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1.
Motriz (Online) ; 26(3): e10200018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135330

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To investigate the hypothesis that the resistance exercise (RE) may be safer if the blood pressure (BP) is properly controlled through antihypertensive pharmacological treatment in hypertensive middle-aged women. Methods: The final sample was comprised of 19 hypertensive women, with an average age of 58±5 years and a body mass index of 29±5 Kg/m2. They were divided into three groups: controlled (n=6), uncompensated (n=8), and untreated (n=5). The subjects from all groups were submitted to a test of maximal strength on extensor chair and held a session of RE (knee extension, 3x12 to 60% 1RM) and the cardiovascular response (BP and heart rate) was monitored continuously by photoplethysmography during exercise and until five minutes after exercise (recovery). Results: Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) responses were lower in the controlled group compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The heart rate was not different between groups, while the double product was lower in the controlled group compared to the untreated group (p<0.05). The SBP and DBP peaks were lower in the controlled group compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The BP increases significantly during RE when the hypertension is not controlled. Pharmacological control was shown to be effective in preventing the increase of BP during the performance of the RE.

2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 925-932, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: D-limonene (DL) is a monoterpene and is the major component in the essential oil of citrus fruit. It presents antihyperglycemic and vasodilatation activities. Objectives: This study evaluated the cardiovascular effects and potential antiarrhythmic of DL in rats. Methods: Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters were measured in male Wistar rats, which under anesthesia had been cannulated in the abdominal aorta and lower vena cava and had electrodes subcutaneously implanted. In the in vitro approach, the heart was removed and perfused using the Langendorff technique. The significance level adopted was 5% (p < 0.05). Results: DL, in doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg (i.v), produced intense and persistent bradycardia associated with hypotension. Bradycardia with prolonged QTc was observed in the ECG in vivo recording. In the in vivo model of arrhythmia induced by Bay K8644, DL (10 mg/kg) decreased the arrhythmia score from 15.33 ± 3.52 to 4.0 ± 2.64 u.a (p < 0.05, n = 4). In isolated perfused hearts, DL (10-3 M) promoted significant reductions in heart rate (from 228.6 ± 8.5 ms to 196.0 ± 9.3 bpm; p < 0.05) and left ventricular development pressure (from 25.2 ± 3.4 to 5.9 ± 1.8 mmHg; n = 5, p < 0.05). Conclusions: DL produces bradycardia and antiarrhythmic activity in rat heart.


Resumo Fundamento: O D-limoneno (DL) é um monoterpeno e o principal componente do óleo essencial de frutas cítricas. Ele apresenta atividades anti-hiperglicêmicas e vasodilatadoras. Objetivos: Este estudo avaliou os efeitos cardiovasculares e antiarrítmicos potenciais do DL em ratos. Métodos: Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e eletrocardiográficos (ECG) foram mensurados em ratos Wistar machos que, sob anestesia, tiveram a aorta abdominal e a veia cava inferior canuladas e receberam eletrodos implantados subcutaneamente. Na abordagem in vitro, o coração foi removido e perfundido utilizando a técnica de Langendorff. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: DL, nas doses de 10, 20 e 40 mg/kg (i.v), produziu bradicardia intensa e persistente associada à hipotensão. A bradicardia com QTc prolongado foi observada no registro in vivo do ECG. No modelo in vivo de arritmia induzida por Bay K8644, DL (10 mg / kg) houve diminuição do escore da arritmia de 15,33 ± 3,52 para 4,0 ± 2,64 u.a (p < 0,05, n = 4). Em corações perfundidos isolados, o DL (10-3 M) promoveu reduções significativas na frequência cardíaca (de 228,6 ± 8,5 ms para 196,0 ± 9,3 bpm; p < 0,05) e na pressão desenvolvida do ventrículo esquerdo (de 25,2 ± 3,4 para 5,9 ± 1,8 mmHg; n = 5, p < 0,05). Conclusões: O DL produz bradicardia e atividade antiarrítmica no coração de ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Limonene/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , Isolated Heart Preparation , Limonene/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Hypotension , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacology
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 483-489, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040100

ABSTRACT

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation seems to be a promising option to intensify the rehabilitation and improve the exercise capacity of patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the hemodynamic (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure) and respiratory (respiratory rate and oxygen saturation) responses to neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the immediate postoperative period in patients submitted to cardiac surgery and to verify its feasibility and safety. Methods: This is a pilot randomized controlled trial, wherein critical patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to a control group, using sham neuromuscular electrical stimulation, or an experimental group, submitted to neuromuscular electrical stimulation sessions (FES), for 60 min, with a 50-Hz frequency, 200-µs pulse duration, time on: 3 s, and time off: 9 s. Data distribution was evaluated by the Shapiro-Wilk test. The analysis of variance was used and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Thirty patients were included in the study. The neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied within the first 23.13 ± 5.24 h after cardiac surgery, and no changes were found regarding the hemodynamic and respiratory variables between the patients who underwent neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and those in the control group. Conclusions: In the present study, neuromuscular electrical stimulation did not promote changes in hemodynamic and respiratory responses of patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Period , Thoracic Surgery , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Blood Pressure , Exercise , Oxygen Level/methods , Diagnosis of Health Situation , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Analysis of Variance , Randomized Controlled Trial , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Arterial Pressure , Heart Rate
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 436-442, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE) has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct); low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions) and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions). The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM). Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME) completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.


