Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890982

ABSTRACT

Glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, interact closely with neurons and modulate pain transmission, particularly under pathological conditions. In this study, we examined the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the spinal dorsal horn using a patch clamp recording to investigate the roles of microglial activation in the nociceptive processes of rats. We used xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO), a generator of superoxide anion (O2· – ), to induce a pathological pain condition. X/XO treatment induced an inward current and membrane depolarization. The inward current was significantly inhibited by minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, and fluorocitrate, an astrocyteinhibitor. To examine whether toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in microglia was involved in the inward current, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a highly specific TLR4 agonist. The LPS induced inward current, which was decreased by pretreatment with Tak-242, a TLR4-specific inhibitor, and phenyl N-t-butylnitrone, a reactive oxygen species scavenger. The X/XO-induced inward current was also inhibited by pretreatment with Tak-242. These results indicate that the X/XO-induced inward current of SG neurons occurs through activation of TLR4 in microglial cells, suggesting that neuroglial cells modulate the nociceptive process through central sensitization.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898686

ABSTRACT

Glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, interact closely with neurons and modulate pain transmission, particularly under pathological conditions. In this study, we examined the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the spinal dorsal horn using a patch clamp recording to investigate the roles of microglial activation in the nociceptive processes of rats. We used xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO), a generator of superoxide anion (O2· – ), to induce a pathological pain condition. X/XO treatment induced an inward current and membrane depolarization. The inward current was significantly inhibited by minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, and fluorocitrate, an astrocyteinhibitor. To examine whether toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in microglia was involved in the inward current, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a highly specific TLR4 agonist. The LPS induced inward current, which was decreased by pretreatment with Tak-242, a TLR4-specific inhibitor, and phenyl N-t-butylnitrone, a reactive oxygen species scavenger. The X/XO-induced inward current was also inhibited by pretreatment with Tak-242. These results indicate that the X/XO-induced inward current of SG neurons occurs through activation of TLR4 in microglial cells, suggesting that neuroglial cells modulate the nociceptive process through central sensitization.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787173

ABSTRACT

A trichobezoar is a type of bezoar that is composed of hair. In most cases, it is confined to the stomach, but in rare cases, it may extend to the small intestine. This condition is referred to as Rapunzel syndrome. The therapeutic method for bezoar removal depends on its type, location, and size. Generally, the treatment for Rapunzel syndrome involves surgical laparotomy. Endoscopic removal has also been effective in some cases. On the other hand, complications, such as respiratory difficulty and esophageal impaction may be encountered during endoscopic removal. Until now, the successful endoscopic removal of trichobezoars has been limited to the stomach or duodenum. This paper reports the case of a 4-year-old female patient with Rapunzel syndrome whose trichobezoar reached the proximal jejunum. The trichobezoar was removed without complications using an electrosurgical knife and snare through a single-balloon enteroscopy. The trichobezoar can be removed successfully using enteroscopy under general anesthesia without abdominal laparotomy in young children. Therefore, this method of removal can be considered preferentially for children with Rapunzel syndrome.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Bezoars , Child , Child, Preschool , Duodenum , Female , Hair , Hand , Humans , Intestine, Small , Jejunum , Laparotomy , Methods , SNARE Proteins , Stomach
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761525

ABSTRACT

A trichobezoar is a type of bezoar that is composed of hair. In most cases, it is confined to the stomach, but in rare cases, it may extend to the small intestine. This condition is referred to as Rapunzel syndrome. The therapeutic method for bezoar removal depends on its type, location, and size. Generally, the treatment for Rapunzel syndrome involves surgical laparotomy. Endoscopic removal has also been effective in some cases. On the other hand, complications, such as respiratory difficulty and esophageal impaction may be encountered during endoscopic removal. Until now, the successful endoscopic removal of trichobezoars has been limited to the stomach or duodenum. This paper reports the case of a 4-year-old female patient with Rapunzel syndrome whose trichobezoar reached the proximal jejunum. The trichobezoar was removed without complications using an electrosurgical knife and snare through a single-balloon enteroscopy. The trichobezoar can be removed successfully using enteroscopy under general anesthesia without abdominal laparotomy in young children. Therefore, this method of removal can be considered preferentially for children with Rapunzel syndrome.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Bezoars , Child , Child, Preschool , Duodenum , Female , Hair , Hand , Humans , Intestine, Small , Jejunum , Laparotomy , Methods , SNARE Proteins , Stomach
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740082

