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1.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 294-303, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003184

ABSTRACT

Background@#The human lung serves as a niche for a unique and dynamic bacterial community related to the development and aggravation of multiple respiratory diseases. Therefore, identifying the microbiome status is crucial to maintaining the microecological balance and maximizing the therapeutic effect on lung diseases. Therefore, we investigated the histological type-based differences in the lung microbiomes of patients with lung cancer. @*Methods@#We performed 16S rRNA sequencing to evaluate the respiratory tract microbiome present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Patients with non-small cell lung cancer were stratified based on two main subtypes of lung cancer: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). @*Results@#Among the 84 patients analyzed, 64 (76.2%) had adenocarcinoma, and 20 (23.8%) had SqCC. The α- and β-diversities showed significant differences between the two groups (p=0.004 for Chao1, p=0.001 for Simpson index, and p=0.011 for PERMANOVA). Actinomyces graevenitzii was dominant in the SqCC group (linear discriminant analysis [LDA] score, 2.46); the populations of Haemophilus parainfluenza (LDA score, 4.08), Neisseria subflava (LDA score, 4.07), Porphyromonas endodontalis (LDA score, 3.88), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (LDA score, 3.72) were significantly higher in the adenocarcinoma group. @*Conclusion@#Microbiome diversity is crucial for maintaining homeostasis in the lung environment, and dysbiosis may be related to the development and prognosis of lung cancer. The mortality rate was high, and the microbiome was not diverse in SqCC. Further large-scale studies are required to investigate the role of the microbiome in the development of different lung cancer types.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 620-640, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003066

ABSTRACT

We aimed to develop evidence-based recommendations for treating axial spondylarthritis (axSpA) in Korea. The development committee was constructed, key clinical questions were determined, and the evidence was searched through online databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, KoreaMed, and Kmbase. Systematic literature reviews were conducted, quality of evidence was determined, and draft recommendations were formulated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluations methodology. Recommendations that reached 80% consensus among a voting panel were finalized. Three principles and 21 recommendations were determined. Recommendations 1 and 2 pertain to treatment strategies, regular disease status assessment, and rheumatologist-steered multidisciplinary management. Recommendations 3 and 4 strongly recommend patient education, exercise, and smoking cessation. Recommendations 5–12 address pharmacological treatment of active disease using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, biologics, and Janus kinase inhibitors. Recommendations 13–16 address treatment in stable disease. We suggest against spa and acupuncture as therapies (Recommendation 17). Recommendations 18 and 19 pertain to total hip arthroplasty and spinal surgery. Monitoring of comorbidities and drug toxicities are recommended (Recommendations 20 and 21). Recommendations for axSpA treatment in a Korean context were developed based on comprehensive clinical questions and evidence. These are intended to guide best practice in the treatment of axSpA.

3.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 220-233, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001541

ABSTRACT

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoinflammatory disease that manifests with the unique feature of enthesitis. Gut microbiota, HLA-B*27, and biomechanical stress mutually influence and interact resulting in setting off a flame of inflammation. In the HLAB*27 positive group, dysbiosis in the gut environment disrupts the barrier to exogenous bacteria or viruses. Additionally, biomechanical stress induces inflammation through enthesial resident or gut-origin immune cells. On this basis, innate and adaptive immunity can propagate inflammation and lead to chronic disease. Finally, bone homeostasis is regulated by cytokines, by which the inflamed region is substituted into new bone. Agents that block cytokines are constantly being developed to provide diverse therapeutic options for preventing the progression of inflammation. In addition, some antibodies have been shown to distinguish disease selectively, which support the involvement of autoimmune immunity in AS. In this review, we critically analyze the complexity and uniqueness of the pathogenesis with updates on the findings of immunity and provide new information about biologics and biomarkers.

