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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914213

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the effects of teneligliptin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived time in range, and glycemic variability in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. @*Methods@#This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in eight centers in Korea (clinical trial registration number: NCT03508323). Sixty-five participants aged ≥65 years, who were treatment-naïve or had been treated with stable doses of metformin, were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive 20 mg of teneligliptin (n=35) or placebo (n=30) for 12 weeks. The main endpoints were the changes in HbA1c levels from baseline to week 12, CGM metrics-derived time in range, and glycemic variability. @*Results@#After 12 weeks, a significant reduction (by 0.84%) in HbA1c levels was observed in the teneligliptin group compared to that in the placebo group (by 0.08%), with a between-group least squares mean difference of –0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI], –1.08 to –0.44). The coefficient of variation, standard deviation, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion significantly decreased in participants treated with teneligliptin as compared to those in the placebo group. Teneligliptin treatment significantly decreased the time spent above 180 or 250 mg/dL, respectively, without increasing the time spent below 70 mg/dL. The mean percentage of time for which glucose levels remained in the 70 to 180 mg/dL time in range (TIR70–180) at week 12 was 82.0%±16.0% in the teneligliptin group, and placebo-adjusted change in TIR70–180 from baseline was 13.3% (95% CI, 6.0 to 20.6). @*Conclusion@#Teneligliptin effectively reduced HbA1c levels, time spent above the target range, and glycemic variability, without increasing hypoglycemia in our study population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903519

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic as well as non-diabetic patients. Moreover, the presence of diabetes increases the risk of developing hypertension. The management of these two diseases will become even more important in our aging society. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension, the management of hypertension remains controversial, especially in patients with diabetes. In particular, the blood pressure at which to initiate drug therapy and blood pressure target remain unclear. Recently, the Korean Diabetes Association published “Treatment Guideline for Diabetes 2019”. This review will mainly compare major guidelines from other countries and discuss how to select a target goal for blood pressure control in Korean diabetic patients. Lifestyle modification and the use of anti-hypertensive agents for the management of hypertension will also be discussed.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895815

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic as well as non-diabetic patients. Moreover, the presence of diabetes increases the risk of developing hypertension. The management of these two diseases will become even more important in our aging society. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension, the management of hypertension remains controversial, especially in patients with diabetes. In particular, the blood pressure at which to initiate drug therapy and blood pressure target remain unclear. Recently, the Korean Diabetes Association published “Treatment Guideline for Diabetes 2019”. This review will mainly compare major guidelines from other countries and discuss how to select a target goal for blood pressure control in Korean diabetic patients. Lifestyle modification and the use of anti-hypertensive agents for the management of hypertension will also be discussed.

8.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 190-201, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835755

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study sought to investigate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in relation to tumor location within the stomach. @*Materials and Methods@#The densities and prognostic significance of TIL subsets were evaluated in 542 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD4, CD8, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3), and granzyme B was performed. @*Results@#Cardia cancer was associated with significantly lower densities of CD8 T-cells and higher densities of Foxp3 and granzyme B T-cells than non-cardia tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.023; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006–1.040), advanced T classification (HR, 2.029; 95% CI, 1.106–3.721), lymph node metastasis (HR, 3.319; 95% CI, 1.947–5.658), low CD3 expression (HR, 0.997; 95% CI, 0.994–0.999), and a high Foxp3/CD4 ratio (HR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.001–1.012) were independent predictors of poor overall survival in cardia cancer patients. In non-cardia cancer patients, total gastrectomy (HR, 2.147; 95% CI, 1.507–3.059), advanced T classification (HR, 2.158; 95% CI, 1.425–3.266), lymph node metastasis (HR, 1.854; 95% CI, 1.250–2.750), and a low Foxp3/CD4 ratio (HR, 0.978; 95% CI, 0.959–0.997) were poor prognostic factors for survival. @*Conclusions@#The densities and prognostic effects of TILs differed in relation to the location of tumors within the stomach. The contrasting prognostic effects of Foxp3/CD4 ratio in cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer patients suggests that clinicians ought to consider tumor location when determining treatment strategies.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) with a polymeric diet has not been confirmed in Korean pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD). This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of EEN with a specific polymeric diet (Encover®) and corticosteroids (CSs) for the induction of remission in Korean pediatric CD patients. METHODS: We retrospectively compared data from 51 pediatric CD patients who underwent induction therapy with EEN (n=19) or CSs (n=32) at Severance Children's Hospital or Incheon St. Mary's Hospital in Korea. The primary endpoint of this study was the rate of clinical remission, defined as a Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) score < 10, after 8 weeks of induction treatment. Clinical, laboratory, and growth data at post-induction as well as their changes from baseline were also compared between groups. RESULTS: After 8 weeks of induction therapy, clinical remission rates were 78.9% (15/19) and 65.6% (21/32) in the EEN and CS groups, respectively (p=0.313). No significant differences in PCDAI scores, laboratory variables, and growth parameters were noted between the two groups at post-induction. However, significant changes in albumin levels at post-induction were observed in the EEN group compared to the CS group (p=0.038). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the effectiveness of EEN with a polymeric diet and CSs for induction therapy did not differ in Korean pediatric CD patients. EEN with a polymeric diet is a good first-line treatment option for the induction of remission in these patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Child , Crohn Disease , Diet , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Korea , Polymers , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766799

