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1.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 110-118, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nefopam is a non-opioid, non-steroidal, centrally acting analgesic drug. The concomitant use of opioids and nefopam is believed to have many advantages over the administration of opioids alone for postoperative pain management. We conducted a randomized, double-blind study to determine the fentanyl-sparing effect of co-administration of nefopam with fentanyl for postoperative pain management via patient controlled analgesia (PCA). METHODS: Ninety female patients who underwent laparoscopic total hysterectomy under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 groups, Group A, fentanyl 1,000 µg; Group B, fentanyl 500 µg + nefopam 200 mg; and Group C, fentanyl 500 µg + nefopam 400 mg, in a total volume of 100 ml PCA to be administered over the first 48 h postoperatively without basal infusion. The primary outcome was total fentanyl consumption during 48 h; secondary outcomes included pain scores and incidence of side effects. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included in the analysis. The overall fentanyl-sparing effects of PCA with concomitant administration of nefopam during the first 48 h postoperatively were 54.5% in Group B and 48.9% group C. Fentanyl use was not significantly different between Groups B and C despite the difference in the nefopam dose. There were no differences among the three groups in terms of PCA-related side effects, although the overall sedation score of Group B was significantly lower than that of Group A. CONCLUSIONS: The concomitant administration of nefopam with fentanyl for postoperative pain management may allow reduction of fentanyl dose, thereby reducing the risk of opioid-related adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia, General , Deep Sedation , Double-Blind Method , Female , Fentanyl , Humans , Hysterectomy , Incidence , Nefopam , Pain Measurement , Pain, Postoperative , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37139

ABSTRACT

Epidural neuroplasty is a treatment modality for back pain and/or radiating pain caused by mechanical compression or neural inflammation of intra-spinal neural structures. Since epidural neuroplasty was first introduced as a treatment for pain caused by epidural adhesion such as failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), it has been performed as a treatment for many kinds of pain of spinal origin including acute/chronic herniation of intervertebral disc, radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, FBSS, epidural adhesion, vertebral compression fracture, vertebral metastasis, resistant multilevel degenerative arthritis, epidural scar pain by infection or meningitis, and whiplash injury. Epidural neuroplasty is a catheterization technique used to treat back pain and/or radiating pain by injecting therapeutic drugs into lesions of epidural space shown as a filling defect in epidurogram. Usually, normal saline, local anesthetics, and steroid are used as therapeutic drugs. The exact mechanisms of action of the procedure are unknown but include 2 postulated mechanisms of action for pain relief. i.e., mechanical adhesiolysis by volume effect and chemical adhesiolysis by injected drugs. Relative large volumes of normal saline injection resolve adhesions and wash out accumulated pain substances; local anesthetics are used for stabilization and analgesia of flaring neural structures and for pain management for procedure related pain; and steroid is used for the treatment of inflammation of neural and peri-neural structures. The resolution of filling defect can be verified by post-procedure epidurogram. The key point of epidural neuroplasty for good results, is the exact localization of the epidural catheter into the epidural lesion.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Back Pain , Catheterization , Catheters , Cicatrix , Epidural Space , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Fractures, Compression , Inflammation , Intervertebral Disc , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Meningitis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Osteoarthritis , Pain Management , Radiculopathy , Spinal Stenosis , Whiplash Injuries
3.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 287-289, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86944

ABSTRACT

Brachial plexus block (BPB) under ultrasound guidance has come to be widely used. However, nerve injury has been reported following ultrasound-guided BPB. We hypothesized that BPB under ultrasound guidance in conjunction with real-time electrical nerve stimulation would help us prevent nerve injury and do more successful procedure. Here, we report the successful induction and maintenance of ultrasound-guided BPB and the achievement of good peri- and postoperative pain control using a conductive catheter, the EpiStim(R).