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) are involved in cellular signaling processes as a cause of oxidative stress. According to recent studies, ROS and RNS are important signaling molecules involved in pain transmission through spinal mechanisms. In this study, a patch clamp recording was used in spinal slices of rats to investigate the action mechanisms of O₂˙⁻ and NO on the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neuron. The application of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO) compound, a ROS donor, induced inward currents and increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) in slice preparation. The application of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DLpenicillamine (SNAP), a RNS donor, also induced inward currents and increased the frequency of sEPSC. In a single cell preparation, X/XO and SNAP had no effect on the inward currents, revealing the involvement of presynaptic action. X/XO and SNAP induced a membrane depolarization in current clamp conditions which was significantly decreased by the addition of thapsigargin to an external calcium free solution for blocking synaptic transmission. Furthermore, X/XO and SNAP increased the frequency of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses, suggesting the involvement of postsynaptic action. According to these results, it was estblished that elevated ROS and RNS in the spinal cord can sensitize the dorsal horn neurons via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Therefore, ROS and RNS play similar roles in the regulation of the membrane excitability of SG neurons.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Calcium , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Humans , Membranes , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitrogen , Oxidative Stress , Posterior Horn Cells , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Spinal Cord , Substantia Gelatinosa , Superoxides , Synaptic Transmission , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors , Xanthine , Xanthine Oxidase
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54240

ABSTRACT

Recent studies indicate that mitochondria are an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the spinal dorsal horn. In our previous study, application of malate, a mitochondrial electron transport complex I substrate, induced a membrane depolarization, which was inhibited by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. In the present study, we used patch clamp recording in the substantia geletinosa (SG) neurons of spinal slices, to investigate the cellular mechanism of mitochondrial ROS on neuronal excitability. DNQX (an AMPA receptor antagonist) and AP5 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) decreased the malate-induced depolarization. In an external calcium free solution and addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX) for blockade of synaptic transmission, the malateinduced depolarization remained unchanged. In the presence of DNQX, AP5 and AP3 (a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist), glutamate depolarized the membrane potential, which was suppressed by PBN. However, oligomycin (a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor) or PPADS (a P2 receptor inhibitor) did not affect the substrates-induced depolarization. These results suggest that mitochondrial substrate-induced ROS in SG neuron directly acts on the postsynaptic neuron, therefore increasing the ion influx via glutamate receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Electron Transport Complex I , Glutamic Acid , Membrane Potentials , Membranes , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Oligomycins , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, AMPA , Receptors, Glutamate , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Substantia Gelatinosa , Synaptic Transmission , Tetrodotoxin
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727979

ABSTRACT

The caudal subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (medullary dorsal horn; MDH) receives direct inputs from small diameter primary afferent fibers that predominantly transmit nociceptive information in the orofacial region. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in persistent pain, primarily through spinal mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system, a known generator of superoxide anion (O₂(·−)), on membrane excitability in the rat MDH neurons. For this, we used patch clamp recording and confocal imaging. An application of X/XO (300 µM/30 mU) induced membrane depolarization and inward currents. When slices were pretreated with ROS scavengers, such as phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase, X/XO-induced responses decreased. Fluorescence intensity in the DCF-DA and DHE-loaded MDH cells increased on the application of X/XO. An anion channel blocker, 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), significantly decreased X/XO-induced depolarization. X/XO elicited an inward current associated with a linear current-voltage relationship that reversed near −40 mV. X/XO-induced depolarization reduced in the presence of La³⁺, a nonselective cation channel (NSCC) blocker, and by lowering the external sodium concentration, indicating that membrane depolarization and inward current are induced by influx of Na⁺ ions. In conclusion, X/XO-induced ROS modulate the membrane excitability of MDH neurons, which was related to the activation of NSCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catalase , Facial Pain , Fluorescence , Ions , Membranes , Neurons , Oxidoreductases , Posterior Horn Cells , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sodium , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides , Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal , Xanthine Oxidase
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124488