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, is one of the major causes of death in diabetes. Numerous studies have long suggested reducing macrovascular complication such as ischemic vascular disease through intensive glycemic control, but none was successful proving the effect of glycemic control. Recently, new possibilities in cardiovascular disease reduction have been proposed through cardiovascular safety trials of newly developed anti-hyperglycemic agents. The purpose of this review is to introduce the traditional and newly developed anti-diabetic medications and review their effects regarding cardiovascular outcomes mainly focusing on stroke.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents , Stroke , Vascular Diseases
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763670

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Korea , Obesity , Overweight
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786527

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus dysgalactiae has two main subspecies: S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD). SDSE often colonizes and causes infections in humans; however, SDSD is an animal pathogen which often causes pyogenic infection in domestic animals. We present a case of meningitis with SDSD and herpes simplex virus in a 22-day-old newborn baby who had no exposure to animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Domestic , Bacteria , Colon , Herpes Simplex , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meningitis , Simplexvirus , Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcus
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760860

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of inflammatory biomarkers in acute infectious diarrhea among children. METHODS: Clinical parameters including fever, bacterial and viral etiology based on stool culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and nine biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and leukocytes in blood and calprotectin, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, polymorphonuclear elastase, leukocytes, and occult blood in feces were evaluated in children who were hospitalized due to acute diarrhea without underlying disease. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients were included. Among these patients, 33 had fever, 18 showed bacterial infections, and 40 patients were infected with 43 viruses. Of all the biomarkers, CRP was significantly correlated with fever (p<0.001). CRP, ESR, calprotectin, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, fecal leukocytes, and occult blood were significantly associated with infection with bacterial pathogens (p<0.001, p=0.04, p=0.03, p=0.003, p=0.02, p=0.03, p=0.002, respectively). The combination of CRP and fecal lactoferrin at their best cut-off values (13.7 mg/L and 22.8 µg/mL, respectively) yielded a sensitivity of 72.2%, and a specificity of 95.5% for bacterial etiology compared with their individual use. CONCLUSION: Blood CRP is a useful diagnostic marker for both fever and bacterial etiology in acute pediatric diarrhea. The combination of CRP and fecal lactoferrin yields better diagnostic capability for bacterial etiology than their use alone for acute diarrhea in children without underlying gastrointestinal disease.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Biomarkers , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Diarrhea , Feces , Fever , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Lactoferrin , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Leukocytes , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Occult Blood , Pancreatic Elastase , Peroxidase , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 157-169, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761489

