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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal management of primary aldosteronism (PA) is crucial due to the increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method for determining subtype but is technically challenging and invasive. Some PA patients do not benefit clinically from surgery. We sought to develop an algorithm to improve decision- making before engaging in AVS and surgery in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We conducted the ongoing Korean Primary Aldosteronism Study at two tertiary centers. Study A involved PA patients with successful catheterization and a unilateral nodule on computed tomography and aimed to predict unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=367). Study B involved similar patients who underwent adrenalectomy and aimed to predict postoperative outcome (n=330). In study A, we implemented important feature selection using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. @*Results@#We developed a unilateral PA prediction model using logistic regression analysis: lowest serum potassium level ≤3.4 mEq/L, aldosterone-to-renin ratio ≥150, plasma aldosterone concentration ≥30 ng/mL, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 (area under the curve, 0.819; 95% confidence interval, 0.774 to 0.865; sensitivity, 97.6%; specificity, 25.5%). In study B, we identified female, hypertension duration <5 years, anti-hypertension medication <2.5 daily defined dose, and the absence of coronary artery disease as predictors of clinical success, using stepwise logistic regression models (sensitivity, 94.2%; specificity, 49.3%). We validated our algorithm in the independent validation dataset (n=53). @*Conclusion@#We propose this new outcome-driven diagnostic algorithm, simultaneously considering unilateral aldosterone excess and clinical surgical benefits in PA patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924933

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although recent studies comparing various dosages and intervals of vitamin D supplementation have been published, it is yet to be elucidated whether there is an appropriate dose or interval to provide benefit regarding fracture risk. We aimed to assess the published evidence available to date regarding the putative beneficial effects of vitamin D supplements on fractures and falls according to various dosages and intervals. @*Methods@#We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies reporting associations between vitamin D supplementation and the risks of fractures and falls in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. Studies with supplements of ergocalciferol or calcitriol, those with a number of event ≤10, or those with a follow-up duration of less than 6 months were also excluded. @*Results@#Thirty-two studies were included in the final analysis. Vitamin D supplementation with daily dose of 800 to 1,000 mg was associated with lower risks of osteoporotic fracture and fall (pooled relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.97 and RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98), while studies with 1,000 mg/day did not. Also, among intervals, daily administration of vitamin D was associated with the reduced risk of falls, while intermittent dose was not. Also, patients with vitamin D deficiency showed a significant risk reduction of falls after vitamin D supplementation. @*Conclusion@#Daily vitamin D dose of 800 to 1,000 IU was the most probable way to reduce the fracture and fall risk. Further studies designed with various regimens and targeted vitamin D levels are required to elucidate the benefits of vitamin D supplements.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890494

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Guidelines by the Endocrine Society Guideline on bypassing adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in patients 15.9 ng/dL) and unilateral lesion, accuracy of CT was 84.6% (11/13) in patients aged 29.6 ng/dL, respectively. The significant difference in accuracy of CT in 198 patients with marked PA and a unilateral lesion between the 30.0 ng/dL (91.9% vs. 87.7%, P=0.590). @*Conclusion@#Patients with hypokalemia, PAC >30.0 ng/dL, and unilateral lesion were at high risk of unilateral PA regardless of age.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890469

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the clinical characteristics of parathyroid adenomas according to radioactivity on 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. @*Methods@#The study included 217 patients diagnosed with PHPT from 2000 to 2019 at Seoul National University Hospital who underwent 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT scans. On SPECT/CT, the radioactivity of parathyroid adenomas was measured as the ratio of the mean radioactivity count of the parathyroid adenoma to that of the contralateral thyroid. @*Results@#Tumors were localized by MIBI scans in 190 patients (MIBI [+] group) and by ultrasound or parathyroid four-dimensional CT in 27 patients (MIBI [–] group). The mean age was 55 years, and mean body mass index was 23.4 kg/m2. Patients in the MIBI (+) group had higher parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and lower 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels than those in the MIBI (–) group (168.0 pg/mL [interquartile range, IQR, 111.0 to 250.7] vs. 134.7 pg/mL [IQR, 98.2 to 191.2], P=0.049; 15.4 ng/mL [IQR, 11.1 to 20.8] vs. 21.2 ng/mL [IQR, 13.9 to 24.8], P=0.012, respectively). Patients in the MIBI (+) group had larger tumor volumes, but lower iPTH/volume ratios than those in the MIBI (–) group (1,216.66 [IQR, 513.40 to 2,663.02], 499.82 mm3 [IQR, 167.77 to 1,229.80], P=0.002; 0.18 [IQR, 0.08 to 0.46], 0.40 pg/mL/mm3 [IQR, 0.16 to 1.29], P=0.016, respectively). Adenoma radioactivity was positively correlated with calcium, iPTH, and volume (r=0.180, P=0.020; r=0.208, P=0.006; r=0.288, P<0.001, respectively), but not with iPTH/volume. @*Conclusion@#Parathyroid adenomas with positive MIBI scans had larger volumes and higher iPTH than adenomas with negative scans, but lower iPTH per unit volume.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898198

