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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874544

ABSTRACT

Background@#Several cancers show increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which are associated with cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether LDHA levels are associated with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) aggressiveness or with the presence of the PTC prognostic marker, the BRAFV600E mutation. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of LDHA as a PTC prognostic marker. @*Methods@#LDHA expression was examined in 83 PTC tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry. Human thyroid cell lines were genetically manipulated to overexpress BRAFV600E or were treated with a BRAF-specific short hairpin RNA (shBRAF), whose effects on LDHA expression were evaluated by Western blotting. Data from 465 PTC patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and analyzed to validate the in vitro results. @*Results@#LDHA was aberrantly overexpressed in PTC. Intense immunostaining for LDHA was observed in PTC specimens carrying mutated BRAF, whereas the intensity was less in wild-type BRAF samples. Overexpression of BRAFV600E resulted in LDHA upregulation, whereas treatment with shBRAF downregulated LDHA in human thyroid cell lines. Furthermore, LDHA mRNA expression was significantly elevated and associated with BRAFV600E expression in thyroid cancer tissues from TCGA database. Additionally, LDHA overexpression was found to be correlated with aggressive clinical features of PTC, such as lymph node metastases and advanced tumor stages. @*Conclusion@#LDHA overexpression is associated with the BRAFV600E mutation and an aggressive PTC behavior. Therefore, LDHA may serve as a biomarker and therapeutic target in PTC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902130

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives@#To analyze changes in the incidence of thyroid cancer for Korean population using big data from the National Health Insurance Service.Materials & Methods: Sample cohort database between January 2004 and December 2013 with 1,000,000 cases for each year was enrolled in this study. Thyroid cancer incidence was analyzed by sex, age and by region. Public health insurance payment was used to reflect socioeconomic status. @*Results@#The incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea increased for 10 years annually. There are 3 times increasing in the incidence rate of thyroid cancer from 2004, 0.03% to 2013, 0.09%. The sex ratio in the incidence rate of thyroid cancer was male : female = 1:7.2 in 2004 and male : female = 1:3.6 in 2013 that suggest decreased gap between the sex ratio. Between 2004 and 2010, the incidence rates of those in their 40s were found to be the highest, whereas the incidence rates for those in their 50s were found to be highest from 2011 and thereafter. Every year the high socioeconomic status group showed a higher incidence of thyroid cancer than low socioeconomic status group. Some specific region showed continuous high incidence of thyroid cancer, not all city and state. @*Conclusion@#The incidence rate of thyroid cancer for 10 years had special feature by sex, age, socioeconomic status and especially by region. This results will be a barometer for further epidemiologic study about the incidence of thyroid cancer for Korean population

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894426

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives@#To analyze changes in the incidence of thyroid cancer for Korean population using big data from the National Health Insurance Service.Materials & Methods: Sample cohort database between January 2004 and December 2013 with 1,000,000 cases for each year was enrolled in this study. Thyroid cancer incidence was analyzed by sex, age and by region. Public health insurance payment was used to reflect socioeconomic status. @*Results@#The incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea increased for 10 years annually. There are 3 times increasing in the incidence rate of thyroid cancer from 2004, 0.03% to 2013, 0.09%. The sex ratio in the incidence rate of thyroid cancer was male : female = 1:7.2 in 2004 and male : female = 1:3.6 in 2013 that suggest decreased gap between the sex ratio. Between 2004 and 2010, the incidence rates of those in their 40s were found to be the highest, whereas the incidence rates for those in their 50s were found to be highest from 2011 and thereafter. Every year the high socioeconomic status group showed a higher incidence of thyroid cancer than low socioeconomic status group. Some specific region showed continuous high incidence of thyroid cancer, not all city and state. @*Conclusion@#The incidence rate of thyroid cancer for 10 years had special feature by sex, age, socioeconomic status and especially by region. This results will be a barometer for further epidemiologic study about the incidence of thyroid cancer for Korean population

