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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918220

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the clinical and radiologic findings between perforated and non-perforated choledochal cysts in children. @*Materials and Methods@#Fourteen patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.7 ± 1.2 years) with perforated choledochal cysts (perforated group) and 204 patients (3.6 ± 3.8 years) with non-perforated choledochal cysts (non-perforated group) were included between 2000 and 2019. All patients underwent choledochal cyst excision after ultrasound, CT, or MR cholangiopancreatography. Relevant data including demographics, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging findings, and outcomes were analyzed. Statistical differences were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact test. @*Results@#Choledochal cyst perforation occurred only in children under the age of 4 years. Acute symptoms, including fever (p < 0.001), were more common in the perforated group than in the non-perforated group. High levels of white blood cells (p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), and serum amylase (p = 0.002), and low levels of albumin (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the perforated group. All 14 patients with perforated choledochal cysts had ascites, whereas only 16% (33/204) of patients in the non-perforated group had ascites (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients who had ascites, a large amount of ascites (p = 0.001), increase in the amount of ascites in a short time (p < 0.001), complex ascites (p < 0.001), and perihepatic pseudocysts (p < 0.001) were more common in the perforated group than in the non-perforated group. @*Conclusion@#Children with perforated choledochal cysts have characteristic clinical and radiologic findings compared to those with non-perforated choledochal cysts. In young children with choledochal cysts, perforation should be differentiated in cases with acute symptoms, laboratory abnormalities, and characteristic ascites findings.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893038

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We aimed to collect and report data from all patients who have been diagnosed with mucosal malignant melanoma to obtain the epidemiology and principles of current treatments. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2008 and December 2018, 20 patients underwent surgery or follow-up observations at Yonsei University Dental Hospital. The patients’ clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Seventeen of 20 patients had undergone definitive surgery, while only 6 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy or systemic therapy. Eight of 20 patients, including those that had recurrent lesions, were provided immunotherapy. The 3-year survival for all stages was 50%, with a local recurrence rate of 75% and a metastasis rate of 65%. @*Conclusion@#The overall survival of patients receiving surgical treatment was longer than that of patients who did not undergo surgical resection.Eight of 20 patients received immunotherapy as the first-line regimen at our clinic, and those patients exhibited longer overall survival compared to patients in reported keynote studies.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892300

ABSTRACT

Background@#In the past, general surgeons (GSs) without a pediatric surgical subspecialty often performed surgery on children and, even now, GSs are performing many pediatric surgeries. We aimed to investigate the involvement of pediatric surgeons (PSs) and GSs in pediatric surgery, compare the outcomes of surgery in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and estimate the appropriate PS workforce in Korea. @*Methods@#We used surgical data from the National Health Insurance Service database that was collected from patients under the age of 19 years in hospitals nationwide from January 2002 to December 2017. In this database, we found 37 hospitals where PSs worked by using the index operation (congenital diaphragmatic hernia, esophageal atresia, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, Hirschsprung's disease, abdominal wall defect, jejunoileal atresia, malrotation, anorectal malformation, and biliary atresia). It was assumed that the surgery in the 37 hospitals was performed by PS and that the surgery in other hospitals was performed by GS. Mortality was analyzed to compare the outcomes of acute abdominal surgery in the NICU. We estimated the number of PS currently needed in Korea for each situation under the assumption that PS would perform all operations for the index operation, main pediatric diseases (index operation + gastroesophageal reflux disease, choledochal cyst, inguinal hernia, and appendicitis), acute abdominal surgery in the NICU, and all pediatric surgeries.Additionally, we estimated the appropriate number of PS required for more advanced pediatric surgery in the future. @*Results@#The number of pediatric surgeries from 2002 to 2017 increased by 124%.Approximately 10.25% of the total pediatric surgeries were performed by PSs, and the percentage of the surgery performed by PSs increased from 8.32% in 2002 to 15.92% in 2017. The percentage of index operations performed by PSs annually was 62.44% in average. It was only 47.81% in 2002, and increased to 88.79% in 2017. During the last 5 years of the study period, the average annual number of surgeries for main pediatric diseases was approximately 33,228. The ratio of the number of surgeries performed by PS vs. GS steadily increased in main pediatric diseases, however, the ratio of the number of surgery performed by PS for inguinal hernia and appendicitis remained low in the most recent years. The percentage of the number of acute abdominal surgery performed by PS in the NICU was 44% in 2002, but it had recently risen to 89.7%. After 30 days of birth, mortality was significantly lower in all groups that were operated on by PS, rather than GS, during the last 5 years. In 2019, 49 PSs who were under the age of 65 years were actively working in Korea. Assuming that all pediatric surgeries of the patients under the age of 19 years should be performed by PS, the minimum number of PS currently required was about 63 if they perform all of the index operations, the main pediatric surgery was about 209, the NICU operation was about 63, and the all pediatric surgeries was about 366. Additionally, it was determined that approximately 165 to 206 PS will be appropriate for Korea to implement more advanced pediatric surgery in the future. @*Conclusion@#The proportion of the pediatric surgery performed by PS rather than GS is increasing in Korea, but it is still widely performed by GS. PSs have better operative outcomes for acute abdominal surgery in the NICU than GSs. We believe that at least the index operation or the NICU operation should be performed by PS for better outcome, and that a minimum of 63 PSs are needed in Korea to do so. In addition, approximately 200 PSs will be required in Korea in order to manage main pediatric diseases and to achieve more advanced pediatric surgery in the future.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891475