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898177

ABSTRACT

Background@#Guidelines by the Endocrine Society Guideline on bypassing adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in patients 15.9 ng/dL) and unilateral lesion, accuracy of CT was 84.6% (11/13) in patients aged 29.6 ng/dL, respectively. The significant difference in accuracy of CT in 198 patients with marked PA and a unilateral lesion between the 30.0 ng/dL (91.9% vs. 87.7%, P=0.590). @*Conclusion@#Patients with hypokalemia, PAC >30.0 ng/dL, and unilateral lesion were at high risk of unilateral PA regardless of age.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898173

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the clinical characteristics of parathyroid adenomas according to radioactivity on 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. @*Methods@#The study included 217 patients diagnosed with PHPT from 2000 to 2019 at Seoul National University Hospital who underwent 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT scans. On SPECT/CT, the radioactivity of parathyroid adenomas was measured as the ratio of the mean radioactivity count of the parathyroid adenoma to that of the contralateral thyroid. @*Results@#Tumors were localized by MIBI scans in 190 patients (MIBI [+] group) and by ultrasound or parathyroid four-dimensional CT in 27 patients (MIBI [–] group). The mean age was 55 years, and mean body mass index was 23.4 kg/m2. Patients in the MIBI (+) group had higher parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and lower 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels than those in the MIBI (–) group (168.0 pg/mL [interquartile range, IQR, 111.0 to 250.7] vs. 134.7 pg/mL [IQR, 98.2 to 191.2], P=0.049; 15.4 ng/mL [IQR, 11.1 to 20.8] vs. 21.2 ng/mL [IQR, 13.9 to 24.8], P=0.012, respectively). Patients in the MIBI (+) group had larger tumor volumes, but lower iPTH/volume ratios than those in the MIBI (–) group (1,216.66 [IQR, 513.40 to 2,663.02], 499.82 mm3 [IQR, 167.77 to 1,229.80], P=0.002; 0.18 [IQR, 0.08 to 0.46], 0.40 pg/mL/mm3 [IQR, 0.16 to 1.29], P=0.016, respectively). Adenoma radioactivity was positively correlated with calcium, iPTH, and volume (r=0.180, P=0.020; r=0.208, P=0.006; r=0.288, P<0.001, respectively), but not with iPTH/volume. @*Conclusion@#Parathyroid adenomas with positive MIBI scans had larger volumes and higher iPTH than adenomas with negative scans, but lower iPTH per unit volume.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1131-1141, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914257

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnostic approaches for adrenal tumors require multi-step processes, including imaging studies and dynamic hormone tests. Therefore, this study aimed to discriminate adrenal tumors from a single blood sample based on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and machine learning algorithms in serum profiling of adrenal steroids. @*Methods@#The LC-MS-based steroid profiling was applied to serum samples obtained from patients with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA, n=73), Cushing’s syndrome (CS, n=30), and primary aldosteronism (PA, n=40) in a prospective multicenter study of adrenal disease. The decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) were performed to categorize the subtypes of adrenal tumors. @*Results@#The CS group showed higher serum levels of 11-deoxycortisol than the NFA group, and increased levels of tetrahydrocortisone (THE), 20α-dihydrocortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol were found in the PA group. However, the CS group showed lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) than both the NFA and PA groups. Patients with PA expressed higher serum 18-hydroxycortisol and DHEA but lower THE than NFA patients. The balanced accuracies of DT, RF, and XGBoost for classifying each type were 78%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for CS, XGBoost, and RF showed a significantly greater diagnostic power than the DT. However, in ROC analysis for PA, only RF exhibited better diagnostic performance than DT. @*Conclusion@#The combination of LC-MS-based steroid profiling with machine learning algorithms could be a promising one-step diagnostic approach for the classification of adrenal tumor subtypes.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890445

