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1.
Immune Network ; : 232-236, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A physically active lifestyle and regular exercise training incurs many health benefits. One recently recognized benefit of regular moderate exercise is stress reduction and immune enhancement. Thus, a physical stress such as exercise may act at any number of points in the complex sequence of events collectively termed the immune response. Although exercise causes many propound changes in parameters of immune function, the nature and magnitude of such changes rely on several factors including the immune parameters of interest; type, intensity, and duration of exercise; fitness level or exercise history of the subject; environmental factors such as ambient temperature and humidity. METHODS: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different type of exercise on superoxide dismutase (SOD), neutrophils, and T lymphocytes of Sprague-Dawley rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups; a non-Trained group (NTG, n=6), a swim-Trained group (STG), and a treadmill-Trained group (TTG). The exercise regimen was designed in a treadmill (5 times/5 days/week) during 8-weeks for TTG, and swim training (5 times/5 days/week) during 8-weeks for STG, and the volume of exercise training was the same in both groups. RESULTS: 8 weeks of regular swim and treadmill training significantly increased liver SOD concentration however, muscle SOD concentration was not statistically significant. In the level of neutrophils, TTG and STG showed significant difference, compared to NTG. TTG was the highest level of neutrophils. In the level of immune cell counts, there was significant difference among TTG, STG, and NTG both in the spleen and thymus. Conculsion: In conclusion, it can be stated that eight weeks swim and treadmill exercise training has beneficial effect in improving immune response and antioxidant defence capacity by augmenting immune cells and SOD activities of SD rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Count , Humidity , Insurance Benefits , Life Style , Liver , Neutrophils , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spleen , Superoxide Dismutase , T-Lymphocytes , Thymus Gland
2.
Immune Network ; : 117-123, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40269

ABSTRACT

The immune response to any stimulus is complex, requiring coordinated action by several types of cells in a tightly regulated sequence. Thus, a physical stress such as exercise may act at any number of points in the complex sequence of events collectively termed the immune response. Although exercise causes many propound changes in parameters of immune function, the nature and magnitude of such changes rely on several factors including the immune parameters of interest; type, intensity, and duration of exercise; fitness level or exercise history of the subject; environmental factors such as ambient temperature and humidity. Although regular moderate exercise appears to be important factor for increasing immunity, Athletes are susceptible to illness, in particular upper respiratory track infection, during periods of intense training and after competition. In addition, in elite athletes, frequent illness is associated with overtraining syndrome, a neuroendocrine disorder resulting from excessive training. Through this paper, we want to investigate the effects of exercise on the immunosuppression such as exercise induced lymphopenia, asthma, anaphylaxis, URT (upper respiratory track), and TB (tuberculosis) infection. and also, we want to suggest a direct mechanism, protection and therapy of exercise induced immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Asthma , Athletes , Humans , Humidity , Immunosuppression Therapy , Lymphopenia
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amrinone is a nonglycosidic noncatecholamine with both vasodilator and positive inotropic effects that has not been evaluated widely in pediatric patients with intracardiac left to right shunts. The present study was performed to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of amrinone in infants and children with intracardiac left to right shunts. METHODS: Twenty patients (aged 2 months to 24 months) who underwent open heart surgery to correct one or more intracardiac left to right shunts were evaluated. Before cardiopulmonary bypass, a 22 gauge angiocatheter was placed at the main pulmonary artery by surgeons to measure pulmonary arterial pressure. Patients with a mean pulmonary arterial pressure or = 25 mmHg were assigned to Group B (n = 10). Mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before loading of amrinone (3 mg/kg), 5 minutes, and 15 minutes after continuous infusion of amrinone (10 microgram/kg). The mean pulmonary arterial pressure to mean systemic arterial pressure ratio (MPAP/MAP) and rates of changes of mean arterial pressure (delta MAP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (delta MPAP) were calculated. RESULTS: Amrinone reduced MAP, MPAP, CVP and increased HR. MPAP/MAP increased in Group A but decreased in Group B (P < 0.05). In Group A, delta MAP was significantly greater than that of Group B (P < 0.005). In Group B, delta MPAP was significantly greater than that of Group A (P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: In infants with intracardiac left to right shunts, amrinone reduces MAP, MPAP, CVP and increases HR. Amrinone appears to have a potent vasodilating effect on the pulmonary artery in infants with pulmonary hypertension. However, more hemodynamic measurements such as cardiac output, vascular resistance and doppler echocardiographic study are necessary to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of amrinone precisely.


Subject(s)
Amrinone , Arterial Pressure , Cardiac Output , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Central Venous Pressure , Child , Echocardiography , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Infant , Pulmonary Artery , Thoracic Surgery , Vascular Resistance
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The amount and composition of fresh gas flow affect the consumption of inhalational anesthetics. The purpose of this study was to compare the enflurane consumption and economic aspects of low flow and high flow anesthesia. METHODS: Thirty patients, ASA physical status I or II, aged 20 65 yr., scheduled for gastrectomy under inhalational anesthesia, were studied. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to the fresh gas flow: O2 500 ml/min (group I); N2O 2 L/min - O2 1 L/min (group II); O2 3 L/min (group III). Anesthesia was maintained in group I by a continuous infusion of liquid enflurane into the inspiratory limb of the breathing circuit, using a syringe pump. In groups II and III, enflurane was administered by a conventional vaporizer. The cumulative dose of liquid enflurane was measured every 10 min during anesthesia. Hemodynamic parameters, inspired and expired enflurane concentrations, and enflurane consumptions were measured. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among the three groups in hemodynamic changes. The enflurane consumption was significantly less in group I than in groups II and III over time (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low flow anesthesia offers economic advantages over high flow anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthetics , Enflurane , Extremities , Gastrectomy , Hemodynamics , Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiration , Syringes
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The amount and composition of fresh gas flow affect the consumption of inhalational anesthetics. The purpose of this study was to compare the enflurane consumption and economic aspects of low flow and high flow anesthesia. METHODS: Thirty patients, ASA physical status I or II, aged 20 65 yr., scheduled for gastrectomy under inhalational anesthesia, were studied. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to the fresh gas flow: O2 500 ml/min (group I); N2O 2 L/min - O2 1 L/min (group II); O2 3 L/min (group III). Anesthesia was maintained in group I by a continuous infusion of liquid enflurane into the inspiratory limb of the breathing circuit, using a syringe pump. In groups II and III, enflurane was administered by a conventional vaporizer. The cumulative dose of liquid enflurane was measured every 10 min during anesthesia. Hemodynamic parameters, inspired and expired enflurane concentrations, and enflurane consumptions were measured. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among the three groups in hemodynamic changes. The enflurane consumption was significantly less in group I than in groups II and III over time (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low flow anesthesia offers economic advantages over high flow anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthetics , Enflurane , Extremities , Gastrectomy , Hemodynamics , Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiration , Syringes
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