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the most common etiology for intestinal failure (IF) and these patients are at high risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. This study aimed at assessing the level of vitamins in adult SBS patients at different stages of their disease before the initiation of multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation. @*Methods@#Patient data from November 2015 to March 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Adult patients who underwent extensive bowel resection and were classified as SBS-IF were selected. Clinical data including age, sex, etiology of IF, biochemical data, nutritional status, nutrition support, and outcome of intestinal rehabilitation were analyzed. @*Results@#Nine patients with SBS-IF were included in the analysis. There were 6 male patients and 3 female patients, with a median age of 55.0 years. Vitamin levels were analyzed at 306 days (median) after the development of SBS. At the time of vitamin levels screening, 4 patients were receiving daily intravenous vitamin supplementation. Five patients were not receiving vitamin supplementations, either intravenously or orally. Vitamin B12 was within the normal range in 6 patients and higher than normal in 3 patients. Vitamin D was within the normal range in 3 patients and lower than normal in 6 patients. Vitamin E was within the normal range in 7 patients and higher than normal in 2 patients. Folate was within the normal range in 8 patients (not checked in 1 patient). Ambulatory patients had significantly higher vitamin D levels compared to hospitalized patients (P=0.015). @*Conclusion@#Vitamin D levels had decreased in 67% of patients with SBS in Korea, while vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin E deficiencies were rarely seen.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900742

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We aimed to collect and report data from all patients who have been diagnosed with mucosal malignant melanoma to obtain the epidemiology and principles of current treatments. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2008 and December 2018, 20 patients underwent surgery or follow-up observations at Yonsei University Dental Hospital. The patients’ clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Seventeen of 20 patients had undergone definitive surgery, while only 6 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy or systemic therapy. Eight of 20 patients, including those that had recurrent lesions, were provided immunotherapy. The 3-year survival for all stages was 50%, with a local recurrence rate of 75% and a metastasis rate of 65%. @*Conclusion@#The overall survival of patients receiving surgical treatment was longer than that of patients who did not undergo surgical resection.Eight of 20 patients received immunotherapy as the first-line regimen at our clinic, and those patients exhibited longer overall survival compared to patients in reported keynote studies.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900004