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) are both important signaling molecules involved in pain transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a well-known enzyme for the generation of superoxide anions (O₂˙⁻), while S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) is a representative nitric oxide (NO) donor. In this study, we used patch clamp recording in spinal slices of rats to investigate the effects of O₂˙⁻ and NO on the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. We also used confocal scanning laser microscopy to measure XO- and SNAP-induced ROS and RNS production in live slices. We observed that the ROS level increased during the perfusion of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO) compound and SNAP after the loading of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H₂DCF-DA), which is an indicator of intracellular ROS and RNS. Application of ROS donors such as X/XO, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and 3-morpholinosydnomimine (SIN-1) induced a membrane depolarization and inward currents. SNAP, an RNS donor, also induced membrane depolarization and inward currents. X/XO-induced inward currents were significantly decreased by pretreatment with phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN; nonspecific ROS and RNS scavenger) and manganese(III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP; superoxide dismutase mimetics). Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME; NO scavenger) also slightly decreased X/XO-induced inward currents, suggesting that X/XO-induced responses can be involved in the generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻). Our data suggest that elevated ROS, especially O₂˙⁻, NO and ONOO⁻, in the spinal cord can increase the excitability of the SG neurons related to pain transmission.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Animals , Humans , Membranes , Microscopy, Confocal , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitrogen , Perfusion , Peroxynitrous Acid , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Substantia Gelatinosa , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides , Tissue Donors , Xanthine , Xanthine Oxidase
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42181

ABSTRACT

Nitric Oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in the nociceptive process. Our previous study suggested that high concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, induce a membrane hyperpolarization and outward current through large conductances calcium-activated potassium (BKca) channels in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. In this study, patch clamp recording in spinal slices was used to investigate the sources of Ca2+ that induces Ca2+-activated potassium currents. Application of SNP induced a membrane hyperpolarization, which was significantly inhibited by hemoglobin and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl) -4,4,5,5- tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (c-PTIO), NO scavengers. SNP-induced hyperpolarization was decreased in the presence of charybdotoxin, a selective BKCa channel blocker. In addition, SNP-induced response was significantly blocked by pretreatment of thapsigargin which can remove Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum, and decreased by pretreatment of dentrolene, a ryanodine receptors (RyR) blocker. These data suggested that NO induces a membrane hyperpolarization through BKca channels, which are activated by intracellular Ca2+ increase via activation of RyR of Ca2+ stores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Charybdotoxin , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Humans , Membranes , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitroprusside , Potassium , Rats , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Ryanodine , Substantia Gelatinosa , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104522

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in various pain states. This study was performed to investigate whether ROS-induced changes in neuronal excitability in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis are related to ROS generation in mitochondria. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to measure ROS-induced fluorescence intensity in live rat trigeminal caudalis slices. The ROS level increased during the perfusion of malate, a mitochondrial substrate, after loading of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA), an indicator of the intracellular ROS; the ROS level recovered to the control condition after washout. When pre-treated with phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidene-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), malate-induced increase of ROS level was suppressed. To identify the direct relation between elevated ROS levels and mitochondria, we applied the malate after double-loading of H2DCF-DA and chloromethyl-X-rosamine (CMXRos; MitoTracker Red), which is a mitochondria-specific fluorescent probe. As a result, increase of both intracellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS were observed simultaneously. This study demonstrated that elevated ROS in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis neuron can be induced through mitochondrial-ROS pathway, primarily by the leakage of ROS from the mitochondrial electron transport chain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electron Transport , Fluorescence , Microscopy, Confocal , Mitochondria , Neurons , Perfusion , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116979

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) are implicated in cellular signaling processes and as a cause of oxidative stress. Recent studies indicate that ROS and RNS are important signaling molecules involved in nociceptive transmission. Xanthine oxidase (XO) system is a well-known system for superoxide anions (O2(.-)) generation, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a representative nitric oxide (NO) donor. Patch clamp recording in spinal slices was used to investigate the role of O2(.-) and NO on substantia gelatinosa (SG) neuronal excitability. Application of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO) compound induced membrane depolarization. Low concentration SNP (10 microM) induced depolarization of the membrane, whereas high concentration SNP (1 mM) evoked membrane hyperpolarization. These responses were significantly decreased by pretreatment with phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN; nonspecific ROS and RNS scavenger). Addition of thapsigargin to an external calcium free solution for blocking synaptic transmission, led to significantly decreased X/XO-induced responses. Additionally, X/XO and SNP-induced responses were unchanged in the presence of intracellular applied PBN, indicative of the involvement of presynaptic action. Inclusion of GDP-beta-S or suramin (G protein inhibitors) in the patch pipette decreased SNP-induced responses, whereas it failed to decrease X/XO-induced responses. Pretreatment with n-ethylmaleimide (NEM; thiol-alkylating agent) decreased the effects of SNP, suggesting that these responses were mediated by direct oxidation of channel protein, whereas X/XO-induced responses were unchanged. These data suggested that ROS and RNS play distinct roles in the regulation of the membrane excitability of SG neurons related to the pain transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Ethylmaleimide , Humans , Membranes , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitrogen , Nitroprusside , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Substantia Gelatinosa , Superoxides , Suramin , Synaptic Transmission , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors , Xanthine , Xanthine Oxidase
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102158