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus , Catheters , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative , Peripheral Nerves , Radial Nerve , Ultrasonography
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serotonin-also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT-can induce nausea and vomiting (NV) by peripheral mechanisms via the activation of 5-HT3 receptors. In this study, we observed perioperative NV, including intraoperative NV, and changes in serum 5-HT concentrations. We evaluated the relationship between perioperative NV and serum 5-HT levels in patients undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, and carried out a pilot study to determine if further studies on a larger scale were justified. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who were scheduled for cesarean section under epidural anesthesia were included in the study. Patients were assigned to 2 groups according to the occurrence of NV after induction, i.e., an NV-positive or an NV-negative group. Serum 5-HT concentrations were measured before induction, at the time that NV occurred (in the case of the NV-positive group) or 5 min after the umbilical cord clamping (in the case of the NV-negative group) during surgery, and at 2 h postoperatively. RESULTS: NV occurred in 10 of the 28 patients. No significant differences in serum 5-HT concentrations were found within or between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that there is no correlation between serum 5-HT concentration and the occurrence of perioperative NV in patients undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, and the findings do not seem to support further investigations regarding a possible relationship between serum 5-HT concentration and perioperative NV.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Epidural , Cesarean Section , Constriction , Female , Humans , Nausea , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3 , Serotonin , Umbilical Cord , Vomiting
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183950

ABSTRACT

Vertebroplasty (VP) can effectively treat pain and immobility caused by vertebral compression fracture. Because of complications such as extravasation of bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) and adjacent vertebral fractures, some practitioners prefer to inject a small volume of PMMA. In that case, however, insufficient augmentation or a subsequent refracture of the treated vertebrae can occur. A 65-year-old woman visited our clinic complaining of unrelieved severe low back and bilateral flank pain even after she had undergone VP on the 1st and 4th (L1 and L4) lumbar vertebrae a month earlier. Radiologic findings showed the refracture of L1. We successfully performed the repeat VP by filling the vertebra with a sufficient volume of PMMA, and no complications occurred. The patient's pain and immobility resolved completely three days after the procedure and she remained symptom-free a month later. In conclusion, VP with small volume cement impaction may fail to relieve fracture-induced symptoms, and the refracture of an augmented vertebral body may occur. In this case, repeat VP can effectively resolve both the persistent symptoms and problems of new onset resulting from refracture of the augmented vertebral body due to insufficient volume of bone cement.


Subject(s)
Female , Flank Pain , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Spine , Vertebroplasty
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-654544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill septic shock patients with acute kidney injury is highly subjective and may influence outcome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between initiation of RRT and 28 day mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock (SSSS). METHODS: All patients diagnosed with SSSS and treated at the medical intensive care unit (ICU) in university-affiliated hospital from January 2005 to December 2006 were reviewed. Initiation of RRT was stratified into "early" and "late" by RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage) criteria and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) at the time RRT began. The primary outcome was death after 28 days from any cause. RESULTS: Of the 326 patients diagnosed with SSSS and admitted into the medical ICU during the study period, 78 patients received RRT. Mean age was 61.5 +/- 14.7 years old and 54 patients were male (69.2%). The initiation of RRT was categorized into early (Risk, and Injury) and late (Failure) by RIFLE criteria and also categorized into early (BUN or = 75 mg/dl). When the relationship between RIFLE criteria and 28 day mortality was compared, no significant difference was shown (70.8% vs. 73.3%, p = 0.81). The initiation of RRT by BUN also showed no significant difference in 28 day mortality (77.3% vs. 69.6%, p = 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of RRT, stratified into "early" and "late" by RIFLE and BUN, showed no significant difference in 28 day mortality regarding patient with SSSS.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Renal Replacement Therapy , Sepsis , Shock, Septic
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226774

