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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874870

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Gastroparesis is identified as a subject that is understudied in Asia. The scientific committee of the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association performed a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices survey on gastroparesis among doctors in Asia. @*Methods@#The questionnaire was created and developed through a literature review of current gastroparesis works of literature by the scientific committee of Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association. @*Results@#A total of 490 doctors from across Asia (including Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) participated in the survey. Gastroparesis is a significant gastrointestinal condition. However, a substantial proportion of respondents was unable to give the correct definition and accurate diagnostic test. The main reason for lack of interest in diagnosing gastroparesis was “the lack of reliable diagnostic tests” (46.8%) or “a lack of effective treatment” (41.5%). Only 41.7% of respondents had access to gastric emptying scintigraphy. Most doctors had never diagnosed gastroparesis at all (25.2%) or diagnosed fewer than 5 patients a year (52.1%). @*Conclusions@#Gastroparesis can be challenging to diagnose due to the lack of instrument, standardized method, and paucity of research data on normative value, risk factors, and treatment studies in Asian patients. Future strategies should concentrate on how to disseminate the latest knowledge of gastroparesis in Asia. In particular, there is an urgent need to estimate the magnitude of the problems in high risk and idiopathic patients as well as a standardized diagnostic procedure in Asia.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833871

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

4.
Intestinal Research ; : 524-528, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220094

ABSTRACT

Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. One patient developed disseminated tuberculosis, another patient developed cholera diarrhea followed by nosocomial pneumonia, while the third patient developed multiple opportunistic infections (Pneumocystis pneumonia, cryptococcal septicemia and meningitis, Klebsiella septicemia). All 3 patients died within 1 year from the onset of the infection(s). We recommend that anti-TNF, especially when combined with other immunosuppressive therapy, should be used with extreme caution in older adult patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cholera , Diarrhea , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Klebsiella , Meningitis , Necrosis , Opportunistic Infections , Pneumonia , Sepsis , Tuberculosis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. METHODS: Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. RESULTS: Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Dyspepsia , Electronic Mail , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Life Style , Physicians, Primary Care , Politics , Prevalence
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107609

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Dyspepsia
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. METHODS: Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. RESULTS: The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asia , Delivery of Health Care , Dyspepsia , Humans , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Social Class , Urban Population
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229630

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Dried blood spot (DBS) collection is an appealing alternative to whole blood or plasma sampling, as it has technical and economic advantages over the latter.</p><p><b>MATERIALS AND METHODS</b>A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a Malaysian tertiary referral hospital from November 2009 to March 2010. One hundred and fifty paired specimens of DBS and plasma were analysed by the standard assays for HIV Ag/Ab, HBsAg, anti-HBS and anti-HCV, separately (total 600 paired specimens). DBS sample titres were then compared to the results of plasma testing, which was used as the gold standard.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>For the HIV Ag/Ab assay with a cut-off point of 0.35 Relative Light Units (RLUs), the sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. For the HBsAg assay, the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 97.8%, with a cut-off point of 1.72 RLUs. Sensitivity for the anti-HBs test was 74.2% and the specificity was 86.9%, using a cut-off point of 0.635 RLUs. For the anti-HCV assay, the sensitivity was 97.3% and the specificity was 100%, with a cut-off point of 0.10 RLUs.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>DBS is an ideal choice to be used as a screening tool for the detection of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus infections. However, different cut-off values need to be used for the validation of test positivity in DBS samples because the small amount of blood in the DBS specimens leads to lower assay titres.</p>


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Dried Blood Spot Testing , HIV Antibodies , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , HIV Antigens , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , HIV Infections , Diagnosis , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B , Diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis C , Diagnosis , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis C Antigens , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Malaysia , Plasma , Virology , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
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