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890430

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are hereditary in approximately 30% to 40% cases. With the advancement of genetic analysis techniques, including next-generation sequencing (NGS), there were attempts to classify PPGL into molecular clusters. With NGS being applied to clinical settings recently, we aimed to review the results of genetic analysis, including NGS, and investigate the association with clinical characteristics in Korean PPGL patients. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of PPGL patients who visited Severance hospital from 2006 to 2019. We documented the clinical phenotype of those who underwent targeted NGS or had known germline mutations of related genes. @*Results@#Among 57 PPGL patients, we found 28 pathogenic germline mutations of susceptibility genes. Before the targeted NGS was implemented, only obvious syndromic feature lead to the Sanger sequencing for the specific genes. Therefore, for the exact prevalence, only patients after the year 2017, when targeted NGS was added, were included (n=43). The positive germline mutations were found in 14 patients; thus, the incidence rate is 32.6%. Patients with germline mutations had a higher likelihood of family history. There were significant differences in the type of PPGLs, percentage of family history, metastasis rate, presence of other tumors, and biochemical profile among three molecular clusters: pseudohypoxic tricarboxylic acid cycle-related, pseudohypoxic von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)/endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1-related, and kinase-signaling group. Germline mutations were identified in seven PPGL-related genes (SDHB, RET, VHL, NF1, MAX, SDHA, and SDHD). @*Conclusion@#We report the expected prevalence of germline mutations in Korean PPGL patients. NGS is a useful and accessible tool for genetic analysis in patients with PPGLs, and further research on molecular classification is needed for precise management.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830540

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Paragangliomas (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors derived from chromaffin cells of the autonomic nervous system. We aim to describe our experience and the long-term outcome of abdominal PGL over the last decade. @*Methods@#A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with PGL in our hospital between November 2005 and June 2017 was conducted. All nonabdominal PGL were excluded and the clinicopathological features and long-term outcomes of the patients were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 46 patients were diagnosed with abdominal PGL. The average age of diagnosis was 55.4 years and there was no sex predilection. The average tumor size was 5.85 cm and they were predominantly located in the infrarenal position (50%). The mean follow-up period was 42 months (range, 1.8–252 months). All patients with metastases had Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) of ≥4. One patient presented with synchronous metastases while 2 developed local recurrence and distant metastases. One presented with only local recurrence. One patient died 5 years after diagnosis. @*Conclusion@#Abdominal PGL is a rare tumor with excellent long-term prognosis. Recurrence although uncommon, can occur decades after initial diagnosis. Long-term follow-up is therefore recommended for all patients with PGL, especially in patients with PASS of ≥4.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898134

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are hereditary in approximately 30% to 40% cases. With the advancement of genetic analysis techniques, including next-generation sequencing (NGS), there were attempts to classify PPGL into molecular clusters. With NGS being applied to clinical settings recently, we aimed to review the results of genetic analysis, including NGS, and investigate the association with clinical characteristics in Korean PPGL patients. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of PPGL patients who visited Severance hospital from 2006 to 2019. We documented the clinical phenotype of those who underwent targeted NGS or had known germline mutations of related genes. @*Results@#Among 57 PPGL patients, we found 28 pathogenic germline mutations of susceptibility genes. Before the targeted NGS was implemented, only obvious syndromic feature lead to the Sanger sequencing for the specific genes. Therefore, for the exact prevalence, only patients after the year 2017, when targeted NGS was added, were included (n=43). The positive germline mutations were found in 14 patients; thus, the incidence rate is 32.6%. Patients with germline mutations had a higher likelihood of family history. There were significant differences in the type of PPGLs, percentage of family history, metastasis rate, presence of other tumors, and biochemical profile among three molecular clusters: pseudohypoxic tricarboxylic acid cycle-related, pseudohypoxic von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)/endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1-related, and kinase-signaling group. Germline mutations were identified in seven PPGL-related genes (SDHB, RET, VHL, NF1, MAX, SDHA, and SDHD). @*Conclusion@#We report the expected prevalence of germline mutations in Korean PPGL patients. NGS is a useful and accessible tool for genetic analysis in patients with PPGLs, and further research on molecular classification is needed for precise management.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758932

ABSTRACT

Porphyromonas species are closely associated with companion animal periodontitis which is one of the most common diseases in dogs and cats and leads to serious systemic diseases if left untreated. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial effects and mode of action of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3, Na5P3O10), a food additive with proven safety, using three pathogenic Porphyromonas species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of polyP3 against Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas cansulci, and Porphyromonas cangingivalis were between 500 and 750 mg/L. PolyP3 significantly decreased viable planktonic cells as well as bacterial biofilm formation, even at sub-MIC concentrations. PolyP3 caused bacterial membrane disruption and this effect was most prominent in P. cangingivalis, which was demonstrated by measuring the amount of nucleotide leakage from the cells. To further investigate the mode of action of polyP3, high-throughput whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed using P. gulae. Approximately 30% of the total genes of P. gulae were differentially expressed by polyP3 (> 4-fold, adjusted p value < 0.01). PolyP3 influenced the expression of the P. gulae genes related to the biosynthesis of thiamine, ubiquinone, and peptidoglycan. Collectively, polyP3 has excellent antibacterial effects against pathogenic Porphyromonas species and can be a promising agent to control oral pathogenic bacteria in companion animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria , Biofilms , Cats , Dogs , Food Additives , Friends , Humans , Membranes , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Peptidoglycan , Periodontitis , Pets , Plankton , Porphyromonas , Sodium , Thiamine , Ubiquinone
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739590