ABSTRACT

Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as modulators of neuronal activity, and are critically involved in persistent pain primarily through spinal mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of NaOCl, a ROS donor, on neuronal excitability and the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. In current clamp conditions, the application of NaOCl caused a membrane depolarization, which was inhibited by pretreatment with phenyl-N-tert-buthylnitrone (PBN), a ROS scavenger. The NaOCl-induced depolarization was not blocked however by pretreatment with dithiothreitol, a sulfhydryl-reducing agent. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to confirm whether NaOCl increases the intracellular ROS level. ROS-induced fluorescence intensity was found to be increased during perfusion of NaOCl after the loading of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA). NaOCl-induced depolarization was not blocked by pretreatment with external Ca2+ free solution or by the addition of nifedifine. However, when slices were pretreated with the Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, NaOCl failed to induce membrane depolarization. In a calcium imaging technique using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescence dye fura-2, the [Ca2+]i was found to be increased by NaOCl. These results indicate that NaOCl activates the excitability of SG neurons via the modulation of the intracellular calcium concentration, and suggest that ROS induces nociception through a central sensitization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Dithiothreitol , Fluoresceins , Fluorescence , Fura-2 , Humans , Membranes , Microscopy, Confocal , Neurons , Nociception , Perfusion , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Substantia Gelatinosa , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45684

ABSTRACT

Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critically involved in persistent pain primarily through spinal mechanisms, and that mitochondria are the main source of ROS in the spinal dorsal horn. To investigate whether mitochondrial ROS can induce changes in membrane excitability on spinal substantia gelatonosa (SG) neurons, we examined the effects of mitochondrial electron transport complex (ETC) substrates and inhibitors on the membrane potential of SG neurons in spinal slices. Application of ETC inhibitors, rotenone or antimycin A, resulted in a slowly developing and slight membrane depolarization in SG neurons. Also, application of both malate, a complex I substrate, and succinate, a complex II substrate, caused reversible membrane depolarization and enhanced firing activity. Changes in membrane potential after malate exposure were more prominent than succinate exposure. When slices were pretreated with ROS scavengers such as phenyl-N-tert-buthylnitrone (PBN), catalase and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), malate-induced depolarization was significantly decreased. Intracellular calcium above 100 microM increased malateinduced depolarization, witch was suppressed by cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor. These results suggest that enhanced production of spinal mitochondrial ROS can induce nociception through central sensitization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimycin A , Calcium , Catalase , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Cyclosporine , Electron Transport , Fires , Horns , Malates , Membrane Potentials , Membranes , Mitochondria , Neurons , Nociception , Permeability , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rotenone , Substantia Gelatinosa , Succinic Acid
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9939

ABSTRACT

Using whole cell current- and voltage-clamp recording we investigated the characteristics and pharmacology of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-mediated responses in rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons. In current clamp conditions, activation of mGluR I by application of the group I mGluR agonist (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induced a direct excitation of MVN neurons that is characterized by depolarization and increased spontaneous firing frequency. To identify which of mGluR subtypes are responsible for the various actions of DHPG in MVN, we used two subtype-selective antagonists. (S)-(+)-alpha-amino-a-methylbenzeneacetic acid (LY367385) is a potent competitive antagonist that is selective for mGluR1, whereas 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) is a potent noncompetitive antagonist that is selective for mGluR5. In voltage clamp conditions, DHPG application increased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) but had no effect on amplitude distributions. Antagonism of the DHPG-induced increase of miniature IPSCs required the blockade of both mGluR1 and mGluR5. DHPG application induced an inward current, which can be enhanced under depolarized conditions. DHPG-induced current was blocked by LY367385, but not by MPEP. Both LY367385 and MPEP antagonized the DHPG-induced suppression of the calcium activated potassium current (IAHP). These data suggest that mGluR1 and mGluR5 have similar roles in the regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons, and show a little distinct. Furthermore, mGluR I, via pre- and postsynaptic actions, have the potential to modulate the functions of the MVN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzoates , Calcium , Fires , Glycine , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol , Neurons , Potassium , Rats , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate , Vestibular Nuclei
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191457