4.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 151-169, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001531

ABSTRACT

We aimed to develop evidence-based recommendations for treating axial spondylarthritis (axSpA) in Korea. The development committee was constructed, key clinical questions were determined, and the evidence was searched through online databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, KoreaMed, and KMbase. Systematic literature reviews were conducted, quality of evidence was determined, and draft recommendations were formulated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluations methodology. Recommendations that reached 80% consensus among a voting panel were finalized. Three principles and 21 recommendations were determined. Recommendations 1 and 2 pertain to treatment strategies, regular disease status assessment, and rheumatologist-steered multidisciplinary management. Recommendations 3 and 4 strongly recommend patient education, exercise, and smoking cessation. Recommendations 5~12 address pharmacological treatment of active disease using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, biologics, and Janus kinase inhibitors.Recommendations 13~16 address treatment in stable disease. We suggest against spa and acupuncture as therapies (Recommendation 17). Recommendations 18 and 19 pertain to total hip arthroplasty and spinal surgery. Monitoring of comorbidities and drug toxicities are recommended (Recommendations 20 and 21). Recommendations for axSpA treatment in a Korean context were developed based on comprehensive clinical questions and evidence. These are intended to guide best practice in the treatment of axSpA.

5.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 611-617, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001261

ABSTRACT

The cervical spine plays a critical role in supporting the skull, maintaining horizontal gaze, and facilitating walking. Its unique characteristics, including the widest range of motion among spinal segments, have led to extensive research on cervical sagittal alignment. Various parameters have been proposed to evaluate cervical alignment, with studies investigating their clinical significance, correlation with symptoms, and implications for surgical interventions. Recent findings suggest that cervical sagittal alignment not only impacts the cervical spine but also influences global spine-pelvic alignment through compensatory mechanisms. This comprehensive review examines classical and new parameters of cervical sagittal alignment and considers the dynamic and muscular factors associated with it.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e383-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001169

ABSTRACT

Background@#In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the SMART-CHOICE trial, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after three months of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) achieved clinical outcomes comparable to those of 12 months of DAPT.Nonetheless, the effects of sex on these outcomes remain unknown. @*Methods@#This open-label, non-inferiority, randomized study, conducted in 33 hospitals in South Korea, included 2,993 patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. Patients were randomly assigned to receive DAPT (aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor) for three months then P2Y12 inhibitor alone for nine months, or DAPT for the entire 12 months. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) 12 months after the index procedure. The bleeding endpoints were Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding types 2 to 5. @*Results@#Of the patients, 795 (26.6%) were women, who were older and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia than men. The sexes exhibited comparable primary endpoints (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55–1.55; P = 0.770) and bleeding endpoints (adjusted HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.63–1.81; P = 0.811). P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy vs DAPT was associated with lower risk of BARC type 2 to 5 bleeding in women (adjusted HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16–0.98; P = 0.045) but the difference was not statistically significant when using the Bonferroni correction. The primary endpoints were similar between treatment groups in both sexes. @*Conclusion@#In both sexes undergoing PCI, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after three months of DAPT achieved similar risks of the primary endpoints and the bleeding events compared with prolonged DAPT. Therefore, the benefits of early aspirin withdrawal with ongoing P2Y12 inhibitors may be comparable in women and men.

7.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 49-55, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000618