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently, posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) has been reported to have some advantages over laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy (LTA). The objectives of this study were to report our experience over 12 years with laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA) and to examine surgical outcomes of PRA compared with LTA in patients with PHA. METHODS: The medical records of 527 patients who underwent minimally invasive adrenalectomy, including LTA or PRA, from January 2006 until May 2017 were reviewed at Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea). Clinicopathologic characteristics and surgical outcomes of 146 patients with PHA who underwent LTA (19 patients) or PRA (127 patients) were analyzed retrospectively by complete chart review. RESULTS: The overall rates of biochemical and clinical cure were 91.1% and 93.1%, respectively. The mean operation time of the PRA group was significantly shorter than that of the LTA group (72.3 ± 24.1 minutes vs. 115.7 ± 69.7 minutes, P = 0.015). The length of hospital stay in the PRA group was significantly shorter than in the LTA group (3.5 ± 1.3 days vs. 4.2 ± 1.6 days, P = 0.029), and the first meal after surgery came earlier in the PRA group (0.3 ± 0.5 days vs. 0.6 ± 0.5 days, P = 0.049). The number of pain-killers used was also significantly smaller in the PRA group (2.3 ± 2.1 vs. 4.3 ± 2.3, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: PRA offers an alternative or likely superior method for treatment of small adrenal diseases such as PHA, with improved surgical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adrenalectomy , Humans , Hyperaldosteronism , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Meals , Medical Records , Methods , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is a gold standard for subtype classification of primary aldosteronism (PA). However, this procedure has a high failure rate because of the anatomical difficulties in accessing the right adrenal vein. We investigated whether C-arm computed tomography-assisted AVS (C-AVS) could improve the success rate of adrenal sampling. METHODS: A total of 156 patients, diagnosed with PA who underwent AVS from May 2004 through April 2017, were included. Based on the medical records, we retrospectively compared the overall, left, and right catheterization success rates of adrenal veins during the periods without C-AVS (2004 to 2010, n=32) and with C-AVS (2011 to 2016, n=124). The primary outcome was adequate bilateral sampling defined as a selectivity index (SI) >5. RESULTS: With C-AVS, the rates of adequate bilateral AVS increased from 40.6% to 88.7% (P<0.001), with substantial decreases in failure rates (43.7% to 0.8%, P<0.001). There were significant increases in adequate sampling rates from right (43.7% to 91.9%, P<0.001) and left adrenal veins (53.1% to 95.9%, P<0.001) as well as decreases in catheterization failure from right adrenal vein (9.3% to 0.0%, P<0.001). Net improvement of SI on right side remained significant after adjustment for left side (adjusted SI, 1.1 to 9.0; P=0.038). C-AVS was an independent predictor of adequate bilateral sampling in the multivariate model (odds ratio, 9.01; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: C-AVS improved the overall success rate of AVS, possibly as a result of better catheterization of right adrenal vein.


Subject(s)
Adrenalectomy , Catheterization , Catheters , Classification , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Humans , Hyperaldosteronism , Hypertension , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Veins
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717841

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) dynamic risk stratification (DRS) has been verified to be more valuable than the static anatomical staging system for predicting prognosis in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the clinical usefulness of DRS, which is based on the response to initial treatment, with that of ATA initial risk stratification in pediatric patients. METHODS: A total of 144 pediatric patients underwent thyroid operation from August 1982 to December 2013 at Yonsei University Hospital (Seoul, Korea). Among them, 128 patients with complete clinical data were enrolled in this study. Clinicopathologic features and surgical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed by medical chart review. The mean follow-up duration was 11.5 years. RESULTS: The mean tumor size was 2.1 cm; 80.4% of patients were diagnosed with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, and 7.0% of patients were diagnosed with follicular thyroid carcinoma. Low-risk patients had the highest probability of an excellent response to initial treatment (66.6%). High-risk patients had the highest probability of a structural incomplete response (100%) and the lowest probability of an excellent response (11.1%). The ATA risk stratification and the DRS system were independent risk factors for disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.041 and P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: The DRS system, which is based on the response to initial treatment, can offer more useful prognostic information compared with ATA risk stratification in pediatric patients with DTC.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pediatrics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226737