ABSTRACT

Central diabetes insipidus (DI), characterized by unexpected fatal hypernatremia, is a rare complication after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation with therapeutic hypothermia, but may be potentially fatal if recognition is delayed. We describe here a patient who experienced cardiac arrest due to a pulmonary embolism, followed by successful resuscitation after induction of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient, however, suddenly developed unexpected hypernatremia with increased urine output and was diagnosed with central DI as a complication of cerebral edema, and eventually died. Our findings suggest that central DI should be considered as a possible complication following unexpected hypernatremia with increased urine output during therapeutic hypothermia and that desmopressin acetate should be used to treat central DI.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Female , Heart Arrest/complications , Humans , Hypernatremia/etiology , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/complications
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Immediate identification of bacterial meningitis (BM) is essential in the emergency department. However, diagnosis of BM from analysis of cerebrospinal fluid has low sensitivity. The goal of this study was to determine the ability of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for differentiation between BM and non-BM in adult patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study, which was conducted from Jan 1 2008 to Sep 30 2011, included patients with a diagnosis of meningitis based on compatible clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture findings with a CSF leukocyte count > 5 /microL. Measurement of Serum PCT and CRP level was performed on initial admission to the emergency department. Patients were divided into two groups, according to the type of meningitis: BM or non-BM. Clinical features, laboratory results, including CSF results, serum PCT, and CRP levels were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 63 patients (age, 49+/-19) with confirmed meningitis were admitted: 43 patients with non-BM and 20 patients with BM. Significantly higher PCT and CRP levels, CSF white blood cell and neutrophil count, CSF glucose, and protein levels were observed in the BM group. The most highly discriminative parameters for differential diagnosis of BM proved to be serum PCT, with a sensitivity of 90%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 96% at a diagnostic cut-off level of 1.0 ng/mL (area under the curve 0.98; 95% confidence interval 0.00-1.00) and CRP, with a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 88%, a positive predictive value of 77%, a negative predictive value of 93% at a diagnostic cut-off level of 6.0 mg/dL (area under the curve 0.91; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.97). CONCLUSION: Serum PCT and CRP levels appear to be the most highly discriminative parameters for differential diagnosis of BM and non-BM.


Subject(s)
Adult , C-Reactive Protein , Calcitonin , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Emergencies , Glucose , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Neutrophils , Protein Precursors , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) generates severe postoperative pain in 60% of patients and moderate pain in 30% of patients. Because inadequate postoperative pain control can hinder early physiotherapy and rehabilitation, it is the most influential factor dictating a good outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous psoas compartment block (PCB) in comparison to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in TKA patients. METHODS: 40 TKA patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group IVPCA (n = 20) received intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IVPCA) for 48 hours. Group PCB (n = 20) received continuous PCB for 48 hours at the fourth intertransverse process of the lumbar using the C-arm. Pain scores, side effects, satisfaction, the length of hospital stay, rescue antiemetics, and analgesics were recorded. RESULTS: Pain scores (VNRS 0-100) were higher in Group IVPCA than in Group PCB. Nausea and sedation occurred more frequently in Group IVPCA than in Group PCB. There were no differences between the groups in the length of the hospital stay, satisfaction scores, and the use of rescue antiemetics and analgesics. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous PCB seemed to be an appropriate and reliable technique for TKA patients, because it provided better analgesia and fewer side effects such as nausea and sedation when compared to IVPCA.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Analgesics , Antiemetics , Arthroplasty , Humans , Knee , Length of Stay , Lumbosacral Plexus , Nausea , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension (SIH) is rare condition and may accompany other clinical symptoms which inhibit accurate diagnosis in an emergency department (ER). Only a few studies have reported the clinical characteristics and root causes associated with SIH. This study evaluates the rate of accuracy of SIH diagnosis and compares clinical characteristics and diagnostic test results for correct versus incorrect diagnosis groups. METHODS: Medical records of SIH patients admitted to an emergency department (ER) over a twelve year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped as having received correct or incorrect diagnosis, and their clinical characteristics and diagnostic test results were compared. In the incorrect diagnosis group, the number of times they were misdiagnosed, and the specialties of the clinic (s) they visited prior to arrival at this ER were reviewed. RESULTS: Adhering to the inclusion criteria of our study, 72 patients were enrolled with 54 patients in the correct diagnosis group and 18 patients in the incorrect diagnosis group. Of the twenty one cases in the incorrect diagnosis group, the majority 7 cases (33.3%) had been examined by an emergency physician. Among the clinical symptoms observed, there was significant variability in the location of the headache (p=0.020) and time interval between symptom onset and diagnosis (p=0.035). CONCLUSION: There were no differences in most of the clinical observations and diagnostic test results between the correct and incorrect diagnosis groups. To improve the correct diagnosis rate, it is suggested to have 'SIH' included as a differential diagnosis when encountering patients reporting headache in the emergency department. Emergency physicians should be required to recognize clinical SIH characteristics such as orthostatic headache.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Emergencies , Headache , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
11.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 231-234, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107264

ABSTRACT

Kummell's disease is a spinal disorder characterized by delayed post-traumatic collapse of a vertebral body with avascular necrosis. Although definitive treatment for Kummell's disease has not been established, it has been reported that percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty has shown good results. However, these procedures are not recommended for severely collapsed vertebral bodies because of the risk of cement leakage or technical difficulties. Authors report a rare case of spontaneous reduction in vertebral height by the insertion of a working cannula into the vertebral body in Kummell's disease.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Kyphoplasty , Necrosis , Osteoporosis , Vertebroplasty
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138703

ABSTRACT

Elbow tuberculosis is a rare disease which accounts for 1-3% of all cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis. The diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis is very difficult in most clinical situations because of the insidious onset, indolent process, and mild and non-specific local or systemic symptoms. Thus, the confirmatory diagnosis and effective treatment for tuberculous arthritis are delayed until the disease progresses to an advanced stage in many clinical settings. Herein we report a case of septic arthritis of the elbow due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a result of misdiagnosis and delayed treatments.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Arthritis, Infectious , Diagnostic Errors , Elbow , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rare Diseases , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138702

ABSTRACT

Elbow tuberculosis is a rare disease which accounts for 1-3% of all cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis. The diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis is very difficult in most clinical situations because of the insidious onset, indolent process, and mild and non-specific local or systemic symptoms. Thus, the confirmatory diagnosis and effective treatment for tuberculous arthritis are delayed until the disease progresses to an advanced stage in many clinical settings. Herein we report a case of septic arthritis of the elbow due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a result of misdiagnosis and delayed treatments.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Arthritis, Infectious , Diagnostic Errors , Elbow , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rare Diseases , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: D-dimer testing is widely applied as a first step in the diagnostic work-up of pulmonary embolism (PE). Although this is the most sensitive assay for ruling out PE, the prognostic implications of D-dimer testing in patients with normotensive PE are not well known. The aim of this study was to determine if D-dimer testing on admission predicts major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with normotensive PE. METHODS: A total of 180 consecutive patients with normotensive PE admitted between January 2003 and June 2009 were included. The group was divided into quartiles on the basis of their D-dimer levels. We compared the frequency of MACE by quartile of D-dimer level and estimated sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for MACE in the first and fourth quartile. RESULTS: In the 37 (20.6%) patients with MACEs, the median D-dimer level (7.94 [IQR: 4.03~18.17] microgram/mL) was higher than in patients with a benign course (5.29 [IQR: 2.60~11.52] microgram/mL, p<0.01). The occurrence of MACEs was increased with increasing D-dimer level (p=0.017). In the first quartile (D-Dimer <2.76 microgram/mL) sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for predicting MACEs were, respectively, 91.9%, 29.4%, 25.2%, and 93.3%. CONCLUSION: Patients with D-dimer levels below 2.76 microgram/mL have a low risk of MACEs. Our study suggest that D-dimer level may be used to identify low risk patients with normotensive PE.


Subject(s)
Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism , Resin Cements
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there are few data on the risk factors for severe cases and deaths associated with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A. Here, we describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients hospitalized for pneumonia and identify those factors associated with the development of major complications (MC). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 41 cases of pneumonia admitted to a university-affiliated tertiary hospital between Aug 26 and Dec 10, 2009, and who had confirmed H1N1 influenza A based on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. There were 7,962 patients that fit these criteria. We compared the clinical features and demographic characteristics of patients who developed MC to with those who did not develop MC. RESULTS: During the study period, 10 patients developed MC (required admission to the intensive care unit, n=10; required ventilator therapy, n=6; death, n=4). Patients with MC were significantly older than those without MC and more frequently had underlying medical conditions (90.0% vs 41.9%, p-value <0.01). In the patients with developed MC, the median PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 230.0 (145.0~347.3) at admission and pneumonia severity index (PSI) score of 141.5 (88.3~158.5) were higher than patients without MC. However, no differences were observed in laboratory findings or in viral shedding between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized pneumonia patients of 2009 H1N1 influenza, old age, a history of malignancy, initial hypoxemia, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and PSI score appear to be risk factor significantly related to developing MC. These findings might be the basis to influence strategies for admitting patients to an intensive or intermediate care unit and for pre-emptive antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Critical Illness , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Intensive Care Units , Medical Records , Pandemics , Pneumonia , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Ventilators, Mechanical , Virus Shedding
16.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 270-273, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60770