ABSTRACT

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) excess or deficiency. The GH study group of the Korean Endocrine Society aims to establish the Korean reference ranges of serum IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and assess the relationship between IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and clinical parameters. Fasting serum was collected from healthy Korean adults at health promotion centers of five hospitals nationwide. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured via an immunoradiometric assay using a DSL kit (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories). Serum samples from 354 subjects (180 male, 174 female) were analyzed based on sex at 10-year intervals from 21 to 70 years. IGF-I levels were inversely correlated with age. After adjustment of age, the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and free thyroxine and positively associated with weight, hemoglobin, creatinine, alanine transferase, fasting glucose, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Therefore, age- and sex-specific reference ranges of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 can be efficient in evaluating GH excess or deficiency in Korean population.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832416

ABSTRACT

Background@#Salivary cortisol is routinely used as a diagnostic test for Cushing syndrome. The diagnostic use of salivary cortisol for adrenal insufficiency (AI), however, is less established. We aimed to investigate the utility of morning basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated salivary cortisol in diagnosing AI in Korean adults. @*Methods@#We prospectively included 120 subjects (female, n=70) from Seoul National University Hospital. AI was defined as a stimulated serum cortisol level of <496.8 nmol/L during the short Synacthen test (SST). Serum and saliva samples were drawn between 8:00 AM and 10:00 AM. Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay kit. @*Results@#Thirty-four patients were diagnosed with AI according to the SST results. Age, sex, body mass index, serum albumin levels, and serum creatinine levels did not significantly differ between the normal and AI groups. Basal and stimulated salivary cortisol levels were positively correlated with basal (r=0.538) and stimulated serum cortisol levels (r=0.750), respectively (all P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a cutoff level of morning basal salivary cortisol of 3.2 nmol/L (sensitivity, 84.9%; specificity, 73.5%; area under the curve [AUC]=0.822). The optimal cutoff value of stimulated salivary cortisol was 13.2 nmol/L (sensitivity, 90.7%; specificity, 94.1%; AUC=0.959). Subjects with a stimulated salivary cortisol level above 13.2 nmol/L but a stimulated serum cortisol level below 496.8 nmol/L (n=2) had lower serum albumin levels than those showing a concordant response. @*Conclusion@#The diagnostic performance of stimulated salivary cortisol measurements after the SST was comparable to serum cortisol measurements for diagnosing AI.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832387

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling and the transformation of mature osteoblasts into bone lining cells (BLCs) through a lineage tracing study to better understand the effect of mechanical unloading on bone loss. @*Methods@#Dmp1-CreERt2(+):Rosa26R mice were injected with 1 mg of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen three times a week starting at postnatal week 7, and subjected to a combination of botulinum toxin injection with left hindlimb tenotomy starting at postnatal week 8 to 10. The animals were euthanized at postnatal weeks 8, 9, 10, and 12. We quantified the number and thickness of X-gal(+) cells on the periosteum of the right and left femoral bones at each time point. @*Results@#Two weeks after unloading, a significant decrease in the number and a subtle change in the thickness of X-gal(+) cells were observed in the left hindlimbs compared with the right hindlimbs. At 4 weeks after unloading, the decrease in the thickness was accelerated in the left hindlimbs, although the number of labeled cells was comparable. RNA sequencing analysis showed downregulation of 315 genes in the left hindlimbs at 2 and 4 weeks after unloading. Of these, Xirp2, AMPD1, Mettl11b, NEXN, CYP2E1, Bche, Ppp1r3c, Tceal7, and Gadl1 were upregulated during osteoblastogenic/osteocytic and myogenic differentiation in vitro. @*Conclusion@#These findings demonstrate that mechanical unloading can accelerate the transformation of mature osteoblasts into BLCs in the early stages of bone loss in vivo. Furthermore, some of the genes involved in this process may have a pleiotropic effect on both bone and muscle.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831902