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to assess the feasibility of ultrashort echo time (UTE)-T2* mapping in comparison with T2 mapping for quantitative evaluation of meniscal degeneration. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 208 menisci of 99 patients (59 women and 40 men, median age 52 years old [16–80 years]) who underwent knee MRI with both standard T2 mapping and UTE-T2* mapping sequences. A radiologist reviewed the images and graded meniscal degeneration according to the morphologic criteria on T2-weighted and proton density-weighted sequences. Manually drawn regions of interest were placed along the outline and hyperintensity subregion within the meniscus, and in the same location on midsagittal images of each T2 and UTE-T2* sequence. Meniscal T2 and T2* values (T2m and T2*m) as well as T2 and T2* values of hyperintensity subregions (T2h, T2*h) were calculated. @*Results@#There was a strong correlation between T2m, T2*m, T2h, and T2*h, and morphological grades (correlation coefficient 0.793–0.943, 95% CI). On morphologic analysis, 50, 52, 50, and 56 menisci were graded as 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. T2m, T2*m, T2h, and T2*h were found to be significantly different in all the grades and tended to be higher in the more degraded meniscus (p < 0.001 for both). Mean T2m was 10.78 ± 2.91 ms, 15.81 ± 2.99 ms, 20.26 ± 3.19 ms, and 30.80 ± 7.38 ms and mean T2*m was 7.10 ± 1.12 ms, 9.64 ± 1.27 ms, 12.01 ± 1.58 ms, and 18.98 ± 4.67 ms for grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Mean T2h was 20.05 ± 3.67 ms, 24.39 ± 4.73 ms, and 38.92 ± 9.49 ms and mean T2*h was 10.94 ± 1.65 ms, 13.67 ± 2.41 ms, and 22.36 ± 5.20 ms for grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively. @*Conclusion@#UTE-T2* mapping was feasible for quantitative evaluation of meniscal degeneration in patients. With a few improvements UTE-T2* mapping is a potential substitute for the standard T2 mapping, with improved efficacy.

8.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 1-13, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968847

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer ranks first in cancer mortality in Korea and cancer incidence in Korean men. More than half of Korean lung cancer patients undergo chemotherapy, including adjuvant therapy. Cytotoxic agents, targeted therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors are used in chemotherapy according to the biopsy and genetic test results. Among chemotherapy, the one that has developed rapidly is targeted therapy. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines have been updated recently for targeted therapy of multiple gene mutations, and targeted therapy is used not only for chemotherapy but also for adjuvant therapy. While previously targeted therapies have been developed for common genetic mutations, recently targeted therapies have been developed to overcome uncommon mutations or drug resistance that have occurred since previous targeted therapy. Therefore, this study describes recent, rapidly developing targeted therapies.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 39-47, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968726

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a subgroup of cholangiocarcinoma and is the second- most-common primary hepatic tumor. Several predictive and prognostic factors have been analyzed; however, in this study we focused on the influence of age. Our aim was to use real-world results to determine the influence of age in iCCA patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis of patients treated between 2005 and 2016 at Konkuk University Medical Center. In total, 133 patients with iCCA were identified. The mass-forming, periductal-infiltrating, and intraductal-growth types were included; patients with extrahepatic or hilar-type cholangiocarcinoma were excluded. We defined two groups: a younger group, age < 65 years, and an older group, age ≥ 65 years. Statistical analyses using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, including the Kaplan-Meier method, were conducted. @*Results@#In total, 114 patients were enrolled. The two groups differed with regard to treatment options such as surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy or palliative chemotherapy (p = 0.012, p < 0.001). The younger group had significantly longer survival than the older group (p = 0.017). In the younger group, patients who received therapy had longer survival than those who did not (hazard ratio, 3.942; 95% confidence interval, 2.053 to 7.569; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that younger age, lower bilirubin, low CA 19-9, and no lymph-node involvement were independent factors for improved survival. @*Conclusions@#Younger patients and those who underwent surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy had longer survival. The younger the patient, the more treatments received, including palliative chemotherapy.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e67-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967487

