. Of the three LA levels measured during preanhepatic, anhepatic, and neohepatic phase of LT, the peak LA level was selected to explore the distribution and predict early post-LT mortality. To determine the best cutoff values of LA, we used a classification and regression tree algorithm and maximally selected rank statistics with the smallest P value. Results: The median intraoperative LA level was 4.4 mmol/L (range: 0.5–34.7, interquartile range: 3.0–6.2 mmol/L). Of the 3,338 patients, 1,884 (56.4%) had LA levels > 4.0 mmol/L and 188 (5.6%) had LA levels > 10 mmol/L. Patients with LA levels > 16.7 mmol/L and 13.5–16.7 mmol/L showed significantly higher 30-day mortality rates of 58.3% and 21.2%, respectively. For the prediction of the 90-day mortality, 8.4 mmol/L of intraoperative LA was the best cutoff value. Conclusions: Approximately 6% of the LT recipients showed intraoperative hyperlactatemia of > 10 mmol/L during LT, and those with LA > 8.4 mmol/L were associated with significantly higher early post-LT mortality.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 520-533, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927021

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, because it prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Allograft biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing allograft rejection. However, it is invasive and reactive, and continuous monitoring is unrealistic. Various biomarkers for diagnosing allograft rejection have been developed over the last two decades based on omics technologies to overcome these limitations. Omics technologies are based on a holistic view of the molecules that constitute an individual. They include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The omics approach has dramatically accelerated biomarker discovery and enhanced our understanding of multifactorial biological processes in the field of transplantation. However, clinical application of omics-based biomarkers is limited by several issues. First, no large-scale prospective randomized controlled trial has been conducted to compare omics-based biomarkers with traditional biomarkers for rejection. Second, given the variety and complexity of injuries that a kidney allograft may experience, it is likely that no single omics approach will suffice to predict rejection or outcome. Therefore, integrated methods using multiomics technologies are needed. Herein, we introduce omics technologies and review the latest literature on omics biomarkers predictive of allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients.

5.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 933-943, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915594

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) fixation is a needle based procedure that requires fluoroscopic image guidance. Consequently, radiation exposure is inevitable for patients, surgeons, and operation room staff. We hypothesize that reducing the production of radiation emission will result in reduced radiation exposure for everyone in the operation room. Research was performed to evaluate reduction of radiation exposure by modifying imaging manner and mode of radiation source. @*Methods@#: A total of 170 patients (680 screws) who underwent fusion surgery with PPS fixation from September 2019 to March 2020 were analyzed in this study. Personal dosimeters (Polimaster Ltd.) were worn at the collar outside a lead apron to measure radiation exposure. Patients were assigned to four groups based on imaging manner of fluoroscopy and radiation modification (pulse mode with reduced dose) : continuous use without radiation modification (group 1, n=34), intermittent use without radiation modification (group 2, n=54), continuous use with radiation modification (group 3, n=26), and intermittent use with radiation modification (group 4, n=56). Post hoc Tukey Honest significant difference test was used for individual comparisons of radiation exposure/screw and fluoroscopic time/screw. @*Results@#: The average radiation exposure/screw was 71.45±45.75 μSv/screw for group 1, 18.77±11.51 μSv/screw for group 2, 19.58±7.00 μSv/screw for group 3, and 4.26±2.89 μSv/screw for group 4. By changing imaging manner from continuous multiple shot to intermittent single shot, 73.7% radiation reduction was achieved in the no radiation modification groups (groups 1, 2), and 78.2% radiation reduction was achieved in the radiation modification groups (groups 3, 4). Radiation source modification from continuous mode with standard dose to pulse mode with reduced dose resulted in 72.6% radiation reduction in continuous imaging groups (groups 1, 3) and 77.3% radiation reduction in intermittent imaging groups (groups 2, 4). The average radiation exposure/screw was reduced 94.1% by changing imaging manner and modifying radiation source from continuous imaging with standard fluoroscopy setting (group 1) to intermittent imaging with modified fluoroscopy setting (group 4). A total of 680 screws were reviewed postoperatively, and 99.3% (675) were evaluated as pedicle breach grade 0 (<2 mm). @*Conclusion@#: The average radiation exposure/screw for a spinal surgeon can be reduced 94.1% by changing imaging manner and modifying radiation source from real-time imaging with standard dose to intermittent imaging with modified dose. These modifications can be instantly applied to any procedure using fluoroscopic guidance and may reduce the overall radiation exposure of spine surgeons.

