Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 79
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890368

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade are reported to affect the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). @*Methods@#As of May 2020, analysis was conducted on all subjects who could confirm their history of claims related to COVID-19 in the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database in Korea. Using this dataset, we compared the short-term prognosis of COVID-19 infection according to the use of DPP-4i and RAS blockade. Additionally, we validated the results using the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of Korea dataset. @*Results@#Totally, data of 67,850 subjects were accessible in the HIRA dataset. Of these, 5,080 were confirmed COVID-19. Among these, 832 subjects with DM were selected for analysis in this study. Among the subjects, 263 (31.6%) and 327 (39.3%) were DPP4i and RAS blockade users, respectively. Thirty-four subjects (4.09%) received intensive care or died. The adjusted odds ratio for severe treatment among DPP-4i users was 0.362 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.135 to 0.971), and that for RAS blockade users was 0.599 (95% CI, 0.251 to 1.431). These findings were consistent with the analysis based on the NHIS data using 704 final subjects. The adjusted odds ratio for severe treatment among DPP-4i users was 0.303 (95% CI, 0.135 to 0.682), and that for RAS blockade users was 0.811 (95% CI, 0.391 to 1.682). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that DPP-4i is significantly associated with a better clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890353

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previously developed prediction models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have limited performance. We developed a deep learning (DL) based model using a cohort representative of the Korean population. @*Methods@#This study was conducted on the basis of the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) cohort of Korea. Overall, 335,302 subjects without T2DM at baseline were included. We developed the model based on 80% of the subjects, and verified the power in the remainder. Predictive models for T2DM were constructed using the recurrent neural network long short-term memory (RNN-LSTM) network and the Cox longitudinal summary model. The performance of both models over a 10-year period was compared using a time dependent area under the curve. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 10.4±1.7 years, the mean frequency of periodic health check-ups was 2.9±1.0 per subject. During the observation period, T2DM was newly observed in 8.7% of the subjects. The annual performance of the model created using the RNN-LSTM network was superior to that of the Cox model, and the risk factors for T2DM, derived using the two models were similar; however, certain results differed. @*Conclusion@#The DL-based T2DM prediction model, constructed using a cohort representative of the population, performs better than the conventional model. After pilot tests, this model will be provided to all Korean national health screening recipients in the future.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898072

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade are reported to affect the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). @*Methods@#As of May 2020, analysis was conducted on all subjects who could confirm their history of claims related to COVID-19 in the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database in Korea. Using this dataset, we compared the short-term prognosis of COVID-19 infection according to the use of DPP-4i and RAS blockade. Additionally, we validated the results using the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of Korea dataset. @*Results@#Totally, data of 67,850 subjects were accessible in the HIRA dataset. Of these, 5,080 were confirmed COVID-19. Among these, 832 subjects with DM were selected for analysis in this study. Among the subjects, 263 (31.6%) and 327 (39.3%) were DPP4i and RAS blockade users, respectively. Thirty-four subjects (4.09%) received intensive care or died. The adjusted odds ratio for severe treatment among DPP-4i users was 0.362 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.135 to 0.971), and that for RAS blockade users was 0.599 (95% CI, 0.251 to 1.431). These findings were consistent with the analysis based on the NHIS data using 704 final subjects. The adjusted odds ratio for severe treatment among DPP-4i users was 0.303 (95% CI, 0.135 to 0.682), and that for RAS blockade users was 0.811 (95% CI, 0.391 to 1.682). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that DPP-4i is significantly associated with a better clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898057