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the increasing incidence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (FPTMC) is now recognized more frequently. However, the biological behavior of FPTMC is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of FPTMC and its biological aggressiveness. METHODS: Between March 2006 and July 2010, 2,414 patients underwent primary surgical therapy for PTMC and 149 (6.2%) were further classified as FPTMC. To determine the biological aggressiveness of FPTMC, we compared the clinicopathological features and prognosis between FPTMC and sporadic PTMC (SPTMC). RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was higher in FPTMC than in sporadic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (SPTMC: 1:4.5 vs. 1:7.2, P = 0.041). The central lymph node (LN) metastasis rate was significantly higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (36.2% vs. 24.2%, P = 0.002). The local recurrence rate was also higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (4.5% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001). We identified familial occurrence in 6.2% of cases of PTMC. FPTMC is associated with a high rate of central LN metastasis and local recurrence. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that close follow-up can be beneficial in FPTMC patients to detect local recurrence.


Subject(s)
Aggression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prevalence , Prognosis , Recurrence , Thyroid Gland
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54237

ABSTRACT

Abnormal HLA-G expression occurs in various diseases such as melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, asthma, and classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HLA-G gene is linked with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To investigate the possible link with susceptibility to OSCC, 54 OSCC patients and 120 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. HLA-G 14bp insertion/deletion polymorphism is in 3′-untranslated region of HLA-G gene. HLA-G 14bp insertion/deletion polymorphism was analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. For the analysis of genetic data, SPSS18.0 program was used. Logistic regression models were performed for odds ratio (OR), 95 percent confidence interval (CI), and P value. There was a significant difference in distribution allele between OSCC patients and control subjects (OR=0.018, 95% CI=0.002-0.131, p<0.001). Our results suggest that HLA-G 14bp insertion/deletion polymorphism may be linked with susceptibility to OSCC in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Asthma , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Epithelial Cells , Exons , HLA-G Antigens , Hodgkin Disease , Humans , Logistic Models , Melanoma , Methods , Odds Ratio , Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139062