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high frequency of complications related to cardiovascular disease as well as microvascular complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Prevention of these vascular complications is the main issue for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are well-known risk factors for complications in diabetic patients. Moreover, these chronic conditions are often seen in many diabetic patients. So, multifactorial interventions are needed to manage these risk factors and prevent diabetic complications. However, there is still a debate about the optimal level required for glycemic control, the appropriate blood pressure target, and dyslipidemia management. Although many countries have written their own guidelines, there are some discrepancies between these different guidelines. Recently, the Korean Diabetic Association issued new guidelines for Korean diabetic patients. Here, I will introduce these new guidelines and discuss the optimal management of risk factors such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , Risk Factors , Risk Management
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed, drug-naive people with type 2 diabetes by analyzing nationwide cross-sectional data. METHODS: We collected the clinical data of 912 participants with newly diagnosed diabetes from 83 primary care clinics and hospitals nationwide from 2015 to 2016. The presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction was defined as a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥2.5 and fasting C-peptide levels < 1.70 ng/mL, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 75.1% and 22.6% of participants had insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, respectively. The proportion of participants with insulin resistance but no β-cell dysfunction increased, and the proportion of participants with β-cell dysfunction but no insulin resistance decreased as body mass index (BMI) increased. People diagnosed with diabetes before 40 years of age had significantly higher HOMA-IR and BMI than those diagnosed over 65 years of age (HOMA-IR, 5.0 vs. 3.0; BMI, 28.7 kg/m2 vs. 25.1 kg/m2). However, the β-cell function indices were lower in people diagnosed before 40 years of age than in those diagnosed after 65 years of age (homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function, 39.3 vs. 64.9; insulinogenic index, 10.3 vs. 18.7; disposition index, 0.15 vs. 0.25). CONCLUSION: We observed that the main pathogenic mechanism of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance in participants with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. In addition, young adults with diabetes are more likely to have higher insulin resistance with obesity and have higher insulin secretory defect with severe hyperglycemia in the early period of diabetes than older populations.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , C-Peptide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Obesity , Primary Health Care , Young Adult
17.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 384-393, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179804

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The tumor microenvironment is known to be associated with the metabolic activity of cancer cells and local immune reactions. We hypothesized that glucose metabolism measured by 2-deoxy-2-(¹⁸F)fluoro-D-glucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) (¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT) would be associated with local immune responses evaluated according to the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 56 patients who underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT prior to gastrectomy. In resected tumor specimens, TIL subsets, including cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD4, CD8, Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), and granzyme B, were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) was calculated as: (10×serum albumin value)+(0.005×peripheral lymphocyte counts). Additionally, the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated to evaluate the metabolic activity of cancer cells. RESULTS: The SUVmax was positively correlated with larger tumor size (R=0.293; P=0.029) and negatively correlated with PNI (R=−0.407; P=0.002). A higher SUVmax showed a marginal association with higher CD3 (+) T lymphocyte counts (R=0.227; P=0.092) and a significant association with higher Foxp3 (+) T lymphocyte counts (R=0.431; P=0.009). No other clinicopathological characteristics were associated with SUVmax or TILs. Survival analysis, however, indicated that neither SUVmax nor Foxp3 held prognostic significance. CONCLUSIONS: FDG uptake on PET-CT could be associated with TILs, especially regulatory T cells, in gastric cancer. This finding may suggest that PET-CT could be of use as a non-invasive tool for monitoring the tumor microenvironment in patients with gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Gastrectomy , Glucose , Granzymes , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Metabolism , Nutrition Assessment , Positron-Emission Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Mycobiology ; : 21-28, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729457

ABSTRACT

During a Korean mushroom diversity survey from 2011 to 2014, we found one new Xylaria species (X. ripicola sp. nov.) and one Xylaria species that had not been previously observed in Korea (X. tentaculata). To confirm the phylogenetic placement of the new species, we conducted a phylogenetic investigation based on internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA sequences. Additionally, the new species, X. ripicola, was subsequently analyzed for RNA polymerase II subunit sequences. We also evaluated the macroscopic and microscopic features of this species. Herein, X. ripicola is described as a new species that was collected from a natural beach habitat and X. tentaculata is formally reported as newly found in Korea.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Ascomycota , Classification , DNA, Ribosomal , Ecosystem , Korea , Phylogeny , RNA Polymerase II
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726749

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease worldwide, and its prevalence is expected to increase in the near future. Because cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients, it is important to detect and address other risk factors of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. Moreover, presence of diabetes increases the risk of developing hypertension. Despite significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension, there are still many debates regarding the management of hypertension, especially in patients with diabetes. The most important unresolved questions are at what blood pressure to initiate drug therapy and the target blood pressure. Recently, the Korean Diabetes Association published "Treatment Guideline for Diabetes 2015." This review will compare major guidelines from other countries and discuss how to determine the target goal for blood pressure control in Korean diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy , Dyslipidemias , Humans , Hypertension , Mortality , Prevalence , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in postmenopausal women without diabetes. METHODS: This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis. RESULTS: The mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR), 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively) compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding covariates. CONCLUSION: Urinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Creatinine , Female , Humans , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Postmenopause
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