ABSTRACT

Background@#With the increase in meals at home due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the pattern and incidence of enteritis seemed to change. Some types of enteritis, such as Campylobacter enteritis, appear to have increased. Our study aimed to evaluate the change in the trend of enteritis, especially Campylobacter enteritis, before COVID-19 (2016– 2019) and at the present time during COVID-19 in South Korea. @*Methods@#We analyzed data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. From 2016 to 2020, the International Classification of Diseases codes related to enteritis were examined to distinguish bacterial and viral enteritis and the trends of each were analyzed.The aspects of enteritis, before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, were compared. @*Results@#Both bacterial and viral enteritis declined in all age groups from 2016 to 2020 (P< 0.001). In 2020, the reduction rate of viral enteritis was higher than that of bacterial enteritis. However, unlike other causes of enteritis, even after COVID-19, Campylobacter enteritis increased in all age groups. An increase of Campylobacter enteritis in 2020 was particularly noticeable in children and adolescents. The prevalence of viral and bacterial enteritis was higher in urban areas than in rural areas (P < 0.001). Campylobacter enteritis was more common in the rural areas (P< 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Although the prevalence of bacterial and viral enteritis have decreased in COVID-19, Campylobacter enteritis has increased in all age groups and in rural areas compared to urban areas. Recognizing that the trend of Campylobacter enteritis before and during COVID-19 is helpful for future public health measures and interventions.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 112-122, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966473

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Although osimertinib is the standard-of-care treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation–positive non–small cell lung cancer, real-world evidence on the efficacy of osimertinib is not enough to reflect the complexity of the entire course of treatment. Herein, we report on the use of osimertinib in patients with EGFR T790M mutation–positive non–small cell lung cancer who had previously received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with confirmed EGFR T790M after disease progression of prior EGFR-TKI were enrolled and administered osimertinib 80 mg daily. The primary effectiveness outcome was progression-free survival, with time-to-treatment discontinuation, treatment and adverse effects leading to treatment discontinuation, and overall survival being the secondary endpoints. @*Results@#A total of 558 individuals were enrolled, and 55.2% had investigator-assessed responses. The median progression-free survival was 14.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0 to 16.4), and the median time-to-treatment discontinuation was 15.0 months (95% CI, 14.1 to 15.9). The median overall survival was 36.7 months (95% CI, 30.9 to not reached). The benefit with osimertinib was consistent regardless of the age, sex, smoking history, and primary EGFR mutation subtype. However, hepatic metastases at the time of diagnosis, the presence of plasma EGFR T790M, and the shorter duration of prior EGFR-TKI treatment were poor predictors of osimertinib treatment. Ten patients (1.8%), including three with pneumonitis, had to discontinue osimertinib due to severe adverse effects. @*Conclusion@#Osimertinib demonstrated its clinical effectiveness and survival benefit for EGFR T790M mutation–positive in Korean patients with no new safety signals.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1152-1170, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to report the final analysis of time-on-treatment (TOT) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced-stage epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)+ non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received sequential afatinib and osimertinib and to compare the outcomes with other second-line regimens (comparator group). @*Materials and Methods@#In this updated report, the existing medical records were reviewed and rechecked. TOT and OS were updated and analyzed according to clinical features using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. TOT and OS were compared with those of the comparator group, in which most patients received pemetrexed-based treatments. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate features that could affect survival outcomes. @*Results@#The median observation time was 31.0 months. The follow-up period was extended to 20 months. A total of 401 patients who received first-line afatinib were analyzed (166 with T790M+ and second-line osimertinib, and 235 with unproven T790M and other second-line agents). Median TOTs on afatinib and osimertinib were 15.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0 to 16.1) and 11.9 months (95% CI, 8.9 to 14.6), respectively. The median OS in the osimertinib group was 54.3 months (95% CI, 46.7 to 61.9), much longer than that in the comparator group. In patients who received osimertinib, the OS was longest with Del19+ (median, 59.1; 95% CI, 48.7 to 69.5). @*Conclusion@#This is one of the largest real-world studies reporting the encouraging activity of sequential afatinib and osimertinib in Asian patients with EGFR+ NSCLC who acquired the T790M mutation, particularly Del19+.

13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 851-864, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999774

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates cell growth and proliferation by growth factor coordination and amino acid availability. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (LARS1) senses the intracellular leucine concentration and mediates amino acid-induced activation of mTORC1. Thus, LARS1 inhibition could be useful in cancer treatment. However, the fact that mTORC1 can be stimulated by various growth factors and amino acids suggests that LARS1 inhibition alone has limitations in inhibiting cell growth and proliferation. We investigated the combined effects of BC-LI-0186, a LARS1 inhibitor, and trametinib, an MEK inhibitor, on non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). @*Materials and Methods@#Protein expression and phosphorylation were observed by immunoblotting, and genes differentially expressed between BC-LI-0186–sensitive and –resistant cells were identified by RNA sequencing. The combined effect of the two drugs was inferred from the combination index values and a xenograft model. @*Results@#LARS1 expression was positively correlated with mTORC1 in NSCLC cell lines. BC-LI-0186 treatment of A549 and H460 cells maintained in media supplemented with fetal bovine serum revealed paradoxical phosphorylation of S6 and activation of mitogen- activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Compared with BC-LI-0186–sensitive cells, –resistant cells showed enrichment of the MAPK gene set. The combination of trametinib and BC-LI-0186 inhibited the phosphorylation of S6, MEK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and their synergistic effects were confirmed in a mouse xenograft model. @*Conclusion@#The combination of BC-LI-0186 and trametinib inhibited the non-canonical mTORC1-activating function of LARS1. Our study demonstrated a new therapeutic approach for NSCLC without targetable driver mutations.

14.
Annals of Dermatology ; : S59-S62, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976679

ABSTRACT

Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is a chronic coagulation disorder characterized by recurrent, painful ulcers on the lower extremities. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism is associated with coagulopathy. Therapeutic options usually include anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive agents. However, the condition is still highly challenging to manage and no consensus over the first-line treatment for LV exists. Furthermore, when LV is accompanied with MTHFR gene polymorphism, clinical presentations could be more severe and resistant to treatment. We report a case of refractory LV accompanied by MTHFR gene polymorphism, which was successfully treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). A 63-year-old female patient presented with multiple painful ulcers, atrophie blanches, and retiform purpura on both lower legs and feet. Histopathologic findings were compatible with LV. LV was diagnosed based on these clinicopathological findings. Following the diagnosis, we treated the patient with pentoxifylline, aspirin, systemic corticosteroid, antihistamine, and antibiotics. In spite of six-month treatment, the skin lesions did not improve; hence, HBOT was performed. It was performed at 2.0 absolute atmosphere for 120 minutes each time, three times a week. After 4 sessions, the ulcers began to heal and after 13 sessions, the skin lesions almost healed. During the eight-month followup period, the skin ulcers did not recur and the symptoms remained stable. Additionally, it was confirmed that she had MTHFR gene polymorphism after a genetic test. In conclusion, we wish to provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of HBOT and suggest that HBOT might be a considerable treatment option in refractory LV.

15.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913474

ABSTRACT

Background@#The morphology of hair regrowth in alopecia areata (AA) patches could be classified into four types, namely diffuse, irregular, marginal, and targetoid patterns, according to the DIMT classification. However, factors affecting hair regrowth patterns have not been investigated. @*Objective@#We investigated whether the DIMT-classified hair regrowth patterns of AA patches are associated with treatment modality and patch size. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 152 AA patches with hair regrowth. @*Results@#The associations between the diffuse pattern and patch size >2 cm (p=0.006;odds ratio [OR]: 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17~0.74), between the irregular pattern and triamcinolone acetonide intralesional injection (p2 cm (p=0.028; OR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.10~5.68) were statistically significant. @*Conclusion@#Treatment modalities and patch size are the factors affecting hair regrowth patterns in AA patches.

16.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 174-179, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926717

ABSTRACT

Perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is caused by leakage of perilymph through an abnormal communication between the inner and middle ear. Conservative treatment is considered in the initial stages; however, exploratory tympanotomy is performed if hearing does not improve or if dizziness persists. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (TEES) is considered an appropriate treatment option and is gaining popularity. We report a rare case of traumatic PLF in a 7-year-old male patient, in whom pneumolabyrinth without temporal bone fracture was diagnosed and treated by exploratory tympanotomy using TEES, and review the related research to discuss the usefulness of management using TEES for PLF.

17.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 130-134, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926605

ABSTRACT

Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by chronic papulonodular eruptions. Highly potent topical steroids and phototherapy are the first-line modalities, and low-dose methotrexate (MTX) combined with folic acid is known to be safe and efficient for the treatment of LyP. However, there are concerns about whether whole-body phototherapy should be performed for limited lesions. Herein, we report the first case series of localized LyP mimicking pseudolymphoma successfully treated with low-dose MTX and 308 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser therapy. Clinicians should consider UV laser therapy as a novel treatment option because it has the advantage of selective treatment.

18.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 29-41, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924977

ABSTRACT

Abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein is a key element in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. α-synuclein aggregation spreads through various brain regions during the course of disease progression, a propagation that is thought to be mediated by the secretion and subsequent uptake of extracellular α-synuclein aggregates between neuronal cells. Thus, aggregated forms of this protein have emerged as promising targets for disease-modifying therapy for PD and related diseases. Here, we generated and characterized conformation-specific antibodies that preferentially recognize aggregated forms of α-synuclein. These antibodies promoted phagocytosis of extracellular α-synuclein aggregates by microglial cells and interfered with cell-to-cell propagation of α-synuclein. In an α-synuclein transgenic model, passive immunization with aggregate-specific antibodies significantly ameliorated pathological phenotypes, reducing α-synuclein aggregation, gliosis, inflammation, and neuronal loss. These results suggest that conformation-specific antibodies targeting α-synuclein aggregates are promising therapeutic agents for PD and related synucleinopathies.

19.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 371-377, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938500

ABSTRACT

Background@#Contact immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone is one of the first-line treatments for extensive alopecia areata, despite its adverse effects (AEs). @*Objective@#This study aimed to investigate whether a modified contact immunotherapy treatment protocol can safely promote hair regrowth in children. @*Methods@#Children with alopecia areata who were treated with modified contact immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were sensitized with 0.1% diphenylcyclopropenone and began treatment at subsequent increasing concentrations. The efficacy, AEs, and demographic factors were evaluated. @*Results@#A total of 32 patients, aged 9 to 17 years (mean age, 14.6 years), were included in the study. The mean disease duration was 26.8 months. Ten (31.3%) and 11 patients (34.4%) showed complete and partial responses, respectively. No AEs were observed after the sensitization. During treatment, 13 patients (40.6%) did not experience any AEs. Sixteen patients (50.0%) showed mild to moderate pruritus, and only three patients (9.4%) had severe pruritus. However, all AEs were well controlled. @*Conclusion@#A modified diphenylcyclopropenone treatment protocol with subclinical sensitization could induce a favorable therapeutic response and fewer AEs in children.

20.
Journal of Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ; (4): 50-63, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919876

ABSTRACT

Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder form of primordial dwarfism, caused by mutations in the pericentrin gene. The purpose of the study was to examine the clinical and radiological features, physicochemical properties and microstructures of the tooth affected with MOPD II.The mandibular 2nd molar was collected from the MOPD II patient. Micro-computerized tomography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and Vickers microhardness analysis were performed on the MOPD II and the normal control.The morphology of the MOPD II tooth appeared to have malformed pulp and root and showed a small size. The mineral density measurement showed that the MOPD II tooth had similar scores in the enamel, but lower scores in the root 1/2 and apical dentin compared to the normal control. The microhardness values were smaller in the cusp enamel, root 1/2 dentin and apical dentin of the MOPD II compared to the normal control.In this study, the dental characteristics and the physicochemical properties of a tooth affected with MOPD II were analyzed to improve understanding of the oral manifestations of the disease and to assist in proper dental treatment by identifying precautions.

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