6.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 193-200, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903788

ABSTRACT

Background@#Local anesthetic infiltration at the site of a surgical wound is commonly used to control postoperative pain. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of continuous local infiltration at an abdominal surgical site in patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) surgery. @*Methods@#Sixty-one patients who underwent ALIF surgery were enrolled. For thirtyone of them, a continuous local anesthetics infiltration system was used at the abdominal site. We collected data regarding the patients’ sleep quality; satisfaction with pain control after surgery; abilities to perform physical tasks and the additional application of opioids in the postoperative 48 hours. @*Results@#The On-Q system group showed reduced visual analogue scale scores for pain at the surgical site during rest and movement at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours; and more was satisfied with pain control management at the first postoperative day (7.0 ± 1.2 vs. 6.0 ± 1.4; P = 0.003) and week (8.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.8; Background: Local anesthetic infiltration at the site of a surgical wound is commonly used to control postoperative pain. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of continuous local infiltration at an abdominal surgical site in patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) surgery. @*Methods@#Sixty-one patients who underwent ALIF surgery were enrolled. For thirtyone of them, a continuous local anesthetics infiltration system was used at the abdominal site. We collected data regarding the patients’ sleep quality; satisfaction with pain control after surgery; abilities to perform physical tasks and the additional application of opioids in the postoperative 48 hours. @*Results@#The On-Q system group showed reduced visual analogue scale scores for pain at the surgical site during rest and movement at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours; and more was satisfied with pain control management at the first postoperative day (7.0 ± 1.2 vs. 6.0 ± 1.4; P = 0.003) and week (8.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.8; P = 0.010) than the control group. The number of additional patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) bolus and pethidine injections was lower in the On-Q group (PCA: 3.67 ± 1.35 vs. 4.60 ± 1.88; P = 0.049 and pethidine: 2.09 ± 1.07 vs. 2.73 ± 1.38;P = 0.032). Patients who used the On-Q system performed more diverse activity and achieved earlier ambulation than those in the control group. @*Conclusions@#Continuous wound infiltration with ropivacaine using an On-Q system may be effective for controlling postoperative pain after ALIF surgery. 0.010) than the control group. The number of additional patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) bolus and pethidine injections was lower in the On-Q group (PCA: 3.67 ± 1.35 vs. 4.60 ± 1.88; P = 0.049 and pethidine: 2.09 ± 1.07 vs. 2.73 ± 1.38; P = 0.032). Patients who used the On-Q system performed more diverse activity and achieved earlier ambulation than those in the control group. @*Conclusions@#Continuous wound infiltration with ropivacaine using an On-Q system may be effective for controlling postoperative pain after ALIF surgery.

7.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 193-200, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896084

ABSTRACT

Background@#Local anesthetic infiltration at the site of a surgical wound is commonly used to control postoperative pain. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of continuous local infiltration at an abdominal surgical site in patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) surgery. @*Methods@#Sixty-one patients who underwent ALIF surgery were enrolled. For thirtyone of them, a continuous local anesthetics infiltration system was used at the abdominal site. We collected data regarding the patients’ sleep quality; satisfaction with pain control after surgery; abilities to perform physical tasks and the additional application of opioids in the postoperative 48 hours. @*Results@#The On-Q system group showed reduced visual analogue scale scores for pain at the surgical site during rest and movement at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours; and more was satisfied with pain control management at the first postoperative day (7.0 ± 1.2 vs. 6.0 ± 1.4; P = 0.003) and week (8.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.8; Background: Local anesthetic infiltration at the site of a surgical wound is commonly used to control postoperative pain. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of continuous local infiltration at an abdominal surgical site in patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) surgery. @*Methods@#Sixty-one patients who underwent ALIF surgery were enrolled. For thirtyone of them, a continuous local anesthetics infiltration system was used at the abdominal site. We collected data regarding the patients’ sleep quality; satisfaction with pain control after surgery; abilities to perform physical tasks and the additional application of opioids in the postoperative 48 hours. @*Results@#The On-Q system group showed reduced visual analogue scale scores for pain at the surgical site during rest and movement at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours; and more was satisfied with pain control management at the first postoperative day (7.0 ± 1.2 vs. 6.0 ± 1.4; P = 0.003) and week (8.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.8; P = 0.010) than the control group. The number of additional patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) bolus and pethidine injections was lower in the On-Q group (PCA: 3.67 ± 1.35 vs. 4.60 ± 1.88; P = 0.049 and pethidine: 2.09 ± 1.07 vs. 2.73 ± 1.38;P = 0.032). Patients who used the On-Q system performed more diverse activity and achieved earlier ambulation than those in the control group. @*Conclusions@#Continuous wound infiltration with ropivacaine using an On-Q system may be effective for controlling postoperative pain after ALIF surgery. 0.010) than the control group. The number of additional patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) bolus and pethidine injections was lower in the On-Q group (PCA: 3.67 ± 1.35 vs. 4.60 ± 1.88; P = 0.049 and pethidine: 2.09 ± 1.07 vs. 2.73 ± 1.38; P = 0.032). Patients who used the On-Q system performed more diverse activity and achieved earlier ambulation than those in the control group. @*Conclusions@#Continuous wound infiltration with ropivacaine using an On-Q system may be effective for controlling postoperative pain after ALIF surgery.

8.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 585-592, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919325

ABSTRACT

Cisplatin has been reported to cause side effects such as muscle wasting in humans and rodents. The physiological mechanisms involved in preventing muscle wasting, such as the regulation of AKT, PGC1-α, and autophagy-related factor FOXO3a by MuRF 1 and Atrogin-1,remain unclear following different types of exercise and in various skeletal muscle types. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 34) were assigned to one of four groups: control (CON, n = 6), cisplatin injection (1 mg/ kg) without exercise (CC, n = 8), cisplatin (1mg/kg) + resistance exercise (CRE, n = 9) group, and cisplatin (1 mg/kg) + aerobic exercise (CAE, n = 11). The CRE group performed progressive ladder exercise (starting with 10% of body weight on a 1-m ladder with 2-cm-interval grids, at 85°) for 8 weeks. The CAE group exercised by treadmill running (20 m/min for 60 min daily, 4 times/week) for 8 weeks. Compared with the CC group, the levels of the autophagy-related factors BNIP3, Beclin 1, LC3-II/ I ratio, p62, and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were significantly decreased in the CRE and CAE groups. The CRE and CAE groups further showed significantly decreased MuRF 1 and Atrogin-1 levels and increased phosphorylation of AKT, FOXO3a, and PGC1-α. These results suggest that both ladder and aerobic exercise directly affected muscle wasting by modulating the AKT/PGC1-α/FOXO3a signaling pathways regardless of the skeletal muscle type.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 820-829, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898157

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the changing patterns of insulin secretion and resistance and risk factors contributing to the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in kidney recipients under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression regimen during 1 year after transplantation. @*Methods@#This was a multicenter prospective cohort study. Of the 168 subjects enrolled in this study, we analyzed a total 87 kidney transplant recipients without diabetes which was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test before transplantation. We evaluated the incidence of PTDM and followed up the index of insulin secretion (insulinogenic index [IGI]) and resistance (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) at 3, 6, 9 months, and 1 year after transplantation by oral glucose tolerance test and diabetes treatment. We also assessed the risk factors for incident PTDM. @*Results@#PTDM developed in 23 of 87 subjects (26.4%) during 1 year after transplantation. More than half of total PTDM (56.5%) occurred in the first 3 months after transplantation. During 1 year after transplantation, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was increased in both PTDM and no PTDM group. In no PTDM group, the increase in insulin secretory function to overcome insulin resistance was also observed. However, PTDM group showed no increase in insulin secretion function (IGI). Old age, status of prediabetes and episode of acute rejection were significantly associated with the development of PTDM. @*Conclusion@#In tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive drugs regimen, impaired insulin secretory function for reduced insulin sensitivity contributed to the development of PTDM than insulin resistance during 1 year after transplantation.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1173-1187, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831915

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to investigate long-term temporal trends and outcomes of biopsy-proven kidney diseases in a multicenter kidney biopsy cohort, focusing on hypertension and diabetes, the leading causes of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). @*Methods@#The study included a total of 21,426 patients who underwent kidney biopsy from 1979 to 2018 in 18 hospitals in Korea. We selected subgroups of adults with diabetes (n = 2,813) or clinically presumed hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HTN, n = 2,917). Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were collected in conjunction with pathologic findings. The prevalence of pathologically confirmed kidney diseases over time and their associations with clinical outcomes were evaluated. @*Results@#The prevalence of biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy (DN) has increased significantly from 2.5% to 6.0% in the total cohort in the recent 30 yearswith an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. Approximately 68% of total diabeticpatients had non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD); the proportion was retained since 2000s. DN showed a significantly higher risk of ESKD than NDRD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 1.88). The prevalence of biopsy- proven HT-N remained < 2% in the total cohort for several decades. There was no difference in risks of ESKD between patients with or without biopsy-proven HT-N (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.59). @*Conclusions@#In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes and DN has significantlyincreased in the kidney biopsy cohort, showing an increased risk of ESKD. Despite the large numbers of patients meeting the clinical criteria of HT-N, most of those were diagnosed with pathologic diagnoses other than HT-N.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e305-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831728

ABSTRACT

Background@#Oxidative stress induced by chronic hyperglycemia is recognized as a significant mechanistic contributor to the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD).Nonphagocytic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in many cell types and in the kidney tissue of diabetic animals. We designed this study to explore the therapeutic potential of chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) for inhibiting mitochondrial Nox4 and diabetic tubular injury. @*Methods@#Human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (hRPTCs) were cultured in highglucose media (30 mM D-glucose), and diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days) in male C57BL/6J mice. CQ and AQ were administered to the mice via intraperitoneal injection for 14 weeks. @*Results@#CQ and AQ inhibited mitochondrial Nox4 and increased mitochondrial mass in hRPTCs under high-glucose conditions. Reduced mitochondrial ROS production after treatment with the drugs resulted in decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, suppressed inflammatory protein expression and reduced cell apoptosis in hRPTCs under high-glucose conditions. Notably, CQ and AQ treatment diminished Nox4 activation and ER stress in the kidneys of STZ-induced diabetic mice. In addition, we observed attenuated inflammatory protein expression and albuminuria in STZ-induced diabetic mice after CQ and AQ treatment. @*Conclusion@#We substantiated the protective actions of CQ and AQ in diabetic tubulopathy associated with reduced mitochondrial Nox4 activation and ER stress alleviation. Further studies exploring the roles of mitochondrial Nox4 in the pathogenesis of DKD could suggest new therapeutic targets for patients with DKD.

12.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 22-27, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835279

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies have shown that lung cancer stem cells express CD133 and that certain cancer stem cells express cancer germline antigens (CGAs). The transcriptional regulation of CD133 is complicated and poorly understood. We investigated CD133 and CGA expression in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line. @*Methods@#The expression levels of CD133 and CGAs (MAGE-6, GAGE, SSX, and TRAG-3) were measured in an NCI-H292 lung cancer cell line. The methylation status of the CD133 gene promoter region was analyzed. The expression levels and promoter methylation statuses of CD133 and CGAs were confirmed by treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (ADC). @*Results@#After treatment with ADC, CD133 expression was no longer detected. MAGE-6 and TRAG-3 were detected before ADC treatment, while GAGE and SSX were not detected. ADC treatment upregulated MAGE-6 and TRAG-3 expression, while GAGE expression was still undetected after treatment, and only weak SSX expression was observed. GAGE expression was not correlated with expression of CD133, while the levels of expression of MAGE-6, TRAG-3, and SSX were inversely correlated with CD133 expression. @*Conclusion@#These results showed that CD133 expression can be regulated by methylation. Thus, the demethylation of the CD133 promoter may compromise the treatment of lung cancer by inactivating cancer stem cells and/or activating CGAs.

13.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 103-111, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834945

ABSTRACT

Background@#Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) offers considerable advantages in clearance of molecules of various sizes. However, evidence of clinical effects of OL-HDF is scarce in Korea. In this study, we investigated changes in laboratory values over more than 12 months after switching to OL-HDF. @*Methods@#Adult patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were prospectively enrolled in a K-cohort (CRIS no. KCT0003281) from 6 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. We recruited 435 patients, 339 of whom were on HD at enrollment. One hundred eighty-two patients were followed for more than 24 months. Among them, 44 were switched to OL-HDF for more than 12 months without conversion to HD. We used a paired t test to compare baseline and 24-month follow-up results. @*Results@#The mean age of the subjects was 61.2 ± 12.2 years, and 62.6% were male. The baseline hemoglobin level was not significantly different between HD and OL-HDF group (10.61 ± 1.15 vs. 10.46 ± 1.03 g/dL, P = 0.437). However, the baseline serum protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the OL-HDF group (6.82 ± 0.49 vs. 6.59 ± 0.48 g/dL, P = 0.006; 3.93 ± 0.28 vs. 3.73 ± 0.29 g/dL, P < 0.001). In patients switched to OL-HDF, levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin significantly increased (10.46 ± 1.03 vs. 11.08 ± 0.82 g/dL, P = 0.001; 3.73 ± 0.29 vs.

14.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 145-150, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834939

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious viral disease that is caused by the novel virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has become pandemic since December 2019, when the first case developed in Wuhan, China. Patients receiving hemodialysis are more vulnerable to viral transmission because their immune functions are impaired and they receive treatment within a narrow space. Calling on previous experience with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome during the 2015 outbreak, the joint committee of the Korean Society of Nephrology and the Korean Society of Dialysis Therapy quickly formed a COVID-19 task force team to develop a manual before the first index case was diagnosed in the hemodialysis unit. This special article introduces clinical practice guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of COVID-19 within hemodialysis facilities, which were developed to protect patients, healthcare workers, and caregivers from this highly transmissible virus. The areas of infection control covered by these guidelines include standard precautions, performing dialysis therapy for confirmed or suspected cases, performing cohort isolation for contact patients, and disease monitoring and contact surveillance. We hope these guidelines help healthcare workers and hemodialysis patients around the world cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 767-776, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833477

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF) for adjacent segmental disease (ASD) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF). As ACF is accepted as the standard treatment for cervical spondylosis, many studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of various surgical techniques to overcome symptomatic ASD after the previous surgery. Herein, PCF was performed for the treatment of symptomatic ASD and the feasibility of the surgery was evaluated. @*Methods@#: Forty nine patients who underwent PCF due to symptomatic ASD from August 2008 to November 2017 were identified. For demographic and perioperative data, the sex, age, types of previous surgery, ASD levels, operation times, and bleeding amount were recorded. The clinical outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale for the neck and arm, the modified Odom’s criteria as well as neck disability index. Radiologic evaluations were performed by measuring disc softness, disc height, the cervical 2–7 sagittal vertical axis, cervical cobb angle, and facet violation. @*Results@#: Thirty-seven patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups based on the location of the pathology; paracentral (group P) or foramina (group F). Both groups showed significant clinical improvement (p0.05). @*Conclusion@#: PCF showed satisfactory clinical and radiologic outcomes for both paracentral and foraminal pathologies of ASD after ACF. Complications related to anterior revision were also avoided. PCF can be considered a feasible and safe surgical option for ASD after ACF.

16.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 820-829, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890453

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the changing patterns of insulin secretion and resistance and risk factors contributing to the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in kidney recipients under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression regimen during 1 year after transplantation. @*Methods@#This was a multicenter prospective cohort study. Of the 168 subjects enrolled in this study, we analyzed a total 87 kidney transplant recipients without diabetes which was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test before transplantation. We evaluated the incidence of PTDM and followed up the index of insulin secretion (insulinogenic index [IGI]) and resistance (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) at 3, 6, 9 months, and 1 year after transplantation by oral glucose tolerance test and diabetes treatment. We also assessed the risk factors for incident PTDM. @*Results@#PTDM developed in 23 of 87 subjects (26.4%) during 1 year after transplantation. More than half of total PTDM (56.5%) occurred in the first 3 months after transplantation. During 1 year after transplantation, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was increased in both PTDM and no PTDM group. In no PTDM group, the increase in insulin secretory function to overcome insulin resistance was also observed. However, PTDM group showed no increase in insulin secretion function (IGI). Old age, status of prediabetes and episode of acute rejection were significantly associated with the development of PTDM. @*Conclusion@#In tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive drugs regimen, impaired insulin secretory function for reduced insulin sensitivity contributed to the development of PTDM than insulin resistance during 1 year after transplantation.