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP). We compared clinicopathological features; preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, vitamin D, 24-hour urine calcium, and alkaline phosphatase levels; postoperative calcium and PTH levels; pathologic diagnosis; multiplicity; and results of a localization study between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the rates of development of postoperative persistent hyperparathyroidism (1/122 FP patients and 1/10 CP patients) between the 2 groups due to a technical reason (FP 0.8% vs. CP 10.0%, P = 0.146). Multiglandular disease (MGD) was uncommon in all cases (6 of 132, 4.5%). All MGD cases were diagnosed using a preoperative localization study. Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography sensitivity were 94.2% and 90.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that FP is appropriate in PHPT, except in cases of MGD if detected before the operation using preoperative imaging. Knowledge of hereditary PHPT and improved preoperative localization studies, such as high-resolution ultrasonography, contributed to the decision to perform FP rather than CP in all cases of unilateral results of the localizing study.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcium , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroidectomy , Phosphorus , Retrospective Studies , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi , Ultrasonography , Vitamin D
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP). We compared clinicopathological features; preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, vitamin D, 24-hour urine calcium, and alkaline phosphatase levels; postoperative calcium and PTH levels; pathologic diagnosis; multiplicity; and results of a localization study between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the rates of development of postoperative persistent hyperparathyroidism (1/122 FP patients and 1/10 CP patients) between the 2 groups due to a technical reason (FP 0.8% vs. CP 10.0%, P = 0.146). Multiglandular disease (MGD) was uncommon in all cases (6 of 132, 4.5%). All MGD cases were diagnosed using a preoperative localization study. Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography sensitivity were 94.2% and 90.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that FP is appropriate in PHPT, except in cases of MGD if detected before the operation using preoperative imaging. Knowledge of hereditary PHPT and improved preoperative localization studies, such as high-resolution ultrasonography, contributed to the decision to perform FP rather than CP in all cases of unilateral results of the localizing study.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcium , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroidectomy , Phosphorus , Retrospective Studies , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi , Ultrasonography , Vitamin D
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Postoperative hypocalcemia is a common complication of thyroidectomy. This study evaluated the incidence and predisposing risk factors for postoperative permanent hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy. METHODS: There were 1,247 consecutive patients undergoing total thyroidectomy and complete treatment and observation for differentiated thyroid cancer between January 2012 to December 2012 who were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups, those remaining normalcalcemic (Group I-824 pts) and those who had hypocalcemia requiring treatment (Groups II-423 pts). Group II was subdivided into a transient hypocalcemic group (Group IIA-409 pts) and a permanent hypocalcemic group (Group IIB-14 pts). RESULTS: Female gender, thyroiditis, preserved parathyroid number, lateral lymph node metastasis, RAI treatment, preoperative parathyroid hormone and preoperative vitamin D were significantly associated with the development of postoperative hypocalcemia by multivariate analysis. Comparing patients with transient versus permanent hypocalcemia, tumor size and multiplicity were significantly related to the development of permanent hypocalcemia by multivariate analysis. RAI treatment and parathyroid hormone level on the postoperative third day were significantly related to recovery from transient hypocalcemia to normo-calcemia. CONCLUSION: Risk factors of postoperative hypocalcemia were associated with preoperative patient factors and advanced thyroid cancer. Advanced thyroid cancer was a risk factor for permanent hypocalcemia. To prevent postoperative hypocalcemia, we should focus on patient condition and need to preserve parathyroid gland more carefully in thyroid surgery.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyroiditis , Vitamin D
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to review the clinical outcome and prognosis of patients with sporadic and hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) who were treated at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case files of 85 patients treated from August 1982 to February 2012. RESULTS: In all, 65 patients (76.5%) had sporadic MTC and 20 patients (23.5%) had hereditary MTC. Patients in the sporadic group were older than in the hereditary group (P < 0.001). However, the hereditary group had more tumor multiplicity (P < 0.001) and bilaterality (P < 0.001). Neither survival rate was significantly different between the sporadic and hereditary groups (P = 0.775 and P = 0.866). By multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was a significant prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: In general, patients with MTC have favorable outcomes. Distant metastasis appears to be the strongest predictor of overall and progression-free survival.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tertiary Care Centers , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor. Early detection is difficult and prognosis is poor. We report on 20 years of ACC surgical experience at our institution. METHODS: This study included 32 ACC patients who underwent surgical resection at the Department of Surgery of the Yonsei University Health System in South Korea between January 1990 and February 2012. We reviewed these 32 patients and retrospectively analyzed long-term clinical outcomes and prognosis after radical surgery for ACC. RESULTS: The median age of the 32 patients at diagnosis was 42.25 years (range 3~81 years). There were 16 (50%) female and 16 (50%) male patients. Mean tumor size was 12.36 cm (range 1.8~20 cm). Twenty-five patients (78.12%) had nonfunctioning tumors while the other seven patients (21.87%) had functioning tumors. Seventeen patients (53.12%) were classified as stage II, two (6.25%) as stage III, and 13 (40.62%) as stage IV. Fourteen patients underwent radical surgical resection, while 14 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, two received adjuvant radiotherapy, and two received adjuvant chemoradiation. Four patients were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 28 patients, 15 patients survived. The 5- and 10-year overall survival was 60.6% and 37.8%, respectively (median survival=85+/-24.3 months). Seventeen patients (53%) experienced disease recurrence. Five- and 10-year recurrence-free survival was 41.5% and 29.7%, respectively (median survival=18+/-5.5 months). CONCLUSION: Early stage at diagnosis and surgical resection were the most important prognostic factors associated with prolonged survival. The role of additional therapy remains controversial and new agents should continually be evaluated for efficacy.


Subject(s)
Adrenocortical Carcinoma , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Korea , Lost to Follow-Up , Male , Prognosis , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-358170

ABSTRACT

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fibroblasts, skin fibroblasts, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and cancer cells, but activates MMP-9 in neuroblast and leukemia cells. Very little is known regarding whether ATRA can activate or inhibit MMPs in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ATRA on the production and secretion of MMP-2 and -9 in HDPCs. The productions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of MMP-2 and -9 were accessed by gelatin zymography and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. ATRA was found to decrease MMP-2 level in a dose-dependent manner. Significant reduction in MMP-2 mRNA expression was also observed in HDPCs treated with 25 µmol⋅L(-1) ATRA. However, HDPCs treated with ATRA had no effect on the pattern of MMP-9 produced or secreted in either cell extracts or conditioned medium fractions. Taken together, ATRA had an inhibitory effect on MMP-2 expression in HDPCs, which suggests that ATRA could be a candidate as a medicament which could control the inflammation of pulp tissue in vital pulp therapy and regenerative endodontics.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Culture Media, Conditioned , Dental Pulp , Cell Biology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription, Genetic , Tretinoin , Pharmacology
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