ABSTRACT

Background@#In the past, general surgeons (GSs) without a pediatric surgical subspecialty often performed surgery on children and, even now, GSs are performing many pediatric surgeries. We aimed to investigate the involvement of pediatric surgeons (PSs) and GSs in pediatric surgery, compare the outcomes of surgery in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and estimate the appropriate PS workforce in Korea. @*Methods@#We used surgical data from the National Health Insurance Service database that was collected from patients under the age of 19 years in hospitals nationwide from January 2002 to December 2017. In this database, we found 37 hospitals where PSs worked by using the index operation (congenital diaphragmatic hernia, esophageal atresia, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, Hirschsprung's disease, abdominal wall defect, jejunoileal atresia, malrotation, anorectal malformation, and biliary atresia). It was assumed that the surgery in the 37 hospitals was performed by PS and that the surgery in other hospitals was performed by GS. Mortality was analyzed to compare the outcomes of acute abdominal surgery in the NICU. We estimated the number of PS currently needed in Korea for each situation under the assumption that PS would perform all operations for the index operation, main pediatric diseases (index operation + gastroesophageal reflux disease, choledochal cyst, inguinal hernia, and appendicitis), acute abdominal surgery in the NICU, and all pediatric surgeries.Additionally, we estimated the appropriate number of PS required for more advanced pediatric surgery in the future. @*Results@#The number of pediatric surgeries from 2002 to 2017 increased by 124%.Approximately 10.25% of the total pediatric surgeries were performed by PSs, and the percentage of the surgery performed by PSs increased from 8.32% in 2002 to 15.92% in 2017. The percentage of index operations performed by PSs annually was 62.44% in average. It was only 47.81% in 2002, and increased to 88.79% in 2017. During the last 5 years of the study period, the average annual number of surgeries for main pediatric diseases was approximately 33,228. The ratio of the number of surgeries performed by PS vs. GS steadily increased in main pediatric diseases, however, the ratio of the number of surgery performed by PS for inguinal hernia and appendicitis remained low in the most recent years. The percentage of the number of acute abdominal surgery performed by PS in the NICU was 44% in 2002, but it had recently risen to 89.7%. After 30 days of birth, mortality was significantly lower in all groups that were operated on by PS, rather than GS, during the last 5 years. In 2019, 49 PSs who were under the age of 65 years were actively working in Korea. Assuming that all pediatric surgeries of the patients under the age of 19 years should be performed by PS, the minimum number of PS currently required was about 63 if they perform all of the index operations, the main pediatric surgery was about 209, the NICU operation was about 63, and the all pediatric surgeries was about 366. Additionally, it was determined that approximately 165 to 206 PS will be appropriate for Korea to implement more advanced pediatric surgery in the future. @*Conclusion@#The proportion of the pediatric surgery performed by PS rather than GS is increasing in Korea, but it is still widely performed by GS. PSs have better operative outcomes for acute abdominal surgery in the NICU than GSs. We believe that at least the index operation or the NICU operation should be performed by PS for better outcome, and that a minimum of 63 PSs are needed in Korea to do so. In addition, approximately 200 PSs will be required in Korea in order to manage main pediatric diseases and to achieve more advanced pediatric surgery in the future.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899179

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the most common etiology for intestinal failure (IF) and these patients are at high risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. This study aimed at assessing the level of vitamins in adult SBS patients at different stages of their disease before the initiation of multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation. @*Methods@#Patient data from November 2015 to March 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Adult patients who underwent extensive bowel resection and were classified as SBS-IF were selected. Clinical data including age, sex, etiology of IF, biochemical data, nutritional status, nutrition support, and outcome of intestinal rehabilitation were analyzed. @*Results@#Nine patients with SBS-IF were included in the analysis. There were 6 male patients and 3 female patients, with a median age of 55.0 years. Vitamin levels were analyzed at 306 days (median) after the development of SBS. At the time of vitamin levels screening, 4 patients were receiving daily intravenous vitamin supplementation. Five patients were not receiving vitamin supplementations, either intravenously or orally. Vitamin B12 was within the normal range in 6 patients and higher than normal in 3 patients. Vitamin D was within the normal range in 3 patients and lower than normal in 6 patients. Vitamin E was within the normal range in 7 patients and higher than normal in 2 patients. Folate was within the normal range in 8 patients (not checked in 1 patient). Ambulatory patients had significantly higher vitamin D levels compared to hospitalized patients (P=0.015). @*Conclusion@#Vitamin D levels had decreased in 67% of patients with SBS in Korea, while vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin E deficiencies were rarely seen.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915022