Resumo Fundamentos: O exercício resistido (ER) tem sido recomendado para pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares. Recentemente, alguns estudos demonstraram que a intensidade de uma sessão de ER exerce um efeito sobre a disfunção endotelial. No entanto, não há dados sobre os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER sobre a função endotelial. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER, realizados em uma única sessão, sobre a vasodilatação dependente do endotélio e síntese de óxido nítrico (NO) em artéria mesentérica de animais saudáveis. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (Ct); baixo volume (BV, 5 séries x 10 repetições) e alto volume de ER (AV, 15 séries x 10 repetições). Foi estabelecida a intensidade de 70% do teste de repetição máxima. Após o protocolo de exercício, anéis de artéria mesentérica foram utilizados na avaliação da reatividade vascular, e outras artérias mesentéricas foram preparadas para a detecção da produção de NO por fluorescência com para do DAF-FM. A resposta à insulina pela síntese de NO foi avaliada estimulando-se os anéis vasculares com insulina (10nM). Resultados: A resposta máxima do relaxamento induzido por insulina foi aumentada somente no grupo AV em comparação ao grupo Ct. Além disso, a inibição da síntese do NO (L-NAME), aboliu completamente o relaxamento vascular induzido por insulina em ratos exercitados. A produção de NO mostrou um aumento dependente do volume no endotélio e no músculo liso. No endotélio, apenas os grupos Ct e BV mostraram aumento significativo na síntese de NO quando comparado aos seus respectivos grupos sob condição basal. No entanto, no músculo liso, a fluorescência foi aumentada em todos os grupos quando comparados aos seus respectivos grupos sob a condição basal. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que uma única sessão de ER foi capaz de promover adaptações no endotélio vascular. Além disso, nós observamos que este efeito é volume-dependente e o volume de 15 séries x10 repetições induziu o maior aumento na síntese de NO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Resistance Training , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Mesenteric Arteries/physiology
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(5): 381-388, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829752

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of the study is to compare the available reference values and the six-minute walk test equations in healthy children/adolescents. Our systematic review was planned and performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We included all studies that established reference values for the six-minute walk test in healthy children/adolescents. Methods: To perform this review, a research was performed in PubMed, EMBASE (via SCOPUS) and Cochrane (LILACS), Bibliographic Index Spanish in Health Sciences, Organization Collection Pan-American Health Organization, Publications of the World Health Organization and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) via Virtual Health Library until June 2015 without language restriction. Results: The initial research identified 276 abstracts. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were fully reviewed and approved by both reviewers. None of the selected studies presented sample size calculation. Most of the studies recruited children and adolescents from school. Six studies reported the use of random samples. Most studies used a corridor of 30 meters. All studies followed the American Thoracic Society guidelines to perform the six-minute walk test. The walked distance ranged 159 meters among the studies. Of the 12 included studies, 7 (58%) reported descriptive data and 6 (50%) established reference equation for the walked distance in the six-minute walk test. Conclusion: The reference value for the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents ranged substantially from studies in different countries. A reference equation was not provided in all studies, but the ones available took into account well established variables in the context of exercise performance, such as height, heart rate, age and weight. Countries that did not established reference values for the six-minute walk test should be encouraged to do because it would help their clinicians and researchers have a more precise interpretation of the test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Walk Test , Reference Values , Age Factors
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(3): 355-359, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727162

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective: To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods: This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Results: Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. Conclusion: The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline. .


Introdução: A força muscular periférica tem sido pouco explorada na literatura atual no contexto da reabilitação cardiovascular. Objetivo: Avaliar a força muscular periférica de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca eletiva. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional e longitudinal. A força muscular periférica foi mensurada por meio de dinamometria isométrica de MMII (extensores e flexores de joelho) em três momentos distintos: pré-operatório (M1), dia da alta da unidade de terapia intensiva (M2) e dia da alta hospitalar (M3). Os participantes receberam atendimento fisioterapêutico pré e pós-operatório durante os dias do internamento, nos períodos matutino e vespertino. Resultados: Foram avaliados 22 pacientes. Os valores de força muscular periférica de extensores de joelho pré-operatórios encontrados foram cerca de 50% menores do que os preditos para a população saudável. Ao comparar a força muscular prévia (M1), com os demais momentos de avaliação, encontrou-se em M2 queda de 29% para o movimento de extensão do joelho e 25% para o movimento de flexão de joelho e queda de 10% para o movimento de extensão do joelho e 13% para o movimento de flexão de joelho em M3 ao comparar com M1. Conclusão: Os valores de força muscular periférica prévia dos pacientes do estudo foram menores do que o predito para a população saudável com a mesma faixa etária. Após o evento cirúrgico, essa redução é ainda mais notável, sendo reestabelecida até o momento da alta hospitalar a valores próximos ao basal. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/rehabilitation , Elective Surgical Procedures/rehabilitation , Muscle Strength/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Knee/physiology , Longitudinal Studies , Muscle Strength Dynamometer , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric
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