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1.
Intestinal Research ; : 31-42, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914732

ABSTRACT

The role of gut microbiome-intestinal immune complex in the development of colorectal cancer and its progression is well recognized. Accordingly, certain microbial strains tend to colonize or vanish in patients with colorectal cancer. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are expected to exhibit both anti-tumor effects and chemopreventive effects during cancer treatment through mechanisms such as xenometabolism, immune interactions, and altered eco-community. Microbial modulation can also be safely used to prevent complications during peri-operational periods of colorectal surgery. A deeper understanding of the role of intestinal microbiota as a target for colorectal cancer treatment will lead the way to a better prognosis for colorectal cancer patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917588

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated release of the residual monomer and cytotoxicity after polymerization of three denture base resins (heat curing resin, self-curing resin, light curing resin by 3D printer). Three types of resin specimen according to the manufacturer’s guideline were fabricated: heat curing resin (Group H), self-curing resin (Group S), 3D Printed resin (Group L). Each group of specimen were stored in distilled water at 37 ℃ for 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks in order to measure the release of the residual monomer. Absorbance was measured at each storage time in the three groups. Cytotoxicity is measured by MTT test at each storage time in the three groups. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests of Dunnett T3 test and Scheffe test were carried out, where p values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Group H showed the lower absorbance than Group S and Group L. There was no statistically significant difference in the absorbance of Group S and Group L for 8 weeks, except for the one day. Group H and Group S showed no cytotoxicity, but Group L resulted in cytotoxicity. To conclude, light curing resin used in 3D printer revealed high cytotoxicity in this study. In order to apply the 3D printed denture base resin to clinical situation, it is necessary to develop a method to reduce the release of residual monomers.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914711

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Exercise is a representative noninvasive treatment that can be applied to various diseases. We studied the effect of resistance exercise on motor function and spatial learning ability in Parkinson disease (PD) mice. @*Methods@#The rotarod test and beam walking test were conducted to evaluate the effect of resistance exercise on motor function, and the Morris water maze test was conducted to examine the effect of resistance exercise on spatial learning ability. The effect of resistance exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) expression and 5’-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation was investigated by Western blot analysis. New cell generation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine. @*Results@#Resistance exercise improved coordination, balance, and spatial learning ability in PD mice. Resistance exercise enhanced new cell production, BDNF and TrkB expression, and AMPK phosphorylation in PD mice. The effect of such resistance exercise was similar to that of levodopa application. @*Conclusions@#In PD-induced mice, resistance exercise enhanced AMPK phosphorylation to increase BDNF expression and new neuron generation, thereby improving spatial learning ability. Resistance exercise is believed to help improve symptoms of PD.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898789

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Exercise is known to reduce proinflammatory cytokines production and apoptosis. We investigated the effect of treadmill running on spatial learning memory in terms of activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in Alzheimer disease (AD) rats. We also evaluated the effect of treadmill running on proinflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis. @*Methods@#Using the stereotaxic frame, amyloid-β (Aβ) was injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain. The rats belong to treadmill running groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 minutes per a day during 4 weeks, starting 3 days after Aβ injection. Morris water maze task was done for the determination of spatial learning memory. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3, and western blot for NF-κB, inhibitory protein of NF-κB (IκB), MAPK signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β were done. @*Results@#Induction of AD increased proinflammatory cytokine secretion by activating the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. These changes induced apoptosis in the hippocampus and reduced spatial learning memory. In contrast, treadmill running inactivated the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production. These changes inhibited apoptosis and improved spatial learning memory. @*Conclusions@#Current results showed that treadmill running promoted spatial learning memory through suppressing proinflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. Treadmill exercise can be considered an effective intervention for symptom relieve of AD.

5.
Immune Network ; : e24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898576

ABSTRACT

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896997

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#When splitting a liver for adult and pediatric graft recipients, the retained left medial section (S4) will undergo ischemic necrosis and the right trisection graft becomes an extended right liver (ERL) graft. We investigated the fates of the retained S4 and its prognostic impact in adult split liver transplantation (SLT) using an ERL graft. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective analysis of 25 adult SLT recipients who received split ERL grafts. @*Results@#The mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 27.3 ± 10.9 and graft-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) was 1.98 ± 0.44. The mean donor age was 26.5 ± 7.7 years. The split ERL graft weight was 1,181.5 ± 252.8 g, which resulted in a mean GRWR of 1.98 ± 0.44. Computed tomography of the retained S4 parenchyma revealed small ischemic necrosis in 16 patients (64.0%) and large ischemic necrosis in the remaining 9 patients (36.0%). No S4-associated biliary complications were developed. The mean GRWR was 1.87 ± 0.43 in the 9 patients with large ischemic necrosis and 2.10 ± 0.44 in the 15 cases with small ischemic necrosis (P = 0.283). The retained S4 parenchyma showed gradual atrophy on follow-up imaging studies. The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis was not associated with graft (P = 0.592) or patient (P = 0.243) survival. A MELD score of >30 and pretransplant ventilator support were associated with inferior outcomes. @*Conclusion@#The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis is not a prognostic factor in adult SLT recipients, probably due to a sufficiently large GRWR.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891085

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Exercise is known to reduce proinflammatory cytokines production and apoptosis. We investigated the effect of treadmill running on spatial learning memory in terms of activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in Alzheimer disease (AD) rats. We also evaluated the effect of treadmill running on proinflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis. @*Methods@#Using the stereotaxic frame, amyloid-β (Aβ) was injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain. The rats belong to treadmill running groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 minutes per a day during 4 weeks, starting 3 days after Aβ injection. Morris water maze task was done for the determination of spatial learning memory. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3, and western blot for NF-κB, inhibitory protein of NF-κB (IκB), MAPK signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β were done. @*Results@#Induction of AD increased proinflammatory cytokine secretion by activating the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. These changes induced apoptosis in the hippocampus and reduced spatial learning memory. In contrast, treadmill running inactivated the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production. These changes inhibited apoptosis and improved spatial learning memory. @*Conclusions@#Current results showed that treadmill running promoted spatial learning memory through suppressing proinflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. Treadmill exercise can be considered an effective intervention for symptom relieve of AD.

8.
Immune Network ; : e24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890872

ABSTRACT

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889293

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#When splitting a liver for adult and pediatric graft recipients, the retained left medial section (S4) will undergo ischemic necrosis and the right trisection graft becomes an extended right liver (ERL) graft. We investigated the fates of the retained S4 and its prognostic impact in adult split liver transplantation (SLT) using an ERL graft. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective analysis of 25 adult SLT recipients who received split ERL grafts. @*Results@#The mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 27.3 ± 10.9 and graft-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) was 1.98 ± 0.44. The mean donor age was 26.5 ± 7.7 years. The split ERL graft weight was 1,181.5 ± 252.8 g, which resulted in a mean GRWR of 1.98 ± 0.44. Computed tomography of the retained S4 parenchyma revealed small ischemic necrosis in 16 patients (64.0%) and large ischemic necrosis in the remaining 9 patients (36.0%). No S4-associated biliary complications were developed. The mean GRWR was 1.87 ± 0.43 in the 9 patients with large ischemic necrosis and 2.10 ± 0.44 in the 15 cases with small ischemic necrosis (P = 0.283). The retained S4 parenchyma showed gradual atrophy on follow-up imaging studies. The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis was not associated with graft (P = 0.592) or patient (P = 0.243) survival. A MELD score of >30 and pretransplant ventilator support were associated with inferior outcomes. @*Conclusion@#The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis is not a prognostic factor in adult SLT recipients, probably due to a sufficiently large GRWR.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 217-224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874596

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chitosan, a natural polymer widely used in the biomaterials field, has been proposed as a potential submucosal injection solution. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance and efficacy of aqueous chitosan solution and commercialized submucosal injection fluids using a three-dimensional sensor and to evaluate the efficacy of the measured parameters. @*Methods@#Normal saline (0.9% NaCl), as a control, Eleview ® (Poloxamer 188), Blue Eye TM (0.4% hyaluronic acid), and aqueous chitosan solution (2.0%) were injected into the submucosa of porcine stomachs ex vivo. The mucosal elevation height, elevated surface area, and angle of the tangent of the submucosal fluid cushion were measured using a three-dimensional sensor. The rates of change for each variable were calculated, and the correlation between parameters was analyzed. Tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. @*Results@#All variables exhibited the highest values under chitosan injection. The mucosal elevation height rate of change differed significantly between normal saline and chitosan solution (p=0.024). The elevated surface area rates of change for normal saline and Eleview® were significantly different from those for TS-905 and chitosan solution (p=0.006 and p=0.009, respectively). Further, height, area, and angle showed a positive correlation (p<0.001). A histological examination revealed an even distribution of aqueous chitosan within the submucosa without tissue damage. @*Conclusions@#Aqueous chitosan was superior to normal saline and Eleview® and was noninferior to TS-905. A three-dimensional sensor and the measured parameters were effective and useful for evaluating the performance of submucosal fluids.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874068