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have implicated reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determinants of the pathological pain caused by the activation of peripheral neurons. It has not been elucidated, however, how ROS activate the primary sensory neurons in the pain pathway. In this study, calcium imaging was performed to investigate the effects of NaOCl, a ROS donor, on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG was sequentially treated with 0.2 mg/ml of both protease and thermolysin, and single neurons were then obtained by mechanical dissociation. The administration of NaOCl then caused a reversible increase in the [Ca2+]i, which was inhibited by pretreatment with phenyl-N-tert-buthylnitrone (PBN) and isoascorbate, both ROS scavengers. The NaOCl-induced [Ca2+]i increase was suppressed both in a calcium free solution and after depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ pool by thapsigargin. Additionally, this increase was predominantly blocked by pretreatment with the transient receptor potential (TRP) antagonists, ruthenium red (50 microM) and capsazepine (10 microM). Collectively, these results suggest that an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration is produced from both extracellular fluid and the intracellular calcium store, and that TRP might be involved in the sensation of pain induced by ROS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Capsaicin , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Dissociative Disorders , Extracellular Fluid , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Neurons , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Ruthenium Red , Sensation , Sensory Receptor Cells , Spinal Nerve Roots , Thapsigargin , Thermolysin , Tissue Donors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195139

ABSTRACT

Authors experienced intra-root cavernous angioma which is very rare case among cavernous angiomas of cauda equina. Our intra-root cavernous angioma was confirmed by findings from operating field and microscopic examination. We report this case with review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Cauda Equina , Caves , Hemangioma, Cavernous
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, activates persistent low amplitude tonic currents in several brain regions, in addition to conventional synaptic currents. Tonic conductance is highly sensitive to low concentrations of volatile anesthetics and therefore might contribute to amnestic properties. We compared the properties of GABAergic tonic currents mediated by sedative-amnestic midazolam and anesthetic propofol in rat hippocampal neurons. METHODS: Patch clamp techniques were used to characterize the GABAergic currents recorded in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The amplitude of the tonic currents and the decay of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were measured after administration of midazolam or propofol. RESULTS: Both midazolam and propofol caused concentration dependent increases in the tonic currents. The enhancement of the tonic currents by midazolam concentrations of greater than 0.5 microM caused no further increase in current amplitude. Propofol continued to increase with concentrations over the range tested (0.1-10 microM). Low concentrations of midazolam 0.01 microM and propofol 0.5 microM selectively enhanced the tonic currents but failed to alter mIPSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Low concentrations of midazolam and propofol selectively enhanced the tonic currents but not synaptic currents of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Unlike midazolam, the response to propofol did not become saturated and had a greater effect on the tonic currents.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Animals , Brain , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Hippocampus , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Midazolam , Neurons , Neurotransmitter Agents , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Propofol , Rats
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) is involved in the reflex control of the head and eyes, and the recovery of vestibular function after vestibular injuries. This study was performed to investigate the actions of the orphan opioid (nociceptin) on the membrane conductances and synaptic transmission in rat MVN neurons. METHODS: Whole cell patch clamp recordings were carried out in the brainstem slice of neonatal rats. RESULTS: Nociceptin (2 micro M) inhibited the spontaneous discharge in the majority (83%) of MVN neurons. This inhibition was insensitive to the non-specific opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (10 micro M), but was effectively antagonized by the selective opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL1) receptor antagonist, [Nphe1] nociceptin(1-13)NH2 (3 micro M). Nociceptin had no effect on the rate or amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Nociceptin induced an outward current, and which was blocked by [Nphe1] nociceptin(1-13)NH2 in MVN neurons. Outward current reversed at -81 +/- 2 mV, which was close to the K+ equilibrium potential as calculated by the Nernst equation in 6 mM extracellular potassium solution. This indicates that the action of nociceptin involves postsynaptic receptors on the MVN neurons. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that nociceptin modulate neuronal excitability by activating a K+ conductance in postsynaptic neurons, not by modulation of synaptic transmission in MVN neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Stem , Child , Child, Orphaned , Head , Humans , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Membranes , Naloxone , Neurons , Potassium , Rats , Receptors, Opioid , Reflex , Synaptic Transmission , Vestibular Nuclei
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL