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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924912

ABSTRACT

Background@#Subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is an emerging consequence of increased insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia is one of the few correctable risk factors of LVDD. This study evaluated the role of mean and visit-to-visit variability of lipid measurements in risk of LVDD in a healthy population. @*Methods@#This was a 3.7-year (interquartile range, 2.1 to 4.9) longitudinal cohort study including 2,817 adults (median age 55 years) with left ventricular ejection fraction >50% who underwent an annual or biannual health screening between January 2008 and July 2016. The mean, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), variability independent of the mean (VIM), and average real variability of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), non-HDL-C, and triglycerides were obtained from three to six measurements during the 5 years preceding the first echocardiogram. @*Results@#Among the 2,817 patients, 560 (19.9%) developed LVDD. The mean of no component of lipid measurements was associated with risk of LVDD. CV (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.67), SD (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.57), and VIM (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.55) of LDL-C and all the variability parameters of apoB were significantly associated with development of LVDD. The association between CV-LDL and risk of LVDD did not have significant interaction with sex, increasing/decreasing trend at baseline, or use of stain and/or lipid-modifying agents. @*Conclusion@#The variability of LDL-C and apoB, rather than their mean, was associated with risk for LVDD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874526

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics and risk of diabetic complications according to age at diagnosis among young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).MethodsA total of 255 T1DM patients aged less than 40 years were included. Patients were categorized into three groups (ResultsMedian age at diagnosis was 25 years and disease duration was 14 years. Individuals diagnosed with T1DM at childhood/adolescent (age P=0.022). The eGFR was inversely associated with disease duration whilst the degree of decrease was more prominent in the childhood/adolescent-onset group than in the later onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; PP=0.005).ConclusionIn individuals with childhood/adolescent-onset T1DM, the reduction in renal function is more prominent with disease duration. Early age-onset T1DM is an independent risk of DN.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890523

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) is diagnosed through biochemical confirmation of excessive catecholamines in urine and plasma. Recent technological developments have allowed us to measure urinary free metanephrines; however, the diagnostic accuracy of these new methods and the diagnostic cutoff values have not been evaluated. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective study of 595 subjects, including 71 PPGL cases and 524 controls. PPGL was based on pathological confirmation. Subjects with no evidence of PPGL over 2 years were included in the control group. @*Results@#Urinary free metanephrines yielded similar area under the curve (AUC) to urinary fractionated metanephrines and plasma free metanephrines. However, urinary free normetanephrine yielded a better AUC than did urinary fractionated normetanephrine. The optimal cutoff for urinary free metanephrine and normetanephrine corrected for urinary creatinine yielded 97.2% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity. @*Conclusion@#Urinary free metanephrines are a reliable method for diagnosing PPGL in Asian populations compared with existing biochemical methods.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890387

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and related to albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) is a renal tubular injury marker which has been reported as an early marker of DN even in patients with normoalbuminuria. This study evaluated whether uNAG is associated with the presence and severity of CAN in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without nephropathy. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study comprised 247 subjects with T1DM without chronic kidney disease and albuminuria who had results for both uNAG and autonomic function tests within 3 months. The presence of CAN was assessed by age-dependent reference values for four autonomic function tests. Total CAN score was assessed as the sum of the partial points of five cardiovascular reflex tests and was used to estimatethe severity of CAN. The correlations between uNAG and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed. @*Results@#The association between log-uNAG and presence of CAN was significant in a multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 5.28; P=0.031). Total CAN score was positively associated with loguNAG (β=0.261, P=0.026) in the multivariate linear regression model. Log-uNAG was inversely correlated with frequency-domain and time-domain indices of HRV. @*Conclusion@#This study verified the association of uNAG with presence and severity of CAN and changes in HRV in T1DM patients without nephropathy. The potential role of uNAG should be further assessed for high-risk patients for CAN in T1DM patients without nephropathy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899918

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between glucose variability and frailty. Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled. The FRAIL scale was used for frailty assessment, and participants were classified into ‘healthy & pre-frail’ (n = 24) and ‘frail’ (n = 24) groups. A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system was used for a mean of 6.9 days and standardized CGM metrics were analyzed: mean glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), coefficient of variation, and time in range, time above range (TAR), and time below range. The demographics did not differ between groups. However, among the CGM metrics, mean glucose, GMI, and TAR in the postprandial periods were higher in the frail group (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, the post-lunch TAR (OR = 1.12, P = 0.019) affected the prevalence of frailty. Higher glucose variability with marked daytime postprandial hyperglycemia is significantly associated with frailty in older patients with diabetes.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898227

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) is diagnosed through biochemical confirmation of excessive catecholamines in urine and plasma. Recent technological developments have allowed us to measure urinary free metanephrines; however, the diagnostic accuracy of these new methods and the diagnostic cutoff values have not been evaluated. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective study of 595 subjects, including 71 PPGL cases and 524 controls. PPGL was based on pathological confirmation. Subjects with no evidence of PPGL over 2 years were included in the control group. @*Results@#Urinary free metanephrines yielded similar area under the curve (AUC) to urinary fractionated metanephrines and plasma free metanephrines. However, urinary free normetanephrine yielded a better AUC than did urinary fractionated normetanephrine. The optimal cutoff for urinary free metanephrine and normetanephrine corrected for urinary creatinine yielded 97.2% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity. @*Conclusion@#Urinary free metanephrines are a reliable method for diagnosing PPGL in Asian populations compared with existing biochemical methods.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898091

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and related to albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) is a renal tubular injury marker which has been reported as an early marker of DN even in patients with normoalbuminuria. This study evaluated whether uNAG is associated with the presence and severity of CAN in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without nephropathy. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study comprised 247 subjects with T1DM without chronic kidney disease and albuminuria who had results for both uNAG and autonomic function tests within 3 months. The presence of CAN was assessed by age-dependent reference values for four autonomic function tests. Total CAN score was assessed as the sum of the partial points of five cardiovascular reflex tests and was used to estimatethe severity of CAN. The correlations between uNAG and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed. @*Results@#The association between log-uNAG and presence of CAN was significant in a multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 5.28; P=0.031). Total CAN score was positively associated with loguNAG (β=0.261, P=0.026) in the multivariate linear regression model. Log-uNAG was inversely correlated with frequency-domain and time-domain indices of HRV. @*Conclusion@#This study verified the association of uNAG with presence and severity of CAN and changes in HRV in T1DM patients without nephropathy. The potential role of uNAG should be further assessed for high-risk patients for CAN in T1DM patients without nephropathy.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892214

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between glucose variability and frailty. Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled. The FRAIL scale was used for frailty assessment, and participants were classified into ‘healthy & pre-frail’ (n = 24) and ‘frail’ (n = 24) groups. A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system was used for a mean of 6.9 days and standardized CGM metrics were analyzed: mean glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), coefficient of variation, and time in range, time above range (TAR), and time below range. The demographics did not differ between groups. However, among the CGM metrics, mean glucose, GMI, and TAR in the postprandial periods were higher in the frail group (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, the post-lunch TAR (OR = 1.12, P = 0.019) affected the prevalence of frailty. Higher glucose variability with marked daytime postprandial hyperglycemia is significantly associated with frailty in older patients with diabetes.

11.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 179-183, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903514

ABSTRACT

The accuracy and convenience of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices have been substantially improved in the past decade, with an accuracy comparable to finger-stick glucose meters. In addition, new advantageous features of CGM devices include a painless one button inserter, smaller (or integrated) transmitters, better connectivity with smartphones, an extended 14-day wear period, no acetaminophen interference, and no need for calibration with a finger-stick glucose meter. Real-time CGM is now the go-to diabetes technology for most people with type 1 diabetes, and acts as a gateway to more advanced diabetes technology. Real-time CGM has become a standard therapy for type 1 diabetes, and a well-proven therapy for type 2 diabetes with multiple daily injections. In the near future, advanced hybrid closed-loop devices with an automated correction bolus will be clinically available, which will be a major breakthrough toward fully automated insulin delivery.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898865

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intensive IV insulin infusion therapy has been applied widely to critically ill patients. However, IV insulin protocols are complex, and require repeated calculations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of a computerized insulin infusion (CII) protocol to replace manual insulin infusion protocols, for glucose control in critically ill patients. @*Methods@#This was an observational study (September 2016 to January 2017) of 43 patients in ICU whose blood glucose level was between 140-180 mg/mL and could not be controlled by the conventional manual insulin protocol. The CII protocol was integrated in to the electronic medical record order system, and automatically calculated the insulin infusion dose and blood sugar test (BST) interval. BSTs were taken 48 hours pre- and post-initiation of the CII protocol. The proportion of BSTs in the normal (70-180 mg/mL), hypoglycemic (70 mg/mL), and severe hyperglycemic (> 250 mg/mL) range were recorded. @*Results@#The mean number of BSTs performed before using the CII protocol was 10.3/person and 0.4/hour, and after implementing the protocol, increased to 21.7/person and 0.7/hour. The mean glucose level (281.4 mg/mL) decreased after using the CII protocol (195.5 mg/mL; p 250 mg/mL) decreased from 47.3% to 17.9% after protocol implementation (p = 0.020). @*Conclusion@#The CII protocol safely and successfully maintained a normal glucose range, and decreased severe hyperglycemia in intensive care patients.

13.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 179-183, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895810

ABSTRACT

The accuracy and convenience of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices have been substantially improved in the past decade, with an accuracy comparable to finger-stick glucose meters. In addition, new advantageous features of CGM devices include a painless one button inserter, smaller (or integrated) transmitters, better connectivity with smartphones, an extended 14-day wear period, no acetaminophen interference, and no need for calibration with a finger-stick glucose meter. Real-time CGM is now the go-to diabetes technology for most people with type 1 diabetes, and acts as a gateway to more advanced diabetes technology. Real-time CGM has become a standard therapy for type 1 diabetes, and a well-proven therapy for type 2 diabetes with multiple daily injections. In the near future, advanced hybrid closed-loop devices with an automated correction bolus will be clinically available, which will be a major breakthrough toward fully automated insulin delivery.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891161

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intensive IV insulin infusion therapy has been applied widely to critically ill patients. However, IV insulin protocols are complex, and require repeated calculations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of a computerized insulin infusion (CII) protocol to replace manual insulin infusion protocols, for glucose control in critically ill patients. @*Methods@#This was an observational study (September 2016 to January 2017) of 43 patients in ICU whose blood glucose level was between 140-180 mg/mL and could not be controlled by the conventional manual insulin protocol. The CII protocol was integrated in to the electronic medical record order system, and automatically calculated the insulin infusion dose and blood sugar test (BST) interval. BSTs were taken 48 hours pre- and post-initiation of the CII protocol. The proportion of BSTs in the normal (70-180 mg/mL), hypoglycemic (70 mg/mL), and severe hyperglycemic (> 250 mg/mL) range were recorded. @*Results@#The mean number of BSTs performed before using the CII protocol was 10.3/person and 0.4/hour, and after implementing the protocol, increased to 21.7/person and 0.7/hour. The mean glucose level (281.4 mg/mL) decreased after using the CII protocol (195.5 mg/mL; p 250 mg/mL) decreased from 47.3% to 17.9% after protocol implementation (p = 0.020). @*Conclusion@#The CII protocol safely and successfully maintained a normal glucose range, and decreased severe hyperglycemia in intensive care patients.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832391

ABSTRACT

Background@#Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most important sequelae of obesity and the leading cause of death. We evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes, CVD, and all-cause mortality in a prospective study of a Korean population. @*Methods@#The shapes of the associations were modeled by restricted cubic splines regression analysis. After categorizing all subjects (n=8,900) into octiles based on their BMI levels, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for the association of categorized BMI levels with the risk of incident CVD and type 2 diabetes using a Cox’s proportional hazard analysis. @*Results@#The mean age of participants was 52 years and 48% were men. Of the subjects at baseline, 39.0% of men and 45.6% of women were classified as obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Over a mean follow-up of 8.1 years, CVD events occurred in 509 participants; 436 died; and 1,258 subjects developed type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of incident diabetes began to be significant at BMI 23 to 24 kg/m2 in both sexes (HR, 1.8). For CVD events, the risk began to increase significantly at BMI 26 to 28 kg/m2 (HR, 1.6). We found a reverse J-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality, with an increased risk among individuals with BMI values in lower range (BMI <21 kg/m2). @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that the BMI cut-off points for observed risk were varied depending on the diseases and that the BMI classification of obesity need to be revised to reflect differential risk of obesity-related diseases.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832350

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics and risk of diabetic complications according to age at diagnosis among young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). @*Methods@#A total of 255 T1DM patients aged less than 40 years were included. Patients were categorized into three groups (<20, 20 to 29, and 30 to 40 years) according to age at diagnosis. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was defined when spot urine-albumin creatinine ratio was 300 mg/g or more and/or estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) level was 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less. @*Results@#Median age at diagnosis was 25 years and disease duration was 14 years. Individuals diagnosed with T1DM at childhood/adolescent (age <20 years) had lower stimulated C-peptide levels. They received more intensive insulin treatment with higher total daily insulin doses compared to older onset groups. The prevalence of DN was higher in the childhood/adolescentonset group than in older onset groups (25.3% vs. 15.3% vs. 9.6%, P=0.022). The eGFR was inversely associated with disease duration whilst the degree of decrease was more prominent in the childhood/adolescent-onset group than in the later onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; P<0.001). Childhood/adolescent-onset group was independently associated with the risk of DN compared to the older onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; odds ratio, 3.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 8.33; P=0.005). @*Conclusion@#In individuals with childhood/adolescent-onset T1DM, the reduction in renal function is more prominent with disease duration. Early age-onset T1DM is an independent risk of DN.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the outcome of a computerized intravenous insulin infusion (CII) protocol integrated to the electronic health record (EHR) system and to improve the CII protocol in silico using the EHR-based predictors of the outcome.METHODS: Clinical outcomes of the patients who underwent the CII protocol between July 2016 and February 2017 and their matched controls were evaluated. In the CII protocol group (n=91), multivariable binary logistic regression analysis models were used to determine the independent associates with a delayed response (taking ≥6.0 hours for entering a glucose range of 70 to 180 mg/dL). The CII protocol was adjusted in silico according to the EHR-based parameters obtained in the first 3 hours of CII.RESULTS: Use of the CII protocol was associated with fewer subjects with hypoglycemia alert values (P=0.003), earlier (P=0.002), and more stable (P=0.017) achievement of a glucose range of 70 to 180 mg/dL. Initial glucose level (P=0.001), change in glucose during the first 2 hours (P=0.026), and change in insulin infusion rate during the first 3 hours (P=0.029) were independently associated with delayed responses. Increasing the insulin infusion rate temporarily according to these parameters in silico significantly reduced delayed responses (P<0.0001) without hypoglycemia, especially in refractory patients.CONCLUSION: Our CII protocol enabled faster and more stable glycemic control than conventional care with minimized risk of hypoglycemia. An EHR-based adjustment was simulated to reduce delayed responses without increased incidence of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Electronic Health Records , Glucose , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Insulin , Logistic Models , Medical Records Systems, Computerized
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metformin, sulfonylurea, and dietary fiber are known to affect gut microbiota in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This open and single-arm pilot trial investigated the effects of the additional use of fiber on glycemic parameters, insulin, incretins, and microbiota in patients with T2DM who had been treated with metformin and sulfonylurea. METHODS: Participants took fiber for 4 weeks and stopped for the next 4 weeks. Glycemic parameters, insulin, incretins during mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, and fecal microbiota were analyzed at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The first tertile of difference in glucose area under the curve during MMTT between weeks 0 and 4 was defined as ‘responders’ and the third as ‘nonresponders,’ respectively. RESULTS: In all 10 participants, the peak incretin levels during MMTT were higher and LPS were lower at week 4 as compared with at baseline. While the insulin sensitivity of the ‘responders’ increased at week 4, that of the ‘nonresponders’ showed opposite results. However, the results were not statistically significant. In all participants, metabolically unfavorable microbiota decreased at week 4 and were restored at week 8. At baseline, metabolically hostile bacteria were more abundant in the ‘nonresponders.’ In ‘responders,’ Roseburia intestinalis increased at week 4. CONCLUSION: While dietary fiber did not induce additional changes in glycemic parameters, it showed a trend of improvement in insulin sensitivity in ‘responders.’ Even if patients are already receiving diabetes treatment, the additional administration of fiber can lead to additional benefits in the treatment of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dietary Fiber , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucose , Humans , Incretins , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Microbiota , Sulfonylurea Compounds
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has not been determined whether changes in serum uric acid (SUA) level are associated with incident metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between changes in SUA level and development of MetS in a large number of subjects. METHODS: In total, 13,057 subjects participating in a medical health check-up program without a diagnosis of MetS at baseline were enrolled. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the independent association of percent changes in SUA level with development of MetS. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, fat-free mass (%), estimated glomerular filtration rate, smoking status, fasting glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and baseline SUA levels, the hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for incident MetS in the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile of percent change in SUA level were 1.055 (0.936 to 1.190), 0.927 (0.818 to 1.050), and 0.807 (0.707 to 0.922) in male (P for trend <0.001) and 1.000 (0.843 to 1.186), 0.744 (0.615 to 0.900), and 0.684 (0.557 to 0.840) in female (P for trend <0.001), respectively. As a continuous variable in the fully-adjusted model, each one-standard deviation increase in percent change in SUA level was associated with an HR (95% CI) for incident MetS of 0.944 (0.906 to 0.982) in male (P=0.005) and 0.851 (0.801 to 0.905) in female (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that increasing SUA level independently protected against the development of MetS, suggesting a possible role of SUA as an antioxidant in the pathogenesis of incident MetS.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Diagnosis , Fasting , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Smoke , Smoking , Triglycerides , Uric Acid
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in all age groups and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM in Korea were estimated. METHODS: The incidence and prevalence of T1DM between 2007 and 2013 were calculated using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) datasets of claims. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals with T1DM between 2009 and 2013 were determined using the database of NHIS preventive health checkups. RESULTS: The prevalence of T1DM in Korea between 2007 and 2013 was 0.041% to 0.047%. The annual incidence rate of T1DM in Korea in 2007 to 2013 was 2.73 to 5.02/100,000 people. Although the incidence rate of typical T1DM was highest in teenagers, it remained steady in adults over 30 years of age. In contrast, the incidence rate of atypical T1DM in 2013 was higher in people aged 40 years or older than in younger age groups. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM was 51.65% to 55.06% between 2009 and 2013. CONCLUSION: T1DM may be more common in Korean adults than previously believed. Metabolic syndrome may be a frequent finding in individuals with T1DM in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Dataset , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Prevalence
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