ABSTRACT

Genetic causes of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) have been rapidly uncovered from mid-2010s. The mutations of gene enconding calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit (CACNA1A) are recently detected in DEE, which gene is already known well in familial hemiplegic migrine type 1 or episodic ataxia type 2. Ketogenic diet therapy (KDT) is effective in some DEE, which data is short in CACNA1A encephalopathy. A 3-month-old male with global developmental delay and multidrug-resistant focal seizures was diagnosed as epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). Brain magnetic resonance imaging and metabolic screening were all normal. Whole exome sequencing revealed two variants of CACNA1A : c.899A>C, and c.2808del that is from his mother. His seizures disappeared within 3 days whenever on KDT, which recurred without it. To our knowledge, this rare case of EIMFS with novel mutations of CACNA1A, is the first report in CACNA1A encephalopathy becoming seizure-free on KDT.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914645

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) elicit therapeutic effects against liver fibrosis in animal models. Human liver stem cells (HLSCs) are cells isolated from human liver tissue that have mesenchymal morphology and express MSC markers. HLSCs also possess intrahepatic stem cell properties. We introduce a rat model of liver fibrosis and trans-portal transplantation of HLSC to demonstrate alleviation of liver fibrosis. @*Methods@#and Results: Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Sprague Dawley rats underwent simultaneous partial hepatectomy of the left hepatic lobe and HLSC transplantation via the portal vein. Gross appearance of the liver observed following CCl 4 injection showed cholestasis and surface nodularity. Sirius red staining revealed deposition of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Following HLSC transplantation, human albumin secreting cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in liver specimens. Quantitative measurements of fibrosis area stained by Sirius red were compared between baseline and post-HLSC transplant (1×10 7 cells) following 10 weeks of CCl 4treatment liver specimens. Fibrosis area (p<0.05), serum markers of liver inflammation and fibrosis (AST, ALT levels and APRI, p<0.05) significantly decreased from baseline after HLSC transplantation. RNA expression in liver tissues revealed significant decrease in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), TIMP2 expression and increase in hepatocyte growth factor expression following HLSC transplantation (p<0.05). @*Conclusions@#HLSC transplantation effectively reduced the area of liver fibrosis with increased expression of factors promoting ECM degradation. These findings suggest the potential therapeutic role of HLSCs in various liver diseases presenting with liver fibrosis.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835065

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the effects of watching ultra-high-definition television (UHD TV) on subjective ocular fatigue and objective ocular surface indices. @*Methods@#A total of 76 volunteers were recruited for this study. Subjects watched UHD TV for 10 minutes at a viewing distance of 110 cm. Best-corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, tear break-up time, corneal staining grading, conjunctival redness grading by slit-lamp examination, tear meniscus measurement by anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and ocular symptom scores were obtained before and immediately after watching UHD TV. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to participant age (old age group >50 years vs. young age group ≤50 years) and dry-eye syndrome (presence vs.absence). The relationship between subjective and objective indices was evaluated. @*Results@#The mean age of subjects was 39.6 ± 12.4 years. Watching UHD TV induced a decrease in tear break-up time in the non-dry-eye group (p < 0.001) but not in the dry-eye group (p= 0.726). Corneal staining grades increased in all subgroups, and the changes were particularly larger in the older group (p = 0.038). The increase in ocular symptom scores was larger in the dry-eye group (p = 0.08) and in the older group (p = 0.016). The decrease in tear break-up time and ocular symptom scores after watching UHD TV was significantly correlated with tear break-up time. @*Conclusions@#Tear break-up time significantly decreased in non-dry-eye subjects after watching UHD TV. Subjective ocular discomfort increased significantly in subjects over the age of 50 and in participants with dry-eye syndrome.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831082