ABSTRACT

Nonepisodic angioedema with eosinophilia (NEAE) is a rare disease characterized by nonrecurrent angioedema with eosinophilia and normal serum IgM levels occurring predominantly in an East Asian female population. A 49-year-old male patient visited our clinic due to swelling of both the scrotums and the lower extremities, and fever. He had history of nasal polyp, cephalosporin allergy, and asthma. He was diagnosed as having NEAE and was treated with systemic corticosteroid, then he was symptom-free for more than 8 months. He had been administered omalizumab for 3 months due to uncontrolled asthma prior to the onset of angioedema which had helped taper the oral corticosteroid, and this may be associated with presentation of NEAE. Here, we report a case of NEAE in a male patient which presented with constitutional symptoms such as fever and scrotal edema

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914689

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adenosine A2A receptor agonist polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) possesses an anti-inflammatory effect and suppress apoptotic cell death in several disorders. In this current study, the effect of PDRN on inflammation and apoptosis in rats with Achilles tendon injury was investigated. @*Methods@#von Frey filament test and plantar test were conducted for the determination of pain threshold. Analysis of histological alterations was conducted by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3-positive cells and cleaved caspase-9-positive cells was done. Enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to detect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and cyclic adenosine-3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP). Western blot was conducted to detect the protein levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), protein kinase A (PKA), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). @*Results@#PDRN treatment relieved mechanical allodynia and alleviated thermal hyperalgesia after Achilles tendon injury. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were decreased by PDRN application. PDRN injection significantly enhanced cAMP concentration and phosphorylated CREB versus CREB ratio, showing cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway was activated by PDRN application. PDRN treatment inhibited percentages of cleaved caspase-3-positive cells and caspase-9-posiive cells and the suppressed Bax versus Bcl-2 ratio in Achilles tendon injury rats. @*Conclusions@#PDRN is probably believed to have a good effect on pain and inflammation in the urogenital organs. PDRN may be used as a new treatment for Achilles tendon injury.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836403

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of internet game addiction and its association with environmental characteristics such as parent supervision, gaming hour (time spent on gaming) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among middle school students. @*Methods@#:A total of 596 (416 males and 180 females) first grade middle-school students in Gwang-ju metropolitan city were included in this study. Subjects were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire, including measures of the Internet Gaming Use-Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, environmental factor such as parent supervision, and game related factor like game hours. Internet Game addiction and non-addiction group were defined using IGUESS score of 10 as a cut-off. The data were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. @*Results@#:Internet Game addiction group was fifty-two subjects (8.7%). Male students were significantly higher than female students (OR 25.01). IGUESS score was statistically negatively correlated with parent attachment and parent supervision, while IGUESS score was positively correlated with time spent on gaming per day, the longest time spent on gaming per day and violent game and ADHD score. Among variables, IGUESS score showed the highest correlation with the longest time spent on gaming per day (r=0.373, p<0.01). Using hierarchical regression analyses, the longest time spent on gaming per day was also the highest predicting factor affecting internet game addiction among variables. @*Conclusion@#:Our findings indicate that parent supervision, parent attachment and game related characteristics such as gaming per day, the longest time spent on gaming per day and violent game and ADHD were associated with internet game addiction.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835573

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Autophagy is known to be associated with pathogen infection. However, the expression of autophagy-related proteins has not been studied in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma (COM) or with cholesteatoma (CholeOM). This study aimed to determine whether there is a difference between COM and CholeOM in autophagy-related gene mRNA expression. @*Subjects and Methods@#For 47 patients with chronic otitis media, the inflammatory tissues were classified into granulation tissue (COM) or cholesteatoma (CholeOM) according to biopsy results. @*Results@#PI3K mRNA expression (COM vs. CholeOM, mean±SD, 0.009±0.010 vs. 0.003±0.004; p=0.004) was lower, whereas Beclin-1 mRNA expression (0.089±0.107 vs. 0.176±0.163; p=0.034) was higher in the CholeOM group. Expression of PI3K mRNA in the CholeOM group was lower than that in the COM subgroups with presence of bacteria (0.022±0.019 vs. 0.001±0.001; p=0.001), otorrhea (0.049±0.068 vs. 0.003±0.004; p=0.004), and hearing loss over 40 dB (0.083±0.130 vs. 0.003±0.004; p=0.005). @*Conclusions@#The data suggested that different autophagy proteins play important roles in chronic otitis media according to the presence or absence of cholesteatoma.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834356

