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1.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 759-767, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001834

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To assess changes in the tear film and delayed tear drainage after upper or lower, or combined upper and lower, punctal occlusion using dissolvable polydioxanone plugs in patients with dry eye. @*Methods@#In total, 40 dry eye patients (80 eyes) were enrolled: four groups of 10 (20 eyes) with no, lower, upper, and lower and upper punctal occlusions. Dissolvable polydioxanone plugs were placed. The tear break-up time (tBUT) and the tear meniscus height (TMH) were measured, and the Schirmer I test and dye disappearance test (DDT) were performed at baseline and 2 weeks after the procedure. @*Results@#Compared to the control group, all three test groups exhibited significant changes in the tBUT, the DDT test, and the TMH after polydioxanone plug placement (all p < 0.05). The group with both upper and lower punctal occlusions exhibited more delayed tear drainage than the other test groups. A lower punctal occlusion significantly delayed tear drainage to a greater extent than did an upper punctal occlusion (p = 0.010). @*Conclusions@#In dry eye patients, a polydioxanone plug improved the tBUT and TMH, and the DDT score. The tear drainage delay increased in the order: both, lower, and upper punctal occlusion(s).

2.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 818-825, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000258

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of moderate-intensity rosuvastatin/ezetimibe combination compared to highintensity rosuvastatin in high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#This study was a randomized, multicenter, open, parallel phase 4 study, and enrolled T2DM subjects with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%. The primary endpoint was the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) change rate after 24-week rosuvastatin 10 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg treatment was non-inferior to that of rosuvastatin 20 mg. The achievement proportion of 10-year ASCVD risk <7.5% or comprehensive lipid target (LDL-C <70 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL, and apolipoprotein B <80 mg/dL) without discontinuation, and several metabolic parameters were explored as secondary endpoints. @*Results@#A hundred and six participants were assigned to each group. Both groups showed significant reduction in % change of LDL-C from baseline at week 24 (–63.90±6.89 vs. –55.44±6.85, combination vs. monotherapy, p=0.0378; respectively), but the combination treatment was superior to high-intensity monotherapy in LDL-C change (%) from baseline (least square [LS] mean difference, –8.47; 95% confidence interval, –16.44 to –0.49; p=0.0378). The combination treatment showed a higher proportion of achieved comprehensive lipid targets rather than monotherapy (85.36% vs. 62.22% in monotherapy, p=0.015). The ezetimibe combination significantly improved homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function even without A1c changes (LS mean difference, 17.13; p=0.0185). @*Conclusion@#In high ASCVD risk patients with T2DM, the combination of moderate-intensity rosuvastatin and ezetimibe was not only non-inferior but also superior to improving dyslipidemia with additional benefits compared to high-intensity rosuvastatin monotherapy.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 502-519, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927023

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, both in Korea and worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure (KF). The natural course of kidney function among people with diabetes (especially type 2 diabetes) may be complex in real-world situations. Strong evidence from observational data and clinical trials has demonstrated a consistent association between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and subsequent development of hard renal endpoints (such as KF or renal death). The disadvantage of hard renal endpoints is that they require a long follow-up duration. In addition, there are many patients with diabetes whose renal function declines without the appearance of albuminuria, measurement of the eGFR is emphasized. Many studies have used GFR-related parameters, such as its change, decline, or slope, as clinical endpoints for kidney disease progression. In this respect, understanding the trends in GFR changes could be crucial for developing clinical management strategies for the prevention of diabetic complications. This review focuses on the clinical implication of the eGFR-related parameters that have been used so far in diabetic kidney disease. We also discuss the use of recently developed new antidiabetic drugs for kidney protection, with a focus on the GFR as clinical endpoints.