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the pediatric population. Research regarding pediatric adenocarcinoma is very rare in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of pediatric adenocarcinomas of various primary organ sites in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Pediatric patients under 18 years, diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of various sites between January 1995 and December 2016, were included. We retrospectively reviewed patient and tumor characteristics and calculated survival estimates, reported as 5-year survival rate and 95% confidence interval. @*Results@#Of 80 patients (median age, 15 years; range, 10 to 17 years), 37 (46.3%) were men, and 24 (30%) had a family history of cancer or underlying disease relevant to malignancy. The cancer locations were the colon and rectum (n=32), ovaries (n=18), stomach (n=15), lung (n=4), small bowel (n=1), and other sites (n=10). Totally, 54.8% patients (42/77) had stage 3 or 4 disease. The median follow-up period was 2.0 years (range, 0 to 20.4). The 5-year overall survival estimate for all patients, and for those with stomach, colorectal, ovarian, and other cancer sites were 57.9%±11.5%, 58.2%±25.7%, 41.5%±18.2%, 87.5%±16.2%, and 64.0%±34.4%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate differed significantly between categories of adenocarcinomas into gastrointestinal (GI) (44.7%) and non-GI adenocarcinomas (78.8%) (p=0.007). The 5-year survival rate also differed significantly according to carcinoembryonic antigen level (69.3% in 3 ng/mL; p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#In pediatric patients, adenocarcinomas arise from various organs and are often diagnosed at advanced stages. Large, prospective studies for their accurate clinical characteristics and prognostic factors are needed.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891645

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Boost radiation using brachytherapy (BT) is a standard treatment for local disease control in concomitant chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for advanced cervical cancer.However, it is associated with gastrointestinal and genitourinary complications. Hence, this study investigates the feasibility of helical tomotherapy (HT) as an alternative to BT. @*Methods@#Medical records of patients who underwent CCRT between 2000 and 2017 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with stage IIB–IVA cancers were selected based on the 2009 criteria of The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics.External beam radiation combined with chemotherapy was followed by either BT or HT. The propensity score matching of both groups was calculated using logistic regression analysis.Disease outcomes and treatment-related adverse events were compared between the 2 groups. @*Results@#The matched population included 70 BT patients and 35 HT patients. The 5-year progression-free survival rates for BT and HT were 72.6% and 72.5%, respectively (p=0.721).There was no difference in the overall survival rate between the two groups (p=0.203). The presence of acute and chronic gastrointestinal complications was also similar between the groups (p=0.460 and p=0.563, respectively). The chronic genitourinary toxicities were also comparable (p=0.105). @*Conclusions@#HT boost treatment showed comparable disease outcomes with those observed with conventional BT in patients with advanced cervical cancer. HT could be a complementary boost protocol as a single modality or hybrid with BT in selected patients.Further studies with longer follow-up periods are warranted to confirm long-term outcomes.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899349

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Boost radiation using brachytherapy (BT) is a standard treatment for local disease control in concomitant chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for advanced cervical cancer.However, it is associated with gastrointestinal and genitourinary complications. Hence, this study investigates the feasibility of helical tomotherapy (HT) as an alternative to BT. @*Methods@#Medical records of patients who underwent CCRT between 2000 and 2017 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with stage IIB–IVA cancers were selected based on the 2009 criteria of The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics.External beam radiation combined with chemotherapy was followed by either BT or HT. The propensity score matching of both groups was calculated using logistic regression analysis.Disease outcomes and treatment-related adverse events were compared between the 2 groups. @*Results@#The matched population included 70 BT patients and 35 HT patients. The 5-year progression-free survival rates for BT and HT were 72.6% and 72.5%, respectively (p=0.721).There was no difference in the overall survival rate between the two groups (p=0.203). The presence of acute and chronic gastrointestinal complications was also similar between the groups (p=0.460 and p=0.563, respectively). The chronic genitourinary toxicities were also comparable (p=0.105). @*Conclusions@#HT boost treatment showed comparable disease outcomes with those observed with conventional BT in patients with advanced cervical cancer. HT could be a complementary boost protocol as a single modality or hybrid with BT in selected patients.Further studies with longer follow-up periods are warranted to confirm long-term outcomes.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917981

