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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 403-411, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832578

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Problematic online gaming (POG) and problematic Internet use (PIU) have become a serious public mental health problem, with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) included in “Conditions for further study” section of DSM-5. Although higher immersive tendency is observed in people affected by POG, little is known about the simultaneous effect of immersive tendency and its highly comorbid mental disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to assess the relationship between immersive tendency, ADHD, and IGD. @*Methods@#Cross-sectional interview study was conducted in Seoul, Korea with 51 male undergraduate students; 23 active gamers and 28 controls. @*Results@#Current ADHD symptoms showed partial mediation effect on the path of immersive tendency on POG and PIU. The mediation model with inattention explained variance in both POG and PIU better than other current ADHD symptom models (R2=69.2 in POG; 69.3 in PIU). Childhood ADHD symptoms models demonstrated mediation effect on both POG and PIU which explained less variance than current ADHD symptom models (R2=53.7 in POG; 52.1 in PIU). Current ADHD symptoms, especially inattention, appear to mediate the effect of immersive tendency on POG/PIU. @*Conclusion@#Immersive tendencies may entail greater susceptibility to IGD, and comorbidity with ADHD may mediate the effect of immersive tendency on IGD.

2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 376-388, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832464

ABSTRACT

ymptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons are accompanied by movement disorders, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and akinesia. Non-human primate (NHP) models with PD play an essential role in the analysis of PD pathophysiology and behavior symptoms. As impairments of hand dexterity function can affect activities of daily living in patients with PD, research on hand dexterity function in NHP models with chronic PD is essential. Traditional rating scales previously used in the evaluation of animal spontaneous behavior were insufficient due to factors related to subjectivity and passivity. Thus, experimentally designed applications for an appropriate apparatus are necessary. In this study, we aimed to longitudinally assess hand dexterity function using hand dexterity task (HDT) in NHP-PD models. To validate this assessment, we analyzed the alteration in Parkinsonian tremor signs and the functionality of presynaptic dopaminergic neuron using positron emission tomography imaging of dopamine transporters in these models. In addition, a significant inverse correlation between HDT and DAT level was identified, but no local bias was found. The correlation with intention tremor signs was lower than the resting tremor. In conclusion, the evaluation of HDT may reflect behavioral symptoms of NHP-PD models. Furthermore, HDT was effectively used to experimentally distinguish intention tremors from other tremors.

3.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 300-313, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832446

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke results from arterial occlusion and can cause irreversible brain injury. A non-human primate (NHP) model of ischemic stroke was previously developed to investigate its pathophysiology and for efficacy testing of therapeutic candidates; however, fine motor impairment remains to be well-characterized. We evaluated hand motor function in a cynomolgus monkey model of ischemic stroke. Endovascular transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with an angiographic microcatheter induced cerebral infarction. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging mapped and measured the ischemia-induced infarct lesion. In vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the stroke lesion to assess the neuroplastic changes and fiber tractography demonstrated three-dimensional patterns in the corticospinal tract 12 weeks after MCAO. The hand dexterity task (HDT) was used to evaluate fine motor movement of upper extremity digits. The HDT was modified for a home cage-based training system, instead of conventional chair restraint training. The lesion was localized in the middle cerebral artery territory, including the sensorimotor cortex. Maximum infarct volume was exhibited over the first week after MCAO, which progressively inhibited ischemic core expansion, manifested by enhanced functional recovery of the affected hand over 12 weeks after MCAO. The total performance time decreased with increasing success rate for both hands on the HDT. Compensatory strategies and retrieval failure improved in the chronic phase after stroke. Our findings demonstrate the recovery of fine motor skill after stroke, and outline the behavioral characteristics and features of functional disorder of NHP stroke model, providing a basis for assessing hand motor function after stroke.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918400

ABSTRACT

Nonhuman primate models are valuable in biomedical research. However, reference data for clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys are limited. In the present study, we established hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for healthy cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. A total of 142 cynomolgus monkeys (28 males and 114 females) and 42 rhesus monkeys (22 males and 20 females) were selected and analyzed in order to examine reference intervals of 20 hematological and 16 biochemical parameters. The effects of sex were also investigated. Reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters were separately established by species (cynomolgus and rhesus) and sex (male and female). No sex-related differences were determined in erythrocyte-related parameters for cynomolgus and rhesus monkey housed in indoor laboratory conditions. Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase were significantly lower in females than males in both cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys aged 48–96 months. The reference values for hematological and biochemical parameters established herein might provide valuable information for researchers using cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys in experimental conditions for biomedical studies.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41594

ABSTRACT

We report the perioperative airway management in a 7-year-old boy suffering from Cherubism who was scheduled for endoscopic sinus surgery under general anesthesia. Cherubism is a rare, hereditary disorder of the jaws characterized by expansion of the maxilla and mandible. A difficult airway was encountered during induction of general anesthesia, nasal and oral mask pitting ventilation was hard for first attempts due to facial bony abnormality. At second attempt, we tried only oral mask pitting ventilation and it was successful.


Subject(s)
Airway Management , Anesthesia, General , Cherubism , Child , Humans , Jaw , Mandible , Masks , Maxilla , Stress, Psychological , Ventilation
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106149

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis (AD), a non-infective chronic inflammatory skin disease, is increasing worldwide. Avoiding the allergen is the basic principle in the treatment of AD. However, when the allergen is food, excessive restriction can lead to nutrition deficiency. The objective of the study was to examine the status of the dietary restriction and compare the caregiver's restriction practice with doctor's recommendation in Korean children with AD. A total of 158 children diagnosed with Atopic Dermatitis were recruited for this study. Information about foods that aggravate AD symptoms and food restriction were collected from the mothers of 158 children aged 6 month-5 year with AD using questionnaires. Food restriction recommendation by doctor was collected through medical chart. McNemar and Margianl homogeneity tests were used to detect a relationship between food restriction recommended by doctor and current practice by mother. There were significant proportion differences of food restriction for each food between by doctor and mother. We found 75.9% of children were avoiding eggs although only 61.4% were recommended for egg restriction by a doctor. Children with restriction of more than 4 kinds of food were 53.2% compared to 13.3% by doctor. Excessive restrictors tended to be younger and diagnosed at younger age. The caregivers of excessive restrictors had trends of "being older" and "having higher income". Avoidance of common foods in children without food allergy could result in malnutrition or impaired growth. Nutrition education is needed for sound practice and nutrition care in children with Atopic Dermatitis as well as interactive communication between caregivers and experts.


Subject(s)
Aged , Caregivers , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Eggs , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Malnutrition , Mothers , Ovum , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Skin Diseases
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31390

ABSTRACT

Ingestion of disk batteries may have serious complications such as esophageal burn, perforation, and tracheoesophageal fistula, particularly when the battery is caught in the esophagus. Proper placement of the tracheal tube is critical when tracheoesophageal fistula was occurred from esophageal impaction the battery. Endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract in infants and children is an important and effective tool for the diagnosis and treatment of foreign body ingestion. But upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in infant and children has very high risk of tracheal compression and airway compromise. We present a case of ventilatory compromise during insertion of the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in 16-month-old child with tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to disk battery ingestion.


Subject(s)
Burns , Child , Eating , Endoscopes, Gastrointestinal , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophagus , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Infant , Tracheoesophageal Fistula , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Ventilation
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