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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 46-50, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092786

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La migraña abdominal (MA) es infrecuente y poco estudiada. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar el diagnóstico y tratamiento de niños y adolescentes con MA y compararlos entre gastroen terólogos y neurólogos pediatras. Pacientes y Método: Todos los cuadros de MA (1-18 años) de un hospital de EE. UU, con diagnóstico de MA o sus variantes (ICD-9 346.2 o IC-10 G43.D, G43.D0, G43.D1) entre 2011-2017 fueron revisados. La información sobre diagnóstico, intervalo desde inicio de síntomas, criterios diagnósticos, pruebas diagnósticas, tratamiento y resultado se analizaron. Re sultados: Sesenta y nueve historias médicas fueron identificadas. La edad media al diagnóstico fue 9,7 años. El 48% de los pacientes fueron del sexo femenino. Cincuenta (72,4%) pacientes fueron tratados solo por gastroenterólogos pediatras, y 10/69 (14,5%) por neurológos pediatras exclusivamente. 6/69 (8,7%) fueron inicialmente evaluados por gastroenterología y posteriormente referidos a neurología, y 2/69 (2,9%) fueron inicialmente evaluados por neurología y luego referidos a gastroenterología. 3/10 (30%) de las MA diagnosticadas por neurólogos no mencionaban que el paciente tuviera dolor abdominal, sin embargo, todos los diagnósticos realizados por gastroenterólogos presentaron dicho síntoma (p=0,0035). 5/50 (10%) de las historias médicas de gastroenterología y ninguna de las histo rias de neurología mencionaban los criterios de Roma. Conclusiones: La mayoría de los niños fueron diagnosticados por pediatras gastroenterólogos. Los gastroenterólogos rara vez utilizaron los criterios de Roma. Pacientes evaluados por neurología son frecuentemente diagnosticados con MA, incluso sin presentar dolor abdominal (criterio necesario para el diagnóstico). Se recomienda educación para el correcto y oportuno diagnóstico de la migraña abdominal.


Abstract: Introduction: Abdominal migraine (AM) is uncommon and understudied. Our objective was to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents with AM and compare with that of pediatric gastroenterologists and neurologists. Patients and Method: All AM cases (1-18 years) from a USA hospital with diagnosis of abdominal migraine or its variants (ICD-9 346.2 or IC-10 G43.D, G43.D0, G43.D1) between 2011 and 2017 were reviewed. Information on diagnosis, interval from onset of symptoms, diagnostic criteria, diagnostic tests, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. Results: 69 medical records were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 years, and 48% of patients were female. 50/69 (72.4%) patients were exclusively treated by a pediatric gastroenterologist and 10/69 (14.5%) exclusively by a pediatric neurologist. 6/69 (8.7%) were initially evaluated by gas troenterology and referred to neurology, and 2/69 (2.9%) were initially evaluated by neurology and then referred to gastroenterology. 3/10 (30%) of the AM diagnosed by neurologists did no report ab dominal pain (AP), however, all diagnoses made by gastroenterologists did (p = 0.0035). 5/50 (10%) of the gastroenterology medical records and no neurology medical records mentioned Rome criteria. Conclusions: Most of the children were diagnosed by pediatric gastroenterologists. Gastroenterolo gists rarely use the Rome criteria. Patients evaluated by neurologists are frequently diagnosed with AM even without AP (a criterion that is required for its diagnosis). Education is recommended for the correct and timely diagnosis of AM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Gastroenterology , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Migraine Disorders/therapy , Neurology , Referral and Consultation , United States , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Migraine Disorders/complications
2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 642-656, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This narrative review aimed to provide practitioners a synthesis of the current knowledge on the role of a low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in reducing symptoms associated with functional abdominal pain disorders in children. This review is focused on the pathophysiology, efficacy and criticism of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in children. Sources: Cochrane Database, Pubmed and Embase were searched using specific terms for Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet interventions and functional abdominal pain disorders. Summary of the findings: In children, only one Randomized Control Trial and one open-label study reported positive results of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet; one Randomized Control Trial showed exacerbation of symptoms with fructans in children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome; no effect was found for the lactose-free diet whilst fructose-restricted diets were effective in 5/6 studies. Conclusions: In children there are few trials evaluating low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols in functional abdominal pain disorders, with encouraging data on the therapeutic efficacy particularly of fructose-restricted diet. Additional efforts are still needed to fill this research gap and clarify the most efficient way for tailoring dietary restrictions based on the patient's tolerance and/or identification of potential biomarkers of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols efficacy, to maintain nutritional adequacy and to simplify the adherence to diet by labeling Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols content in commercial products.