ABSTRACT

Injury of lower cranial nerves (CNs) by skull base fracture after head trauma can occur sometimes. However, selectively different CN damage on either side is extremely rare.A 53-year-old man had difficulty of swallowing, phonation, and articulation after falling off his bicycle. In physical examination, a deviated tongue to the right side was shown.Brain computed tomography showed a skull base fracture involving bilateral jugular foramina and right hypoglossal canal. Left vocal cord palsy was confirmed by laryngoscopy. Electromyography confirmed injury of left superior laryngeal nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, and right hypoglossal nerve. Video fluoroscopic swallowing study revealed large amounts of remnant in vallecula and pyriform sinus without opening of upper esophageal sphincter due to dysfunction of cricopharyngeus muscle. After constant rehabilitation for dysphagia, he was allowed to eat a general diet with compensatory techniques at discharge and further recovery after 3 months. Injury of lower CNs after fracture of the skull base can cause severe morbidity. However, the prognosis of such injuries can be favorable with early rehabilitation treatment by identifying the injured CN. A careful and accurate examination of lower CN injury in skull base fracture is essential for planning a treatment strategy.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764379

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nutritional therapy (NT), such as enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN), is essential for the malnourished patients. Although the complications related to NT has been well described, multicenter data on symptoms in the patients with receiving NT during hospitalization are still lacking. METHODS: Nutrition support team (NST) consultations, on which NT-related complications were described, were collected retrospectively for one year. The inclusion criteria were patients who were (1) older than 18 years, (2) hospitalized, and (3) receiving EN or PN at the time of NST consultation. The patients' demographics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), type of NT and type of complication were collected. To compare the severity of each complication, the intensive care unit (ICU) admission, hospital stay, and type of discharge were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 14,600 NT-related complications were collected from 13,418 cases from 27 hospitals in Korea. The mean age and BMI were 65.4 years and 21.8 kg/m2. The complications according to the type of NT, calorie deficiency (32.4%, n=1,229) and diarrhea (21.6%, n=820) were most common in EN. Similarly, calorie deficiency (56.8%, n=4,030) and GI problem except for diarrhea (8.6%, n=611) were most common in PN. Regarding the clinical outcomes, 18.7% (n=2,158) finally expired, 58.1% (n=7,027) were admitted to ICU, and the mean hospital days after NT-related complication were 31.3 days. Volume overload (odds ratio [OR]=3.48) and renal abnormality (OR=2.50) were closely associated with hospital death; hyperammonemia (OR=3.09) and renal abnormality (OR=2.77) were associated with ICU admission; “micronutrient and vitamin deficiency” (geometric mean [GM]=2.23) and volume overload (GM=1.61) were associated with a longer hospital stay. CONCLUSION: NT may induce or be associated with several complications, and some of them may seriously affect the patient's outcome. NST personnel in each hospital should be aware of each problem during nutritional support.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Demography , Diarrhea , Enteral Nutrition , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperammonemia , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Length of Stay , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nutrition Therapy , Nutritional Support , Parenteral Nutrition , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Vitamins
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Proficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into specific lineages is required for applications in regenerative medicine. A growing amount of evidences had implicated hormones and hormone-like molecules as critical regulators of proliferation and lineage specification during in vivo development. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the hormones and hormone-like molecules involved in cell fate decisions is critical for efficient and controlled differentiation of hPSCs into specific lineages. Thus, we functionally and quantitatively compared the effects of diverse hormones (estradiol 17-β (E2), progesterone (P4), and dexamethasone (DM)) and a hormone-like molecule (retinoic acid (RA)) on the regulation of hematopoietic and neural lineage specification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 10 nM E2, 3 μM P4, 10 nM DM, and 10 nM RA based on their functional in vivo developmental potential. The sex hormone E2 enhanced functional activity of hematopoietic progenitors compared to P4 and DM, whereas RA impaired hematopoietic differentiation. In addition, E2 increased CD34⁺CD45⁺ cells with progenitor functions, even in the CD43⁻ population, a well-known hemogenic marker. RA exhibited lineage-biased potential, preferentially committing hPSCs toward the neural lineage while restricting the hematopoietic fate decision. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal unique cell fate potentials of E2 and RA treatment and provide valuable differentiation information that is essential for hPSC applications.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Progesterone , Regenerative Medicine , Tretinoin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Condylar dislocation can arise as a complication in patients who required mandibular and/or condylar reconstruction and were operated on with fibula free flap (FFF) using surgical guides designed using simulation surgery. Surgeons should be aware of the complications in these present cases when planning and performing reconstructions as well as predicting prognoses. CASES PRESENTATION: Two cases showed condylar dislocation in mandibular reconstruction using a FFF fixed with a reconstruction plate. Three cases showed condylar dislocation in mandibular reconstruction using a fibula free flap fixed with a mini-plate. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of clinical symptoms in these cases following mandibular reconstruction using an FFF, the mandibular condyle was severely displaced away from the glenoid fossa. A surgeon must have sufficient time to consider the use of a long flap with thickness similar to that of the mandible, ways to minimize span and bending, and methods of fixation. The patient, moreover, should be educated on condylar dislocation. Customized CAD/CAM-prototyped temporomandibular condyle-connected plates may be a good alternative even if virtual simulation surgery is to be performed before surgery. These considerations may help reduce the incidence of complications after mandibular reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Joint Dislocations , Fibula , Free Tissue Flaps , Humans , Incidence , Mandible , Mandibular Condyle , Mandibular Reconstruction , Prognosis , Surgeons
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the predictive value of the initial procalcitonin level for bacteremia in patients with pneumonia in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This study was a single-center, retrospective study conducted from January 2016 to June 2018. The serum procalcitonin and blood cultures were obtained from adult patients with pneumonia in the ED. The patients were categorized into either the bacteremia group or non-bacteremia group, according to the results of the blood cultures. The procalcitonin level in the bacteremia group and non-bacteremia group was compared. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of procalcitonin was calculated to predict bacteremia. RESULTS: A total of 934 patients were analyzed. Of the eligible patients, 902 patients (96.6%) and 32 patients (3.4%) were assigned to the non-bacteremia group and bacteremia group, respectively. The procalcitonin level was significantly higher in the bacteremia group than the non-bacteremia group (5.06 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 1.88–15.78 vs. 0.29 ng/mL; IQR, 0.12–1.01: P<0.001). The AUROC of procalcitonin was 0.819 (95% confidence interval, 0.734–0.904). CONCLUSION: The initial procalcitonin level might be useful for predicting bacteremia in patients with pneumonia in the ED.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bacteremia , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pneumonia , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761496