4.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 464-475, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924926

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to up-to-date Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS), and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study collected electronic medical record data from patients with T2DM (≥20 years) managed by endocrinologists from 15 hospitals in Korea (January to December 2019). Patients were categorized according to guidelines to assess LDL-C target achievement. KDA (2019): Very High-I (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]) <70 mg/dL; Very High-II (target organ damage [TOD], or cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]) <70 mg/dL; high (others) <100 mg/dL. ESC/EAS (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD): <55 mg/dL; Very High-II (TOD or ≥3-CVRF) <55 mg/dL; high (diabetes ≥10 years without TOD plus any CVRF) <70 mg/dL; moderate (diabetes <10 years without CVRF) <100 mg/dL. ADA (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD); Very High-II (age ≥40+ TOD, or any CVRF), for high intensity statin or statin combined with ezetimibe. @*Results@#Among 2,000 T2DM patients (mean age 62.6 years; male 55.9%; mean glycosylated hemoglobin 7.2%) ASCVD prevalence was 24.7%. Of 1,455 (72.8%) patients treated with statins, 73.9% received monotherapy. According to KDA guidelines, LDL-C target achievement rates were 55.2% in Very High-I and 34.9% in Very High-II patients. With ESC/EAS guidelines, target attainment rates were 26.6% in Very High-I, 15.7% in Very High-II, and 25.9% in high risk patients. Based on ADA guidelines, most patients (78.9%) were very-high risk; however, only 15.5% received high-intensity statin or combination therapy. @*Conclusion@#According to current dyslipidemia management guidelines, LDL-C goal achievement remains suboptimal in Korean patients with T2DM.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 845-856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903681

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to develop a deep learning model for the prediction of the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) in asymptomatic adults, based on which colorectal cancer screening could be customized. @*Methods@#We collected data on 26 clinical and laboratory parameters, including age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, complete blood count, blood chemistry, and tumor marker, from 70,336 first-time colonoscopy screening recipients. For reference, we used a logistic regression (LR) model with nine variables manually selected from the 26 variables. A deep neural network (DNN) model was developed using all 26 variables. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the models were compared in a randomly split validation group. @*Results@#In comparison with the LR model (AUC, 0.724; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.684 to 0.765), the DNN model (AUC, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.724 to 0.795) demonstrated significantly improved performance with respect to the prediction of ACRN (p < 0.001). At a sensitivity of 90%, the specificity significantly increased with the application of the DNN model (41.0%) in comparison with the LR model (26.5%) (p < 0.001), indicating that the colonoscopy workload required to detect the same number of ACRNs could be reduced by 20%. @*Conclusions@#The application of DNN to big clinical data could significantly improve the prediction of ACRNs in comparison with the LR model, potentially realizing further customization by utilizing large quantities and various types of biomedical information.

6.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 675-683, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

7.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 675-683, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 845-856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895977

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to develop a deep learning model for the prediction of the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) in asymptomatic adults, based on which colorectal cancer screening could be customized. @*Methods@#We collected data on 26 clinical and laboratory parameters, including age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, complete blood count, blood chemistry, and tumor marker, from 70,336 first-time colonoscopy screening recipients. For reference, we used a logistic regression (LR) model with nine variables manually selected from the 26 variables. A deep neural network (DNN) model was developed using all 26 variables. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the models were compared in a randomly split validation group. @*Results@#In comparison with the LR model (AUC, 0.724; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.684 to 0.765), the DNN model (AUC, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.724 to 0.795) demonstrated significantly improved performance with respect to the prediction of ACRN (p < 0.001). At a sensitivity of 90%, the specificity significantly increased with the application of the DNN model (41.0%) in comparison with the LR model (26.5%) (p < 0.001), indicating that the colonoscopy workload required to detect the same number of ACRNs could be reduced by 20%. @*Conclusions@#The application of DNN to big clinical data could significantly improve the prediction of ACRNs in comparison with the LR model, potentially realizing further customization by utilizing large quantities and various types of biomedical information.

9.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 21-25, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918925

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in Korea and worldwide, and is associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and its high morbidity and mortality, diabetic kidney disease (DKD) represents a serious concern in individual patients and a considerable socioeconomic burden. The kidneys contribute to glucose homeostasis through processes of gluconeogenesis, glucose filtration, glucose reabsorption, and glucose consumption. Decreased nephron mass and kidney dysfunction due to DKD progression lead to the complicated state that causes both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Appropriate management tailored for DKD patients is required to improve their morbidity and mortality. This review focuses on special issues related to the management of DKD, including clinical kidney outcomes in DKD progression, glycemic control indices and targets for diabetes mellitus (DM) CKD, glucose management of advanced DM CKD or ESKD and tailored medications for DKD based on clinical evidence.

10.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1086-1094, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914252

ABSTRACT

Background@#Early identification of patients with high-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) that is likely to progress has become a critical challenge. We aimed to identify somatic mutations associated with lateral neck lymph node (LN) metastasis (N1b) in patients with PTMC. @*Methods@#Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 14 PTMCs with no LN metastasis (N0) and 13 N1b PTMCs was performed using primary tumors and matched normal thyroid tissues. @*Results@#The mutational burden was comparable in N0 and N1b tumors, as the median number of mutations was 23 (range, 12 to 46) in N0 and 24 (range, 12 to 50) in N1b PTMC (P=0.918). The most frequent mutations were detected in PGS1, SLC4A8, DAAM2, and HELZ in N1b PTMCs alone, and the K158Q mutation in PGS1 (four patients, Fisher’s exact test P=0.041) was significantly enriched in N1b PTMCs. Based on pathway analysis, somatic mutations belonging to the receptor tyrosine kinase-RAS and NOTCH pathways were most frequently affected in N1b PTMCs. We identified four mutations that are predicted to be pathogenic in four genes based on Clinvar and Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion score: BRAF, USH2A, CFTR, and PHIP. A missense mutation in CFTR and a nonsense mutation in PHIP were detected in N1b PTMCs only, although in one case each. BRAF mutation was detected in both N0 and N1b PTMCs. @*Conclusion@#This first comprehensive WES analysis of the mutational landscape of N0 and N1b PTMCs identified pathogenic genes that affect biological functions associated with the aggressive phenotype of PTMC.

11.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1085-1089, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833303