RESUMO Objetivo: Nos últimos anos, foram feitos esforços consideráveis para esclarecer o papel da dieta com baixo teor de oligossacarídeos fermentáveis, dissacarídeos, monossacarídeos e polióis (FODMAPs) para o tratamento de distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais (DGIFs). Esta revisão narrativa teve como objetivo fornecer aos profissionais uma síntese do conhecimento atual sobre o papel de uma dieta com baixo teor de FODMAPs (BFM) na redução dos sintomas associados a distúrbios funcionais de dor abdominal (DFDA) em crianças. Esta revisão está focada na fisiopatologia, eficácia e crítica da dieta BFM em crianças. Fontes: O banco de dados Cochrane, Pubmed e Embase foram pesquisados com o uso dos termos específicos para intervenções na dieta FODMAP e DFDA. Resumo dos achados: Em crianças, apenas um estudo controlado randomizado e um estudo aberto relataram resultados positivos da dieta BFM; um estudo controlado randomizado mostrou exacerbação dos sintomas com frutanos em crianças com síndrome do intestino irritável; nenhum efeito foi encontrado para a dieta livre de lactose, enquanto dietas com restrição de frutose foram eficazes em 5/6 estudos. Conclusões: Existem poucos estudos que avaliam BFM em DFDA em crianças, com dados encorajadores sobre a eficácia terapêutica, particularmente de dietas com restrição de frutose. Esforços adicionais ainda são necessários para preencher essa lacuna de pesquisa e esclarecer a maneira mais eficiente de adaptar as restrições dietéticas com base na tolerância do paciente e/ou identificação de biomarcadores potenciais de eficácia da BFM, para manter a adequação nutricional e simplificar a adesão à dieta, ao incluir informações sobre conteúdo de FODMAPs em rótulos de produtos comerciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain/diet therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Diet , Disaccharides/metabolism , Disaccharides/therapeutic use , Monosaccharides/metabolism , Monosaccharides/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(4): 521-524, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959556

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La escarlatina es una enfermedad común en Pediatría, causada por Estreptococo beta hemolítico grupo A (SBHGA), la cual generalmente se presenta después de un episodio de faringitis, y con excelente pronóstico general. La hepatitis secundaria a escarlatina es una complicación, descrita muy rara vez en niños. Nuestro objetivo fue reportar la ocurrencia de hepatitis secundaria a escarlati na en un paciente pediátrico. CASO CLÍNICO: Varón de 12 años cursando escarlatina, quien se presentó con una historia de 4 días de ictericia, coluria y disminución del apetito. Los exámenes de laboratorio revelaron elevación de las transaminasas y de los niveles de bilirrubina total y directa, y estudios vira les negativos para Hepatitis A, B y C, Virus de Epstein Barr, Parvovirus B19, Citomegalovirus, Virus Herpes 6 y Herpes simplex 1 y 2. Ecografía abdominal fue normal. DISCUSIÓN: La hepatitis es una complicación inhabitual de la escarlatina, cuya patogénesis aún no está clara. La producción de citoquinas a través del daño celular mediado por la exotoxina pirógena estreptocócica, se ha propuesto como un posible mecanismo de hepatotoxicidad en infecciones por SBHGA. CONCLUSIÓN: La hepati tis asociada a escarlatina continúa siendo una entidad rara, pero de curso benigno, con recuperación plena en semanas a meses.


INTRODUCTION: Scarlet fever is a common illness in pediatrics caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which usually occurs after an episode of pharyngitis, and has an overall excellent prognosis. Hepatitis secondary to scarlet fever is a rare complication described in adults and even less frequently in children. Our objective was to describe a case of hepatitis secondary to scarlet fever in a pediatric patient. CLINICAL CASE: A 12-year-old male with scarlet fever presented with a 4-day history of jaundice, dark urine, and decreased appetite. Laboratory tests revealed elevated liver enzy mes and total and direct bilirubin levels, and negative studies for hepatitis A, B and C, Epstein Barr virus, parvovirus B19, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus-6, and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. Abdominal ultrasound examination was normal. DISCUSSION: The pathogenesis of scarlet fever associated hepatitis remains unclear. Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin mediated cellular injury via cytokine production has been proposed as a possible mechanism of hepatotoxicity in GABHS infections. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis secondary to scarlet fever remains a rare but benign entity, with complete recovery expected over weeks to months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Scarlet Fever/diagnosis , Hepatitis/microbiology , Scarlet Fever/complications , Hepatitis/diagnosis
4.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 74(6): 407-412, nov.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-951279

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent worldwide and are thought to result from the interplay of multiple factors that can vary from region to region. Nationwide studies can help understand the regional epidemiology and the pathogenesis of FGIDs. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of FGIDs in school-children of Colombia and assess associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at twelve private and public schools in ten cities distributed through the four main geographic regions of Colombia. School-children completed a validated questionnaire to assess functional gastrointestinal disorders according to Rome III criteria. Demographic information and past medical and family history was obtained from the parents. Results: A total of 4394/5062 (86.8%) children participated in the study, with ages ranging from 8-18 years (mean = 11.9, SD = 2.3). The percentage of children with al least on FGID was 23.7%. Disorders of defecation were the most common category FGID (11.7%) followed by abdominal pain related-functional gastrointestinal disorders (10.4%). Children have increased odds of FGIDs if they have separated parents (OR 1.22, P=0.007), attend private school (OR 1.54, P<0.001), or have nausea (OR 3.16, P<0.001). Conclusions: This large epidemiological study of pediatric FGIDs is the first to evaluate a broad cross-section of children throughout a nation in the Americas. High prevalence of FGIDs and identified associations with their likelihood are relevant when providing medical care and when planning public health efforts.


Resumen: Introducción: Los desórdenes gastrointestinales funcionales (DGF) son altamente prevalentes a nivel mundial. Se postula que estos desórdenes resultan del interjuego de múltiples factores que pueden variar regionalmente. Estudios a nivel nacional pueden ayudar a comprender la epidemiología regional y la patogénesis de los DGFs. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia de DGFs en escolares en Colombia y establecer los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal realizado en 12 escuelas privadas y públicas en 10 ciudades de las cuatro regiones principales de Colombia. Niños de edad escolar completaron un cuestionario validado para diagnosticar DGFs de acuerdo con los criterios de Roma III. Información demográfica e historia personal y familiar fue obtenida de los padres. Resultados: Un total de 4394/5062 (86.8%) niños participaron en el estudio, rango de edad 8-18 años (promedio = 11.9, desviación estándar (DE) = 2.3). El 23.7% de los niños tuvieron al menos un DGF. Los desórdenes de la defecación fueron los más frecuentes (11.7%), seguidos por desórdenes funcionales de dolor (10.4%). Niños cuyos padres estaban separados (razón de momios (RM) 1.22, p= 0.007), cursaban en escuela privada (RM 1.54, p< 0.001) o reportaban náuseas (RM 3.16, p< 0.001) tuvieron mayor riesgo de DGFs. Conclusiones: Este estudio de DGF es el primero en evaluar un grupo numeroso de niños en diferentes regiones de un país americano. La alta prevalencia de DGFs y la identificación de asociaciones que aumentan el riesgo de desarrollar estos desórdenes son hallazgos relevantes para proveer cuidados médicos y planear estrategias de salud pública.

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