ABSTRACT

Pediatric liver transplantation has evolved into an effective treatment for a variety of liver diseases in the pediatric population. Over the past 25 years, pediatric liver transplantation results in Korea have matched international standards, and Korea has become one of the most important leaders in living donor liver transplantation. This review presents the cumulative outcomes of pediatric liver transplants in Korea and highlights other concerns related to pediatric liver transplantation, particularly pediatric liver allocation policy and split liver transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 4-12, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777078

ABSTRACT

Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play an important role in human pain sensation. However, the expression and role of Nav subtypes in native human sensory neurons are unclear. To address this issue, we obtained human dorsal root ganglion (hDRG) tissues from healthy donors. PCR analysis of seven DRG-expressed Nav subtypes revealed that the hDRG has higher expression of Nav1.7 (~50% of total Nav expression) and lower expression of Nav1.8 (~12%), whereas the mouse DRG has higher expression of Nav1.8 (~45%) and lower expression of Nav1.7 (~18%). To mimic Nav regulation in chronic pain, we treated hDRG neurons in primary cultures with paclitaxel (0.1-1 μmol/L) for 24 h. Paclitaxel increased the Nav1.7 but not Nav1.8 expression and also increased the transient Na currents and action potential firing frequency in small-diameter (<50 μm) hDRG neurons. Thus, the hDRG provides a translational model in which to study "human pain in a dish" and test new pain therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electric Stimulation , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Female , Ganglia, Spinal , Cell Biology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Mice , Genetics , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Paclitaxel , Pharmacology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Species Specificity
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