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with bone mineral density and type 2 diabetes. We investigated an optimal BMI range for osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008 to 2011. We included 3,774 men aged > 50 years and 4,982 postmenopausal women. Logistic regression models were applied to elucidate each BMI category’s osteoporosis and diabetes risks. @*Results@#The prevalence of osteoporosis was 9.0% for men and 40.8% for women. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in men was 19.7% and in women was 15.5%. In men with BMI > 25 kg/m2, the osteoporosis risk did not further increase as BMI increased. In women, BMI was linearly associated with osteoporosis risk without a plateau. In both men and women, higher BMI was associated with a higher type 2 diabetes risk. Men with a BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2 harbored about a 30% lower osteoporosis risk than and a similar diabetes risk to those with a BMI of 21.0 to 22.9 kg/m2. In women with a BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis was 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.87); the diabetes risk was not higher than in those with a BMI of 21.0 to 22.9 kg/m2. @*Conclusions@#For Korean men aged > 50 years and postmenopausal women, a BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2 was the optimal range for minimizing osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes risks simultaneously.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898149

ABSTRACT

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) excess or deficiency. The GH study group of the Korean Endocrine Society aims to establish the Korean reference ranges of serum IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and assess the relationship between IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and clinical parameters. Fasting serum was collected from healthy Korean adults at health promotion centers of five hospitals nationwide. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured via an immunoradiometric assay using a DSL kit (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories). Serum samples from 354 subjects (180 male, 174 female) were analyzed based on sex at 10-year intervals from 21 to 70 years. IGF-I levels were inversely correlated with age. After adjustment of age, the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and free thyroxine and positively associated with weight, hemoglobin, creatinine, alanine transferase, fasting glucose, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Therefore, age- and sex-specific reference ranges of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 can be efficient in evaluating GH excess or deficiency in Korean population.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in Korean patients who had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: We included 410 patients who started SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin or dapagliflozin) as add-on therapy or switch therapy between February 2015 and June 2017. The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 12. The secondary endpoints were patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% and changes in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profiles, body weight, and blood pressure (BP). RESULTS: The mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.5% (8.6% in the add-on group and 8.4% in the switch group). At week 12, the mean adjusted HbA1c decreased by −0.68% in the overall patients (P<0.001), by −0.94% in the add-on group, and by −0.42% in the switch group. Significant reductions in FPG were also observed both in the add-on group and switch group (−30.3 and −19.8 mg/dL, respectively). Serum triglyceride (−16.5 mg/dL), body weight (−2.1 kg), systolic BP (−4.7 mm Hg), and diastolic BP (−1.3 mm Hg) were significantly improved in the overall patients. Approximately 18.3% of the patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% at week 12. A low incidence of hypoglycemia and genital tract infection was observed (6.3% and 2.2%, respectively). CONCLUSION: SGLT2 inhibitors can be a suitable option as either add-on or switch therapy for Korean patients with inadequately controlled T2DM.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Reproductive Tract Infections , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Triglycerides
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715518

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Hand , Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714538

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Because primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is difficult to recognize, it has a high likelihood of being underdiagnosed. In this study, we estimated the incidence of PHPT and evaluated PHPT diagnosis in Korea. METHODS: To calculate the prevalence of PHPT, we examined the medical records of patients that were hospitalized for urolithiasis between 2013 and 2016 at a single institute, and then identified those who were diagnosed with PHPT from the same group. A Korea-wide insurance claim database was used to ascertain the number of urolithiasis patients and the number of parathyroidectomies performed in Korea. The incidence of PHPT in the Korean population was estimated using the ratio of patients who presented with urolithiasis as the initial symptom of PHPT. RESULTS: During the 4-year study period, 4 patients from the 925 urolithiasis patients enrolled in this study (0.4%) were diagnosed with PHPT. During this same period, there were 85,267 patients with urolithiasis in Korea, and the estimated number of PHPT patients was 341, which was 0.4% of 85,267. Considering that 12% to 23% of patients with PHPT are initially diagnosed with urolithiasis, the total number of PHPT patients was estimated to range from 1,483 to 2,842. The number of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy due to PHPT was 1,935 during the study period. CONCLUSION: The number of patients we estimated to have PHPT corresponded closely with the number of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy during the study period. Considering the number of nonsymptomatic PHPT patients, PHPT may be properly diagnosed in Korea.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Incidence , Insurance , Korea , Medical Records , Parathyroidectomy , Prevalence , Urolithiasis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719126