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by its acute onset of symptoms such as bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, severe hypoxemia, and pulmonary edema. Many patients with ARDS survive in the acute phase, but then die from significant lung fibrosis. @*Methods@#The effect of combination therapy with polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) and pirfenidone on ARDS was investigated using human lung epithelial A549 cells. ARDS environment was induced by treatment with lipopolysaccharide and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and hydroxyproline were conducted. Western blot for collagen type I, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 was performed. @*Results@#In this study, 8-μg/mL PDRN enhanced cell viability. Combination therapy with PDRN and pirfenidone and pirfenidone monotherapy suppressed expressions of CTGF and hydroxyproline and inhibited expressions of collagen type I and FGF. Combination therapy with PDRN and pirfenidone and PDRN monotherapy suppressed expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. @*Conclusions@#The combination therapy with PDRN and pirfenidone exerted stronger therapeutic effect against lipopolysaccharide and TGF-β-induced ARDS environment compared to the PDRN monotherapy or pirfenidone monotherapy. The excellent therapeutic effect of combination therapy with PDRN and pirfenidone on ARDS was shown by promoting the rapid anti-inflammatory effect and inhibiting the fibrotic processes.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831739

ABSTRACT

Background@#Split liver transplantation (SLT) has been occasionally performed in Korea. This study compared the incidence and prognosis of SLT with whole liver transplantation (WLT) in adult patients. @*Methods@#Between June 2016 and November 2019, 242 adult patients underwent a total of 256 deceased donor liver transplantation operations. SLT was performed in 7 patients (2.9%). @*Results@#The mean age of SLT donors was 29.7 ± 7.4 years, and the mean age of recipients was 55.7 ± 10.6 years, with the latter having a mean model for end-stage liver disease score of 34.6 ± 3.1. Mean split right liver graft weight was 1,228.6 ± 149.7 g and mean graft-recipient weight ratio was 1.97 ± 0.39. Of the seven SLT recipients, Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) status was one in status 1, one in status 2 and five in status 3. The graft (p = 0.72) and patient (p = 0.84) survival rates were comparable in the SLT and WLT groups. Following propensity score matching, graft (p = 0.61) and patient (p = 0.91) survival rates remained comparable in the two groups. Univariate analysis showed that pretransplant ventilator support and renal replacement therapy were significantly associated with patient survival, whereas KONOS status category and primary liver diseases were not. Multivariate analysis showed that pretransplant ventilator support was an independent risk factor for patient survival. @*Conclusion@#Survival outcomes were similar in adult SLT and WLT recipients, probably due to selection of high-quality grafts and low-risk recipients. Prudent selection of donors and adult recipients for SLT may expand the liver graft pool for pediatric patients without affecting outcomes in adults undergoing SLT.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831284