ABSTRACT

Acupuncture has been widely used in alternative medicine for pain relief but may have many complications due to lack of appropriate cares. Pharmacopuncture is a sort of acupuncture that injects a herbal ingredient through a thin tube for the purpose of combining the effects of the herb and acupuncture and it has many pitfalls. The agents used in pharmacopuncture are not refined for a desired effect and not produced by sterile standard processes under strict medical surveillance. We report a case of a 44-yr-old male patient who had multiple abscesses in the psoas region with fever, right low back and hip pain that began after the pharmacopuncture treatment. This case shows that although pharmacopuncture has been practiced widely, it is important that the appropriate aseptic technique should be used to prevent severe infections and other complications.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Acupuncture , Complementary Therapies , Fever , Hip , Humans , Male , Psoas Abscess
17.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 245-248, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229030

ABSTRACT

Ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) is a pathologic condition that causes spinal stenosis, which is a form of ectopic ossification. OYL causes compressive myelopathy and radiculopathy. Although the pathogenesis of OYL is still unclear, diffuse mechanical stresses and degenerative changes caused by extreme ranges of motion may be related to the development of OYL in young sportsmen. Here we report an interesting case of thoracic radiculopathy due to OYL in a 35-year-old male amateur judo player who was successfully treated with continuous thoracic patient controlled epidural analgesia and epidural adhesiolysis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Analgesia, Epidural , Humans , Ligaments , Male , Martial Arts , Ossification, Heterotopic , Radiculopathy , Spinal Cord Compression , Spinal Stenosis , Stress, Mechanical
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24149

ABSTRACT

Raynaud's phenomenon associated with connective tissue disease (Raynaud`s syndrome) may be difficult to manage with conservative therapy, and no gold standard therapy currently exists. Raynaud's syndrome can cause digital ulcer and necrosis, digital amputation is inevitable in some patients. Spinal cord stimulation seems to be an effective treatment for ischemic vascular disease, although little is known about the mechanisms of this effect. We present here a case for which cervical spinal cord stimulation was used to treat a digital ulcer and the intractable digital pain in a 60-year-old male patient who had severe Raynaud's syndrome. The patient had Raynaud's phenomenon associated with mixed connective tissue disease for 10 years. Three years before visiting our clinic, he underwent amputation at the second and third distal phalanges of his right hand because of digital necrosis. Two months after spinal cord stimulator implantation, his pain significantly improved from 100/100 mm VAS to 0/100 mm and the function of his hands noticeably improved.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Connective Tissue Diseases , Hand , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mixed Connective Tissue Disease , Necrosis , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Ulcer , Vascular Diseases
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192096

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an effective therapy for chronic and intractable neuropathic pain. We present a case report of successful pain control using SCS implantation in a patient with chronic, intractable stump pain for 36 years. The patient lost his two legs under the knees during the Vietnam War and had an amputation. After that he suffered stump pain for 36 years due to recurrent neuroma even after neuroma excision was performed over 30 times. We inserted the dual percutaneous leads at the level of left T9 and right T10 in this patient and could get complete pain relief without any complications.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Humans , Knee , Leg , Lower Extremity , Neuralgia , Neuroma , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Vietnam
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56376

ABSTRACT

Pericranial myofascial tenderness is a common phenomenon in primary headache. Nociception from pericranial muscles may play a role in provoking or aggravating headaches. Conversely, the central mechanisms of headache are also important in myofascial headaches. Myofascial headaches resulting from pericranial musculoskeletal dysfunction may stem from the referred pain caused by central convergence and facilitation. This review comprehensively evaluates myofascial headache in comparison with other primary headaches.


Subject(s)
Headache , Muscles , Nociception , Pain, Referred
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