17.
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 190-199, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917982

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated the clinical and radiological outcomes of a cement augmented anterior reconstruction and decompression without pedicle screw fixation in patients with osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral fracture with myelopathy. @*Methods@#There were 2 male and 6 female patients with thoracolumbar fracture and myelopathy included in the study. The mean follow-up period was more than 1 years.The anterolateral decompression and cement augmented anterior reconstruction with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was performed. Demographic data, clinical outcomes, perioperative parameters and radiologic parameter were retrospectively evaluated. @*Results@#The symptoms due to myelopathy were improved in all patients. The preoperative median visual analog scale score for lower back and leg were 8.5 that improved 4.25 and 3 at last follow up. The preoperative function state showed a median Oswestry Disability Index score 61.5 that improved 33. After surgery, preoperative encroachment of the spinal canal (5.12 mm, 37%) was disappeared. The median height of fractured vertebral body significantly increased from 7.83 to 12.63 mm. At the last follow-up point, the median height was 9.91 mm. The median kyphotic deformity was improved from 22.12° to 14.31°. At the final followup, the improvement was preserved (median value: 15.03). The acute complication according to PMMA such as leakage and embolization was none, but adjacent compression fracture as late complication according to cement augmentation was. One patient developed surgical site infection. @*Conclusion@#On the basis of the preliminary results, we considered that anterolateral decompression and PMMA augmentation might be an optimal method for treating osteoporotic fracture with myelopathy in elderly patients or those with multiple medical comorbidities.

18.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 618-618, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788799

ABSTRACT

This article has been retracted by the author. This article involves in conflicts in authorship. We apologize to the readership of Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society.

19.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 73-78, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760164

ABSTRACT

Most cases of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)-induced gestational pancreatitis occur when a person with hyperlipidemia is overweight due to pregnancy or has secondary triggers associated with triglycerides (TGs). In Korea, 6 cases of HTG-induced gestational pancreatitis have been reported, but none of the affected patients had TG levels below 1,000 mg/dL. A 36-year-old female at 30 weeks of gestation was admitted due to pain in her upper abdomen. Initial biochemical analysis revealed a TG level of 260 mg/dL, an amylase level of 2,951 U/L and a lipase level of 3,500 U/L. Abdominal ultrasonography showed pancreatic swelling with a hypoechogenic rim. After several days, the patient was discharged and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks of gestation. This case report is the first to describe acute pancreatitis occurring in the presence of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia even though the TG level was less than 500 mg/dL, contrary to findings in previously reported cases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abdomen , Amylases , Hyperlipidemias , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV , Hypertriglyceridemia , Korea , Lipase , Overweight , Pancreatitis , Triglycerides , Ultrasonography
20.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e59-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758962

ABSTRACT

Two American Cocker Spaniels and one Bichon Frise were presented to our veterinary teaching hospital with an enlarged clitoris. Diagnostic imaging showed that the structure was composed of bony material. Exploratory laparotomy revealed uterine-like structures and testes which had an epididymis unilaterally. Surgical removal of internal genitalia, gonads and protruded clitoris were performed well. Histological evaluation revealed; inactive testes, female internal genital tracts with ambisexual ductal remnants, and prominent ossification in the clitoris. All 3 cases were diagnosed with male pseudohermaphroditism. In author's knowledge, this is the first report in Bichon Frise dog with os clitoris and also, it describes not common cases in small dog breeds with os clitoris.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY , Clitoris , Diagnostic Imaging , Epididymis , Genitalia , Gonads , Hospitals, Teaching , Laparotomy , Testis
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