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. The loss of signal during intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) using electromyography (EMG) in thyroidectomy is one of the biggest problems. We have developed a novel IONM system with an endotracheal tube (ETT) with an attached pressure sensor instead of EMG to detect laryngeal twitching. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of this novel IONM system using an ETT with pressure sensor during thyroidectomy in a porcine model. @*Methods@#. We developed an ETT-attached pressure sensor that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure laryngeal muscle twitching. Stimulus thresholds, amplitude, and latency of laryngeal twitching evaluated using the pressure sensor were compared to those measured using transcartilage needle EMG. The measured amplitude changes by EMG and the pressure sensor during recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) traction injury were compared. @*Results@#. No significant differences in stimulus threshold intensity between EMG and the pressure sensor were observed. The EMG amplitude detected at 0.3 mA, increased with increasing stimulus intensity. When the stimulus was more than 1.0 mA, the amplitude showed a plateau. In a RLN traction injury experiment, the EMG amplitude did not recover even 20 minutes after stopping RLN traction. However, the pressure sensor showed a mostly recovery. @*Conclusion@#. The change in amplitude due to stimulation of the pressure sensor showed a pattern similar to EMG. Pressure sensors can be feasibly and reliably used for RLN traction injury prediction, RLN identification, and preservation through the detection of laryngeal muscle twitching. Our novel IONM system that uses an ETT with an attached pressure sensor to measure the change of surface pressure can be an alternative to EMG in the future.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Factors predictive of the severity of and recovery from Bell's palsy remain unclear. This study evaluated the association between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the severity of and recovery from Bell's palsy. METHODS: This retrospective study included 51 patients who were hospitalized with Bell's palsy from 2015 to 2017. Degree of paralysis was assessed by House-Brackmann (H-B) grade. Patients with H-B grades 2–4 were classified as having mild to moderate palsy and patients with H-B grade 5 or 6 were classified as having severe palsy. Patients were evaluated for obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and blood tests were performed to determine NLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio. Patients were treated with steroids and antiviral agents. H-B grade was assessed 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after treatment. RESULTS: NLR was significantly higher in patients with severe than with mild to moderate palsy (P=0.048). Recovery time was significantly longer in patients with high NLR than low NLR (P=0.045). CONCLUSION: Higher NLR in patients with Bell's palsy was associated with longer recovery time. NLR may be prognostic of recovery time in patients with Bell's palsy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Bell Palsy , Blood Platelets , Diabetes Mellitus , Facial Paralysis , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Hypertension , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Obesity , Paralysis , Retrospective Studies , Steroids
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins engaged in the modulation of water homeostasis, but the roles they play in chronic otitis media (COM) have not been well investigated. Accordingly, we undertook document relations between the mRNA expressions of AQPs and COM, and explored the relation between these expressions and otorrhea, which is one of the most common symptoms of COM. METHODS: Levels of the mRNAs of AQP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 were assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in inflammatory tissue samples from 81 patients with COM with or without otorrhea. Relationships between AQP mRNA levels and the presence or absence of otorrhea, the presence or absence of bacteria, hearing threshold levels, types of hearing loss, and clinical manifestations were also evaluated. RESULTS: AQP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 mRNAs were expressed in inflammatory tissues obtained from all 81 patients with COM with or without otorrhea. AQP 5 mRNA was most expressed in, followed in descending order by AQP 3, 1, 10, 6, 8, 2, and 4. There were no significant intergroup differences in terms of age, sex, duration of illness, levels of hearing loss in both ears, or incidences of conductive or sensorineural hearing loss. However, AQP 4 (P=0.035) and 6 (P=0.085) mRNA levels were significantly lower in the otorrhea group. In addition, bacteria culture positivity (P=0.014) and the incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (P=0.020) were higher in the otorrhea group. CONCLUSION: AQP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 are involved in the development of COM. Specifically, it shows reductions in AQP 4 and 6 mRNA levels, as observed in the otorrhea group, have an effect on the clinical manifestations of COM.


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 4 , Aquaporins , Bacteria , Ear , Ear, Middle , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Homeostasis , Humans , Incidence , Membrane Proteins , Otitis Media , Otitis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Water
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762159

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent evidence suggests that cough hypersensitivity may be a common feature of chronic cough in adults. However, the clinical relevance remains unclear. This study evaluated the cough-related symptom profile and the clinical relevance and impact of cough hypersensitivity in adults with chronic cough. METHODS: This cross-sectional multi-center study compared cough-related laryngeal sensations and cough triggers in patients with unexplained chronic cough following investigations and in unselected patients newly referred for chronic cough. A structured questionnaire was used to assess abnormal laryngeal sensations and cough triggers. Patients with unexplained cough were also evaluated using the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and a cough visual analogue scale (VAS), and these scores were assessed for correlations with the number of triggers and laryngeal sensations. RESULTS: This study recruited 478 patients, including 62 with unexplained chronic cough and 416 with chronic cough. Most participants reported abnormal laryngeal sensations and cough triggers. Laryngeal sensations (4.4 ± 1.5 vs. 3.9 ± 1.9; P = 0.049) and cough triggers (6.9 ± 2.6 vs. 5.0 ± 2.8; P < 0.001) were more frequent in patients with unexplained chronic cough than in those with chronic cough. The number of triggers and laryngeal sensations score significantly correlated with LCQ (r = −0.51, P < 0.001) and cough VAS score (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) in patients with unexplained chronic cough. CONCLUSIONS: Cough hypersensitivity may be a common feature in adult patients with chronic cough, especially those with unexplained chronic cough. Cough-related health status and cough severity were inversely associated with the number of triggers and laryngeal sensations, suggesting potential relevance of assessing cough hypersensitivity in chronic cough patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cough , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Sensation , Symptom Assessment
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