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of chronic diseases including osteoporosis and sarcopenia increases as the population ages. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are commonly associated with genetics, mechanical factors, and hormonal factors and primarily associated with aging. Many older populations, particularly those with frailty, are likely to have concurrent osteoporosis and sarcopenia, further increasing their risk of disease-related complications. Because bones and muscles are closely interconnected by anatomy, metabolic profile, and chemical components, a diagnosis should be considered for both sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which may be treated with optimal therapeutic interventions eliciting pleiotropic effects on both bones and muscles. Exercise training has been recommended as a promising therapeutic strategy to encounter the loss of bone and muscle mass due to osteosarcopenia. To stimulate the osteogenic effects for bone mass accretion, bone tissues must be exposed to mechanical load exceeding those experienced during daily living activities. Of the several exercise training programs, resistance exercise (RE) is known to be highly beneficial for the preservation of bone and muscle mass. This review summarizes the mechanisms of RE for the preservation of bone and muscle mass and supports the clinical evidences for the use of RE as a therapeutic option in osteosarcopenia.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aging , Bone and Bones , Bone Density , Chronic Disease , Diagnosis , Education , Genetics , Metabolome , Muscle Strength , Muscles , Osteoporosis , Prevalence , Sarcopenia
19.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 195-211, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop guidelines and recommendations to prevent and treat glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) in Korea. METHODS: The Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Korean College of Rheumatology have developed this guideline based on Guidance for the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines ver. 1.0 established by the National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This guideline was developed by adapting previously published guidelines, and a systematic review and quality assessment were performed. RESULTS: This guideline applies to adults aged ≥19 years who are using or plan to use GCs. It does not include children and adolescents. An initial assessment of fracture risk should be performed within 6 months of initial GC use. Fracture risk should be estimated using the fracture-risk assessment tool (FRAX) after adjustments for GC dose, history of osteoporotic fractures, and bone mineral density (BMD) results. All patients administered with prednisolone or an equivalent medication at a dose ≥2.5 mg/day for ≥3 months are recommended to use adequate calcium and vitamin D during treatment. Patients showing a moderate-to-high fracture risk should be treated with additional medication for osteoporosis. All patients continuing GC therapy should undergo annual BMD testing, vertebral X-ray, and fracture risk assessment using FRAX. When treatment failure is suspected, switching to another drug should be considered. CONCLUSIONS: This guideline is intended to guide clinicians in the prevention and treatment of GIOP.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , Calcium , Child , Denosumab , Evidence-Based Practice , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Korea , Miners , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Prednisolone , Rheumatology , Risk Assessment , Teriparatide , Treatment Failure , Vitamin D
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop guidelines and recommendations to prevent and treat glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) in Korea. METHODS: The Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Korean College of Rheumatology developed this guideline based on Guidance for the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines version 1.0 established by the National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This guideline was developed by adapting previously-published guidelines, and a systematic review and quality assessment were conducted. RESULTS: This guideline applies to adults aged 19 years or older who are using or plan to use glucocorticoids (GCs), but does not include children and adolescents. An initial assessment of fracture risk should be performed within 6 months of initial GC use. Fracture risk should be estimated using FRAX (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) with adjustments for GC dose, previous osteoporotic fracture history, and bone mineral density (BMD) results. All patients taking more than 2.5 mg/day prednisolone or equivalent for more than 3 months are recommended to take adequate calcium and vitamin D. Patients at moderate to high fracture risk should be treated with additional osteoporosis medication. All patients continuing GC therapy should receive an annual BMD measurement, vertebral X-ray, and fracture risk assessment using FRAX. When a treatment failure is suspected, switching to another drug should be considered. CONCLUSION: This guideline is intended to provide guidance for clinicians in prevention and treatment of GIOP.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , Calcium , Child , Denosumab , Diphosphonates , Evidence-Based Practice , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Korea , Miners , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Prednisolone , Rheumatology , Risk Assessment , Teriparatide , Treatment Failure , Vitamin D
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