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report a case of delayed symptoms after intralenticular dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex ® ; Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA).Case summary: A 65-year-old male was referred for myodesopsia and decreased visual acuity. A dexamethasone implant was located in the crystalline lens, and the lens showed mild nucleus opacity. The patient had been treated with multiple intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and had received an injection of dexamethasone implant about seven weeks before symptom onset. Based on the symptoms, phacoemulsification was performed and an intraocular lens was placed within the capsular bag. After surgery, symptoms improved. One month after surgery, as cystoid macular edema worsened, the patient was treated with an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (MaQaid ® ; Wakamoto Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). After intravitreal injection, cystoid macular edema improved. @*Conclusions@#Intralenticular injection of the dexamethasone implant is very rare; however, great care should be taken during the procedure. It should be noted that the onset of symptoms by intralenticular dexamethasone implant may not occur immediately following the procedure. Thus, close follow-up is necessary, with the possibility of surgical intervention depending on visual acuity and underlying complications.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 106-114, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between thyroid function and anemia in the euthyroid range are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the association between anemia and serum free thyroxine (fT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) in euthyroid adults.METHODS: Data on 5,352 participants aged ≥19 years were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Anemia was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) <13 and <12 g/dL for men and women, respectively.RESULTS: Overall, 6.1% of participants had anemia, and more women (9.9%) had anemia than men (2.8%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, serum fT4 levels, but not TSH, were positively associated with serum Hb levels in both sexes (P<0.001, each). Serum Hb levels linearly reduced across decreasing serum fT4 quartile groups in both sexes (P<0.001, each). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, participants with low-normal fT4 had 4.4 (P=0.003) and 2.8 times (P<0.001) higher risk for anemia than those with high-normal fT4 among men and women, respectively. When participants were divided into two groups at 50 years of age, in younger participants, men and women with the first quartile were at higher risk of anemia than men with the second quartile (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; P=0.029) and women with the forth quartile (OR, 3.2; P<0.001), respectively. This association was not observed in older participants.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a low-normal level of serum fT4 was associated with a lower serum Hb level and a higher risk of anemia in euthyroid adults, especially in younger participants.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anemia , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Nutrition Surveys , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
13.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 67-77, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the optimal third-line therapy for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that is inadequately controlled using dual combination therapy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone or glimepiride when added to metformin plus alogliptin treatment for T2DM.METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, active-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02426294) recruited 135 Korean patients with T2DM that was inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin. The patients were then randomized to also receive pioglitazone (15 mg/day) or glimepiride (2 mg/day) for a 26-week period, with dose titration was permitted based on the investigator's judgement.RESULTS: Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exhibited similar significant decreases in both groups during the treatment period (pioglitazone: −0.81%, P<0.001; glimepiride: −1.05%, P<0.001). However, the pioglitazone-treated group exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P<0.001) and significantly lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P<0.001). Relative to pioglitazone, adding glimepiride to metformin plus alogliptin markedly increased the risk of hypoglycemia (pioglitazone: 1/69 cases [1.45%], glimepiride: 14/66 cases [21.21%]; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Among patients with T2DM inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin, the addition of pioglitazone provided comparable glycemic control and various benefits (improvements in lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and hypoglycemia risk) relative to the addition of glimepiride.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholesterol, HDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Thiazolidinediones , Treatment Failure
14.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 103-112, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulating apolipoprotein J (ApoJ) is closely associated with insulin resistance; however, the effect of exercise on circulating ApoJ levels and the association of ApoJ with metabolic indices remain unknown. Here, we investigated whether a combined exercise can alter the circulating ApoJ level, and whether these changes are associated with metabolic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS: Postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned into either an exercise (EXE, n=30) or control (CON, n=15) group. Participants in the EXE group were enrolled in a 12-week program consisting of a combination of aerobic and resistance exercises. At baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, body composition and metabolic parameters including homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum ApoJ levels were assessed.RESULTS: In the EXE group, ApoJ levels decreased 26.3% and 19.4%, relative to baseline, at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Between-group differences were significant at 8 and 12 weeks (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). In the EXE group, 12 weeks of exercise resulted in significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and HOMA-IR indices. Concurrently, weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM/wt) was increased in the EXE group compared with the CON group. Importantly, changes in the ApoJ level were significantly correlated with changes in ASM/wt.CONCLUSION: Exercise training resulted in a significant decrease in the circulating ApoJ level, with changes in ApoJ associated with an improvement in some insulin resistance indices. These data suggest that circulating ApoJ may be a useful metabolic marker for assessing the effects of exercise on insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adipose Tissue , Apolipoproteins , Body Composition , Body Weight , Clusterin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Exercise , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Muscle, Skeletal , Sarcopenia
15.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : e46-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

16.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 31-38, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined the change in the trabecular bone score (TBS), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who underwent thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive therapy for treating papillary thyroid cancer after a total thyroidectomy procedure. METHODS: We evaluated 36 postmenopausal women who received a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer and were undergoing TSH suppressive therapy with levothyroxine. Postmenopausal women (n=94) matched for age and body mass index were recruited as healthy controls. The aBMD and TBS of the lumbar spine were compared between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at follow-up after an average of 4.92 years. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the rate of diagnoses of osteoporosis, osteopenia, or normal bone status between the 2 groups during the baseline DXA evaluation. However, the TBS was significantly lower whereas aBMD did not show significant difference at the time of baseline DXA measurement (1st DXA, 1.343±0.098 vs. 1.372±0.06317, P < 0.001; 2nd DXA, 1.342±0.095 vs. 1.370±0.062, P < 0.001). The TBS and aBMD did not differ significantly between the initial and follow-up DXA images in both groups of TSH suppressive patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: The average value of TBS and aBMD did not significantly change during the follow-up period. The TSH suppressive therapy was revealed as not a significant factor for the progressive deterioration of bone status during long term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Absorptiometry, Photon , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Osteoporosis , Postmenopause , Spine , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
17.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 65-70, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738991