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previously developed prediction models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have limited performance. We developed a deep learning (DL) based model using a cohort representative of the Korean population. @*Methods@#This study was conducted on the basis of the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) cohort of Korea. Overall, 335,302 subjects without T2DM at baseline were included. We developed the model based on 80% of the subjects, and verified the power in the remainder. Predictive models for T2DM were constructed using the recurrent neural network long short-term memory (RNN-LSTM) network and the Cox longitudinal summary model. The performance of both models over a 10-year period was compared using a time dependent area under the curve. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 10.4±1.7 years, the mean frequency of periodic health check-ups was 2.9±1.0 per subject. During the observation period, T2DM was newly observed in 8.7% of the subjects. The annual performance of the model created using the RNN-LSTM network was superior to that of the Cox model, and the risk factors for T2DM, derived using the two models were similar; however, certain results differed. @*Conclusion@#The DL-based T2DM prediction model, constructed using a cohort representative of the population, performs better than the conventional model. After pilot tests, this model will be provided to all Korean national health screening recipients in the future.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

7.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 174-178, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918935

ABSTRACT

Studies have reported that people with chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity have a higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection than does the general population and are associated with poor prognosis. As a number of research results have been published, our understanding of COVID-19 infection is deepening. In this article, I would like to summarize and introduce clinical considerations for COVID-19 infection in people with diabetes and/or obesity based on the results of major studies published to date.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875485

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We examined the concordance rate among fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hr PG), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes in a population with a high-risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea. @*Methods@#Among the participants from the Korean Diabetes Prevention Study, individuals with FPG ≥ 100 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23.0 kg/m2, and no previous history of T2DM were consecutively enrolled after a 75 g glucose tolerance test. We analyzed the differences in the clinical characteristics in subjects with stage 1 (FPG, 100 to 109 mg/dL) and stage 2 (FPG, 110 to 125 mg/dL) impaired fasting glucose (IFG). @*Results@#Of 1,637 participants, 27.2% had T2DM and 59.3% had IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The mean age was 55.0 ± 8.1 years and the mean BMI was 26.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. Based on FPG criteria, 515 (31.4%) and 352 (21.5%) subjects were classified as having stage 1 and stage 2 IFG, respectively. The 19.0% of stage 1 and 43.5% of stage 2 subjects showed 2hr PG levels in the diabetic range. Even for those in the normal FPG range, 63 (9.5%) participants showed a 2hr PG level of ≥ 200 mg/dL. Of 446 subjects with newly-diagnosed diabetes, 340 (76.2%) showed FPG levels < 126 mg/dL. @*Conclusions@#The oral glucose tolerance test should be actively considered for Korean adults who are overweight or obese with the IFG range (FPG, 100 to 125 mg/ dL) to allow for early detection of diabetes and prompt intervention.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890323

ABSTRACT

The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in medical and healthcare services goes beyond everyday life. Expectations of a new medical environment, not previously experienced by ICT, exist in the near future. In particular, chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity, have a high prevalence and high social and economic burden. In addition, the continuous evaluation and monitoring of daily life is important for effective treatment and management. Therefore, the wide use of ICTbased digital health systems is required for the treatment and management of these diseases. In this article, we compiled a variety of digital health technologies introduced to date in the field of diabetes and metabolic diseases.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898027

ABSTRACT

The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in medical and healthcare services goes beyond everyday life. Expectations of a new medical environment, not previously experienced by ICT, exist in the near future. In particular, chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity, have a high prevalence and high social and economic burden. In addition, the continuous evaluation and monitoring of daily life is important for effective treatment and management. Therefore, the wide use of ICTbased digital health systems is required for the treatment and management of these diseases. In this article, we compiled a variety of digital health technologies introduced to date in the field of diabetes and metabolic diseases.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Due to recent increases in the disease burden of diabetes mellitus, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) of Korea implemented a quality assessment of the treatment of diabetes to improve patient care. The present study was conducted to identify any changes after the implementation of the diabetes quality assessment (DQA). METHODS: The present study evaluated eight quality assessment indicators that were proposed by the HIRA in all patients with diabetes who visited a university hospital in Korea between 2009 and 2014. The indicators were statistically compared according to the characteristics of the subjects. RESULTS: There were several significant differences in the indicators among the subjects according to their demographic characteristics. Female patients had a higher continuity of treatment (COT) than that of male patients, and the insulin-treated group had a higher COT than that of the non-treated group, as well as a higher rate of undergoing the diabetes complication tests (DCTs). Patients between 40 and 80 years of age had the highest COT, while patients under 40 years of age had the lowest COT but the highest rate of taking the DCTs. Patients receiving treatment from an endocrinologist exhibited higher numbers of DCTs performed but displayed lower proportions for the prescription indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis of the DQA findings revealed that endocrinologists combine prevention and management of diabetes complications with measures for glycemic control. Thus, the effective management of diabetes likely entails systematic joint treatment regimens that involve an endocrinologist.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Endocrinology , Female , Humans , Insurance, Health , Joints , Korea , Male , Patient Care , Prescriptions , Quality Improvement , Quality of Health Care
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the most widely used brominated flame-retardants, is a representative persistent organic pollutants group. Studies on TBBPA toxicity have been conducted using various target cells; however, few studies have investigated TBBPA toxicity in bone cells. Therefore, this study investigated the in vitro effects of TBBPA on osteoclasts, a cell type involved in bone metabolism. METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were cultured in medium containing 50 ng/mL receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and varying concentrations of TBBPA. To evaluate the effects of TBBPA on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, osteoclast-specific gene expression, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, bone resorbing activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial superoxide were measured. RESULTS: The presence of 20 μM TBBPA significantly increased TRAP activity in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts, and the gene expression of Akt2, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1, and chloride channel voltage-sensitive 7. However, TBBPA treatment caused no change in the expression of carbonic anhydrase II, cathepsin K, osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1, Src, extracellular signal-related kinase, GAB2, c-Fos, or matrix metalloproteinase 9. Furthermore, 20 μM TBBPA caused a significant decrease in MMP and a significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide production. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that TBBPA promotes osteoclast differentiation and activity. The mechanism of TBBPA-stimulated osteoclastogenesis might include increased expression of several genes involved in osteoclast differentiation and reactive oxygen species production.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Carbonic Anhydrase II , Cathepsin K , Chloride Channels , Cytoplasm , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Osteoclasts , Phosphotransferases , RANK Ligand , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B , Superoxides , T-Lymphocytes
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been equivocal results in studies of the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) on fractures. In this study, we analyzed the effect of DPP-4i on bone fracture risk in a Korean population. METHODS: We extracted subjects (n = 11,164) aged 50 years or older from the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort 2.0 from 2009 to 2014. Our control group included subjects without diabetes (n = 5,582), and our treatment groups with diabetes included DPP-4i users (n = 1,410) and DPP-4i non-users (n = 4,172). The primary endpoint was the incidence of a composite outcome consisting of osteoporosis diagnosis, osteoporotic fractures, vertebral fractures, non-vertebral fractures, and femoral fractures. The secondary endpoint was the incidence of each individual component of the composite outcome. Survival analysis was performed with adjustment for age, gender, diabetes complications severity index, Charlson comorbidity index, hypertension medication, and dyslipidemia treatment. RESULTS: The incidence of the composite outcome per 1,000 person-years was 0.089 in DPP-4i users, 0.099 in DPP-4i non-users, and 0.095 in controls. There was no significant difference in fracture risk between DPP-4i users and DPP-4i non-users or controls after the adjustments (P > 0.05). The incidences of osteoporosis diagnosis, osteoporotic fractures, vertebral fractures, non-vertebral fractures, and femoral fractures were not significantly different between DPP-4i users and non-users. The results of subgroup analyses by gender and age were consistent. CONCLUSION: DPP-4i had no significant effect on the risk of fractures in a Korean population.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Dyslipidemias , Femoral Fractures , Fractures, Bone , Hypertension , Incidence , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763670