ABSTRACT

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder caused by germline mutation of the MEN1 gene. It is characterized by tumors of the anterior pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, and endocrine pancreas. Thymic carcinoid tumor is uncommon and associated with a high mortality, but its natural history has not been investigated yet. We report a case of asymptomatic MEN 1 with a thymic carcinoid tumor. A 37-year-old man underwent a routine medical checkup and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Further studies showed the coexistence of pancreatic tumor, parathyroid hyperplasia, pituitary adenoma, and thymoma. The patient underwent duodenal endoscopic mucosal resection, distal pancreatectomy, subtotal parathyroidectomy, and thymectomy. The pathological test revealed a duodenal NET, pancreatic NET, parathyroid hyperplasia, and thymic carcinoid tumor. He was treated for MEN 1. We report this asymptomatic case of MEN 1 with a literature review.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Carcinoid Tumor , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Germ-Line Mutation , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperplasia , Islets of Langerhans , Mortality , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Natural History , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatectomy , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroidectomy , Pituitary Gland, Anterior , Pituitary Neoplasms , Thymectomy , Thymoma
18.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 867-878, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyroid disease and metabolic syndrome are both associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between thyroid hormones and obesity sub-phenotypes using nationwide data from Korea, a country known to be iodine replete.METHODS: This study was based on data obtained from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, administered from 2013 to 2015. A total of 13,873 participants aged ≥19 years were included, and classified into four groups: metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) by body fat on the basis of body mass index and metabolic health.RESULTS: At baseline, serum free thyroxine (fT4) values were significantly higher in the MHNO phenotype (MHNO, 1.27±0.01 ng/dL; MHO, 1.25±0.01 ng/dL; MUNO, 1.24±0.01 ng/dL; MUO, 1.24±0.01 ng/dL, P<0.001) in total study population. However, this significant association no longer remained after adjustment for age, urine iodine concentration, and smoking (P=0.085). After adjustment for confounders, statistically significant association was observed between lower thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and MHNO phenotype (P=0.044). In men participants (not women), higher fT4 values were significantly associated with MHNO phenotype (P<0.001). However, no significant association was observed between thyroid function (TSH or fT4) and obesity phenotypes in groups classified by age (cutoff age of 55 years).CONCLUSION: Although there was a difference by age and sex, we found that the decrease of TSH and the increase of fT4 values were associated with MHNO.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Adipose Tissue , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Iodine , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Obesity, Metabolically Benign , Phenotype , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
19.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 6-9, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761472

ABSTRACT

In 2018, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) published a consensus recommendation on management of hyperglycemia. This consensus report emphasized the need for patient-centered management considering multimorbidity and individual patient preferences and barriers. Patients with type 2 diabetes with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who fail to control blood glucose with the initial glucose-lowering medication are recommended a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. For patients with chronic kidney disease and heart failure, SGLT2 inhibitors are recommended. In patients who need an injectable medication, GLP-1 receptor agonists are the preferred choice over insulin. In this section, we summarize “Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).”


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Consensus , Diabetes Mellitus , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Heart Failure , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Patient Preference , Patient-Centered Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
20.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 176-180, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738507

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a rare case of a recurrent painless mass of the right lower eyelid, which was histologically diagnosed as a mucinous adenocarcinoma. CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old male had a painless nodule on the right lower eyelid for 2 years. He had a history of five laser treatments done by a dermatologist prior to the initial presentation. Surgical shave biopsy was performed and a histopathological examination revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma. We subsequently performed a pentagonal excision of the lower eyelid with assisted frozen biopsy until no tumor cells were seen at the margin. A postoperative whole-body positron emission tomography scan, chest computerized tomography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, and colonoscopy excluded systemic metastases. No recurrence has been observed for 18 months after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare disorder of the eyelid. Because it has various morphologies, and the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. If there is a recurrent mass at the eyelid margin, adenocarcinoma should be considered as the differential diagnosis. A complete surgical excision is recommended to prevent local recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Biopsy , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Eyelids , Mucins , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Recurrence , Thorax
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