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Korea , Obesity , Overweight
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to increase, and the disease burden is the highest of any medical condition in Korea. However, large-scale clinical studies have not yet conducted to establish the basis for diabetes prevention in Korea. METHODS: The hospital-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (H-KDPS) is a prospective, multi-center, randomized, open-label controlled study conducted at university hospitals for the purpose of gathering data to help in efforts to prevent type 2 DM. Ten university hospitals are participating, and 744 subjects will be recruited. The subjects are randomly assigned to the standard care group, lifestyle modification group, or metformin group, and their clinical course will be observed for 36 months. RESULTS: All intervention methodologies were developed, validated, and approved by Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) multi-disciplinary team members. The standard control group will engage in individual education based on the current KDA guidelines, and the lifestyle modification group will participate in a professionally guided healthcare intervention aiming for ≥5% weight loss. The metformin group will begin dosing at 250 mg/day, increasing to a maximum of 1,000 mg/day. The primary endpoint of this study is the cumulative incidence of DM during the 3 years after randomization. CONCLUSION: The H-KDPS study is the first large-scale clinical study to establish evidence-based interventions for the prevention of type 2 DM in Koreans. The evidence gathered by this study will be useful for enhancing the health of Koreans and improving the stability of the Korean healthcare system (Trial registration: CRIS KCT0002260, NCT02981121).


Subject(s)
Clinical Study , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Early Intervention, Educational , Education , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Korea , Life Style , Metformin , Prediabetic State , Prevalence , Primary Prevention , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Risk Reduction Behavior , Weight Loss
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 387-390, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759965

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are commonly used surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a complement to the baPWV, which is affected by blood pressure. However, it is unclear which marker is the most sensitive predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). METHODS: This was a retrospective non-interventional study that enrolled 219 patients with T2DM. The correlations among IMT, ABI, and CAVI as well as the relationship of these tests to the 10-year ASCVD risk were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 219 patients, 39 (17.8%) had ASCVD. In the non-ASCVD group, CAVI correlated significantly with IMT after adjusting for confounding variables, but ABI was not associated with CAVI or IMT. The analyses after dividing the non-ASCVD group into three subgroups according to the CAVI score ( < 8, ≥8 and < 9, and ≥9) demonstrated the significant increase in the mean IMT, 10-year ASCVD risk and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decrease in the mean ABI in the high-CAVI group. A high CAVI was an independent risk factor in the non-ASCVD group for both a high 10-year ASCVD risk (≥7.5%; odds ratio [OR], 2.42; P < 0.001) and atherosclerosis (mean IMT ≥1 mm; OR, 1.53; P=0.007). CONCLUSION: In Korean patients with T2DM without ASCVD, CAVI was the most sensitive of several surrogate markers for the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Ankle Brachial Index , Atherosclerosis , Biomarkers , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Arteries , Complement System Proteins , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Korea , Odds Ratio , Pulse Wave Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution causes many diseases and deaths. It is important to see how air pollution affects obesity, which is common worldwide. Therefore, we analyzed data from a smartphone application for intentional weight loss, and then we validated them. METHODS: Our analysis was structured in two parts. We analyzed data from a cohort registered to a smartphone application in 10 large cities of the world and matched it with the annual pollution values. We validated these results using daily pollution data in United States and matching them with user information. Body mass index (BMI) variation between final and initial login time was considered as outcome in the first part, and daily BMI in the validation. We analyzed: daily calories intake, daily weight, daily physical activity, geographical coordinates, seasons, age, gender. Weather Underground application programming interface provided daily climatic values. Annual and daily values of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were extracted. In the first part of the analysis, we used 2,608 users and then 995 users located in United States. RESULTS: Air pollution was highest in Seoul and lowest in Detroit. Users decreased BMI by 2.14 kg/m2 in average (95% confidence interval, −2.26 to −2.04). From a multilevel model, PM10 (β=0.04, P=0.002) and PM2.5 (β=0.08, P < 0.001) had a significant negative effect on weight loss when collected per year. The results were confirmed with the validation (βAQI*time=1.5×10–5; P < 0.001) by mixed effects model. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that shows how air pollution affects intentional weight loss applied on wider area of the world.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Mobile Applications , Motor Activity , Obesity , Particulate Matter , Seasons , Seoul , Smartphone , United States , Weather , Weight Loss
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL